2+3 ... Speedlanging

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2+3 Clusivity
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Joined: 03 May 2014 15:45

2+3 ... Speedlanging

Post by 2+3 Clusivity »

Cross-posting this from the other forum. Been trying to get out of a creative rut, so I am doing a bit of speed langing. All the following material(s) is/are deeply un-spell checked.


/t, k/
/s, h/ (/s/ is [ s ] )
/n, ɪ, ɻ, ʊ/

Stress is phonemic because I feel like it. It creates probl.... fun! See below.


${h, s({{N, {t, k}}ɪ, ɻ, ʊ})}{V({n, ɪ, ɻ, ʊ}), (V){n, ɪ, ɻ, ʊ}}({t, k})({h, s})


Onsets in /s(C), t, k/ following a stressed open syllable are (pre)aspirated. Post-stress vocalic nuclei are reduced to [ǝ] or simply to /n, ɪ, ɻ, ʊ/ depending on the coda

When not pre-aspirated, /$sC/ → [#sCʰ]; /$s{n, C}{ɪ, ɻ, ʊ}/ → [$s{n, C}{ɪ, ɻ, ʊ}ʱ]
Pre-aspirated is hardened to [Vh.s] or a few other options depending if it is [Vh.sCʰ]. Perhaps … to ... [V:.sCʰ] via initial hardening to [VC.sCʰ]. I dunno, big cluster simplify, probably. Semi-vowel post initials in a similar situation probably triggering something like Sievers's law—i.e., [VC.sCʰjV] -> [VC.sCʰi.jV]--which preserves the original hardening because … why not.


Verbs are potentially … polysynthetic-ish but a lot of the variation is, hopefully, splitting up lexically on one hand and yet lumping items on the other where English might not.

Transitivity. Transitivity classes allowed are: 0 (certain weather verbs), 0E (Many other weather verbs, E standing for donkey/expletive/”areal” S or semantically bleached obliques), 1 (i.e., intransitives), 1E, 1RR (RR being semantically bleached reflexive or reciprocal object), 2. As noted below, transitivity class are narrow/fixed, so there are few if any ambi-transitives or dative shift type verbs.

In general, there are a large assortment of weather verbs (0 (“rained”), 0E (“it was cold”), and 1 but specifically of the cognate subject or atmospheric classifier sub-types (“the hail hailed, the sky rained, etc.”)) as well as posture and motion verbs.

Posture verbs occur in both anthro- and zoo-morphic variants that are lexically differentiated (i.e., a “dog sat” versus a “human sat” are different verbs). Basically, there is a distinction between bi- and quadrupedal creatures. At a broader level, humans, trees, vertical inanimates fit into the first while squat or flat objects, animals, etc. fit into the latter. Somewhere in the middle are birds, fish, and babies who are considered vertical/bi-pedal at rest but horizontal/quadra-pedal in motion.

Motion verbs are generally not verb- or satellite-framed. The first major system involves roots specifying figure's in motion (especially body-parts) together with path affixes, manner adverbs, Again, there is differentiation between anthro- and zoo-morphic figures. The other major system involves roots specifying the ground which occur, typically, with affixes specifying the path (c.f., disembark, deplane). Directional affixes are rich and include meanings such as up/down hill/stream and in/out of water/cover/shelter, etc.

Changing valency/transitivity. All verbs are lexically assigned to a transitivity frame. Variation from the frame requires either voice markers:
a syntactic de-transitivizer with subtypes (agent backgrounding (“passive) and object backgrounding (“anti-passive”);
a syntactic/semantic de-transitivizer with subtypes (agent eliminating (“anti-causative”), object eliminating (“anti-applicative”), reflexive (direct and indirect), reciprocal (direct and indirect), and a few tendrils that go into pluractionality. See below);
a direct causative; and
an indirect causative.

Otherwise, valency is adjusted by (or in combination) with another derivational modification (S/O incorporation which especially affects body-parts, clothing/equipment/adornments, and more broadly certain noun classifiers)

Generally, transitivity increasing operations may apply to all verbs and transitivity decreasing operations may only apply to S(a) or more agentive verbs unless couple with other morphosyntax.

TAM. Tense … past or non-past. Morphological aspect: perfective vs. imperfective. See pluractionality below. Mood/Mode: indicative, imperative-hortative (with sub-types), permissive-potential (possible with dynamic and non-dynamic flavors … basically “may” plus “physically able to”, “knows how to,” “socially unconstrained from,” etc.), …. rather than have a remaining grab-bag mode/mood, everything else is periphrastic. BOOM!

Verbal number. Verbs very productively mark for or are suppletive for the number of A/S/O. This number system works on a minimal-augmented basis (i.e., “I chopped a tree” is minimal but
“we chopped a tree & I chopped trees” are augmented).

Affective/listener-focused marking – separate from the verbal number system and pronominal cross-referencing, there is a system that marks the speakers attitude towards the listener, the statement, and towards the number (minimal-augmented) of the listener(s).

(Pro-)nominal marking

Basic (pro)nominal case marking is borrowed from some of my earlier projects (if I recall, this lines up a bit with one of WeepingElf's ~austro langs too):
“nominative”/unmarked accusative
“dative”/perceiver/recipient/marked accusative (human & definite),
“instrumental”/accidental agent/oblique agent of passive,
“locative”/theme/experiencer/inherent possessor

[pronominal number]
[noun classifiers]

Other stuff ….

[demonstrative classifiers]
[locative classifiers]

[pragmatic structure – especially topic fronting]
[corellative consructions and the relalginment or pronominal verbal cross-referencing]
[ …. things …..]
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