Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

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kanejam
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

Spoiler:
1) Vîn měg, a vâg a Môdna. - Come with me, I'm going to Modena.
2) S'a-m vàdd tǒ mêdra ch'at lâs andêr edcǒ i cåpp l'a-s mâza tótt e dû! - If your mother sees me letting you go on the roof, she'll kill us both!
3) A-t dâg al tǒ lébber indrě sǒl sa t'm pêg dumélla franc. - I'll give your book back (to you) only if you pay me two thousand liras (notice the term "franc" - Emilian borrowed so much from French, that is uses the same currency name although it's not the same currency!).
4) An vójj ménga , a vójj ! - I don't want him, I want you!
5) Al ragazǒl al mâgna nôsg incǒ e vôsg edman. - The boy will eat with (by) us today and with you tomorrow.
6) A-t vójj dêr na cåppa, 'baldo! - I want to give you a cup, Ubaldo! (from the song Ubaldo by Bolognese singer Andrea Mingardi, who sings most of his songs in Emilian)
Spoiler:
1) Lè ló l'è tǒ nôn. (sort of a tongue-twister, eh?) - That man there is your grandfather.
- Lè ló ě-l tǒ nôn?
2) Mě surêla l'è incinta. - My sister is pregnant. (watch out - always check what <l'> stands for...)
Mě surêla ě-l incinta?
3) A soun un êsen. - I'm stupid. (lit. I'm a donkey - I've used this already, haven't I?)
- Soun-a un êsen?
4) Al và in banca. - He's going to the bank.
- Và-l in banca?
5) Vuêter a savî nadêr. - You can swim.
- Vuêter savî-v nadêr?
6) I gh'ân dimóndi sôld. - They have a lot of money. (NB: gh'ân is all part of the same verb - we'll see this soon)
- Gh'ân-i dimóndi sôld?

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DesEsseintes
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by DesEsseintes »

Here goes: [:)]
Spoiler:
1) Lè ló ě-l tǒ nôn? - Is that man there your grandfather?
2) Mě surêla ě-la incinta? - Is my sister pregnant?
3) Soun-ia un êsen? - Am I stupid?
4) Và-l in banca? - Is he going to the bank?
5) Vuêter savî-v nadêr? - Can you swim?
6) Gh'ân-i dimóndi sôld? - Do they have a lot of money?

Alessio
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Fine, correction. Kanejam:
2): ě-la. Sisters are females until proven otherwise [xP]
3): soun-ia (see the rule).
The rest is fine, including DesEsseintes's exercise.

Lesson 8 - To be or not... to have!

Today I provide you with the conjugation of the irregular verbs ěser and avěr (notice that -ěr is not -êr, the ending for regular verbs. This is shared with most irregular verbs)

Ěser - To be
Mè a soun
Tè t'ě
Ló l'è
Nuêter a sàmm
Vuêter a sî(v)
Lǒr i ein

Avěr - To have
Mè a-j-ò (euphonic -j- inserted)
Tè t'ê (don't confuse this with tè t'ě - you are!)
Ló l'à
Nuêter a-j-avàmm
Vuêter a-j-avî(v)
Lǒr i ân (the circumflex is used to distinguish from an, which can be an atone negation or mean year depending on the context)

Notice that the verb avěr is used alone only in compound tenses. When used with the meaning of to own, it becomes the verb avěreg, merging with the pronoun eg (Italian ci, French y). We will study this pronoun later. The declension of avěreg is identical to that of avěr, but it adds gh' (with an H so that the apostrophe doesn't result in <g> being pronounced /dʒ/) before the verbal voices: mè a gh'ò, tè't gh'ě, ló al gh'à, nuêter a gh'avàmm, vuêter a gh'avî(v), lǒr i gh'ân.

Short lesson today, as I don't have much time - so it's over already. Exercises! Complete with the right form of ěser or avěr.

1) «Lûca, vin chè!» «A ____ Alêsio, nôna!» - «Luca, come here!» «I am Alessio, granny!» (always happens with my grandmother. Luca is my cousin, so he's her grandchild as well.)
2) Lè lǒr i ____ i Ràss, i _____ la cà a Spilamběrt. - They are the Rossi (family), they have (their) house in Spilamberto.
3) Me surêla la _____ l'ambrǒṡ e mè nò. An n'____ ménga gióst! - My sister has a fiancé and I don't. It's not fair!
4) «Chi ______?» «A _____ l'Ànna e Gîno!» - «Who's there (lit. who are you)?» «We are Anne and Louis!»
5) An ____ brîṡa récc, però a gh'______ na cà al mêr. - We are not rich, but we have a house by the sea.
6) Vuêter an gh'_______ prôpria nisun curâg'! - You really don't have any courage!
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

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DesEsseintes
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by DesEsseintes »

Here are my answers:
Spoiler:
1) «Lûca, vin chè!» «A soun Alêsio, nôna!» - «Luca, come here!» «I am Alessio, granny!»
2) Lè lǒr i ein i Ràss, i gh'ân la cà a Spilamběrt. - They are the Rossi (family), they have (their) house in Spilamberto.
3) Me surêla la à* l'ambrǒṡ e mè nò. An n'è ménga gióst! - My sister has a fiancé and I don't. It's not fair!
*or does this contract to l'à?
4) «Chi sîv?» «A sàmm l'Ànna e Gîno!» - «Who's there (lit. who are you)?» «We are Anne and Louis!»
5) An sàmm brîṡa récc, però a gh'avèmm na cà al mêr. - We are not rich, but we have a house by the sea.
6) Vuêter an gh'avî prôpria nisun curâg'! - You really don't have any courage!
I love the 3p.pl ein for the verb 'to be'. Where does that come from?

I'm really enjoying this thread, Alessio! Great job!

Alessio
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Correction.
3) Gh'à. As this is not a compound tense, although it might not be a proper possession, you have to use avěreg.
5) Typo... or at least, you wrote "avàmm" correctly elsewhere, so I suppose "avèmm" is a typo.

I've been wondering where ein comes from for a long time, but I haven't found an answer yet. I've never been a good ethymologist. There is a TV programme on the local TV Station TRC (Teleradiocittà) called "Mo pensa te" (half-Emilian and half-Italian expression for "I've never had thought that", lit. "but you, think!") in which professor Rinaldi, a very fine linguist and ethymologist, explains the origin of Emilian words completely different from their Italian counterpart, such as mugněga vs. albicocca (apricot) and quacêr vs. coprire (to cover). Before giving the solution, however, Andrea Barbi, a TRC reporter famous for using a crocodile-shaped microphone, interviews elder people found around Emilian towns asking them what is, in their opinion, the origin of such words. The results are exhilarating... anyways, if anybody has to be asked the origin of anything, that's professor Rinaldi for sure. Still, I don't think they'd make a whole episode about a single verbal voice. Maybe I can try...

OK, let's get down to business!

Lesson 9 - Emilian-Italian comparison and translation patterns

Today I want to provide you with a different type of lesson. Today we will see some lexicon and some patterns you can use to try to translate Italian words into Emilian. Notice that these remain patterns: Italian and Emilian are, of course, highly connected to each other, but this doesn't mean that you can always translate one word directly by just knowing some rules, otherwise Emilian wouldn't be a language, but rather a cypher.
Let's begin with some words prof. Rinaldi would be proud to explain the origin of. Compare [eml - ita (eng)]:

Poundeg - topo (mouse)
Parǒl - secchio (bucket)
Piǒld - aratro (plough)
Lódder - tino (vat)
Mugněga - albicocca (apricot)
Ingarabatlêr - aggrovigliare (to tangle)
Tlarêda - ragnatela (web)
Sturlêres (reflexive) - sbattere (to crash [oneself] against st.)
Cîn - piccolo (small)
Faréstra - scintilla (spark)
Catêr - trovare (to find)
Incǒ - oggi (today - prof. Rinaldi stated this comes from a contraction of Latin "in hac die", meaning "in this day")
Zighêr - piangere (to cry)

Compare these words with their French counterpart:
Sěler - celeri (celery)
Strabuchêr - trébucher (to stumble)
Tirabuṡoun - tire-bouchon (corkscrew)
Asê - assez (enough)

Now for some translation patterns, which we could as well define as sound changes.

1) Endings corresponding to those of altered nouns
-one → -oun: bottone → butoun, predone → predoun
-ino → -ein: vino → vein, marino → marein

2) Vowel changes
/o/ (unstressed) → /ʊ/: motore → mutǒr, cometa → cuměda
/o/ (stressed, closed syllables*) → /ɒ~a/ <å>: mondo → månd, mosto → måst
/e/ (unstressed) → Ø: medaglia → mdâja, cenare → znêr, gennaio → żnêr (notice the tiny difference)
/ε/ → /eː/: merito → měrit, certo → zěrt
/a/ (stressed, open syllables excluding those containing geminates) → /εː/: paga → pêga, tavola → têvla
/a/ (stressed, syllables ending in the first half of a geminate) → /aː/: matto → mât, gallo → gâl

*due to the fact that Emilian doesn't have geminates - excluding the cases we've seen - syllables ending in the first half of a geminate consonant are considered open. In these cases /o/ stays generally the same (or it gets lengthened).

3) Lenition
Generally, intervocalic /t/ and /k/ show lenition, especially when the first of the two vowel is stressed.
Giornata → giurnêda, lumaca → lumêga

4) Non-Emilian consonant changes
/ʎ/ → /j/: medaglia → mdâja, aglio → âj
/ʃ/ → /s̠ /: lasciare → lasêr, scegliere → sějer
/ts/, /dz/ → /s̪ /, /z̪ /: razzo → râż, marzo → mêrz

That's all for today. A great thanks to my father, who unconsciously helped me figuring out these sound changes yesterday evening at the restaurant (it was his birthday) as we said words in Emilian for his girlfriend - coming from Fano, near Pesaro in the Marche region - to translate, and commented them in a sort of game. Also, thanks to my grandmother, with whom I talked in Emilian for nearly an hour on Thursday so that she could help as well. If it wasn't for elder people, Emilian would be extinct already... it's in the Red Book of Endangered Languages, in facts. I will be proud to keep it alive as much as I can: I will use it with my children almost as much as I'll use Italian, just like my parents did with me. By studying these lessons, you are contributing as well, so thank you too!
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

Alessio
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Good day everybody! Sorry I'm so late, but I had no time to write anything new these days. Here I am!

Lesson 10 - Prepositions, part 1

Emilian prepositions are cognate with the Italian ones, so we will study them with the same criteria.
There are 8 "simple" prepositions:
Ed
A
Da
In
Coun
Só/Edcǒ a/In vàtta a (depending on where you are)
Par
Tra/Fra

So, let's start studying each one.

Ed
Basically, ed means of. As such, it expresses mainly ownership. Place it after the possessed object, and before the owner.
Al can ed Marein l'è un Labrador. - Marino's dog is a Labrador.

Ed elides to d' before vowels.
L'amîg d'Amîlcare l'è inglěṡ. - Amilcare's friend is English.

Another common usage of this preposition is to point out the material something is made of.
Cla scrâna lè l'è ed légn. - That chair is made of wood.

A
I thought a lot about this spelling, easily confusable with atone subject pronouns, but writing à would be incorrect. Accents shorten vowels past the normal level - I'd say they make them properly extra-short. This preposition is often pronounced a bit longer, but not enough, in my opinion, to write it as â. So let's just use a like this.
Quite similar to its Italian counterpart (which stays a), this preposition has a lot of uses.
First and foremost, its typical role is introducing a state in place, especially with cities and with some buildings (schools, malls, your house, etc).
Pirein l'âbita a Môdna. - Pierino lives in Modena.
A soun a scǒla/cà. - I'm at school/home.

This preposition is used to express a specific moment in time, as well; however, this happens only with hours, months and days of month. You just don't use prepositions with days of week, and in for seasons and years (but in this last case, you need an articulated preposition, which we'll see later on).
A quâtr'ǒr a vâg a Castelfranc a fêr un gîr. - I'm going to Castelfranco for a tour on 4 o'clock. (look how many <a>'s there are in this sentence - all with different meanings!)

Another usage is to express motion to a place.
Dmànga a sàmm andê a Verouna. - On Sunday we went to Verona.

Similarly, it's also used when you are going somewher to do something, so what comes logically after the verb of motion is another verb:
A vâg a magnêr. - I'm going eating.

Finally, a introduces the recipient of a dative construction (except, of course, when the recipient is represented by a pronoun).
A-j-ò dê i mě vistî vêc' a Mariàtt. - I gave Mario my old clothes.

Da
Another preposition identical to its Italian counterpart. It expresses motion from place, mainly:
A végn da Milan. - I come from Milan (as in: I've just been there, and I'm coming back; although it's not a mistake to use such a sentence to indicate origin, a soun ed + place is preferred in this case).

Da is used in 'sa gh'è da and some other constructions to express cause:
'sa gh'è da guardêr? - Why are you looking (at me)? (lit. what is there, because of which you are looking [at me]?)

Avěreg da means, quite literally, have to. It's used the same way in almost any situation I can think of, and it contrasts with duvěr (must) just like in English. The curious fact is that there is no such contrast in Italian.
A gh'ò da fêr i coumpet. - I have to do my homework.

Watch out: da elides to d' before vowels, just like ed. This, however, doesn't happen before proper names, where the /ɐ/ of da and the initial vowel of the following word are fully pronounced in separated syllables.
A gh'ò d'andêr al bâgn. - I have to go to the toilet.
but
A végn da Âsti. - I come from Asti.


Enough for today. Exercise: complete the following sentences with the correct simple preposition.
1) Incǒ mě fradêl l'è ____ Bulàgna. - Today my brother is in Bologna.
2) Stà ferm! La bôcia l'è ____ gåmma, la scôpia sa la câsca edcǒ a chi ciǒld lè! - Stop! The ball is made of rubber, it will explode if it falls on those nails!
3) Al gât ___ Arìstide a-s ciâma Gîg'. Mo'c nåmm par un gât! - Aristide's cat's name is Louis (lit. Aristide's cat calls itself Louis). What a name for a cat! (the owner doesn't have such a modern name, as well...)
4) 'sa gh'è ____ cumpurtêret acsè? - Why are you behaving like that?
5) A-n pôs ménga gnîr incǒ. A soun ____ scǒla fin ___ trî ǒr. - I can't come today. I'm at school until 3 o'clock.
6) A gh'ò ____ durmîr měno, s'an vójj ménga pêrder la curěra! - I have to sleep less if I don't want to miss the bus!
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

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Visinoid
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Visinoid »

I love your language already! Please make more.
Do they compound with articles? (Like Italian?)

Da+al = dal?
a+al = ¬_¬ ?
Spoiler:
1) Incǒ mě fradêl l'è da Bulàgna.
2) Stà ferm! La bôcia l'è ed gåmma, la scôpia sa la câsca edcǒ a chi ciǒld lè!
3) Al gât d'Arìstide a-s ciâma Gîg'.
4) 'sa gh'è da cumpurtêret acsè?
5) A-n pôs ménga gnîr incǒ. A soun a scǒla fin a trî ǒr.
6) A gh'ò da durmîr měno, s'an vójj ménga pêrder la curěra!

Alessio
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Correction for Visinoid.
Your only mistake is in sentence 1, where you should have been using "a" instead of "da" as it's a state in place we are talking about.
Yes, the prepositions merge with articles, but this will be the topic of a later lesson. Before that, I want to teach you all the prepositions. Anyways, for your curiosity, a + al stays al. I'll think of a way to distinguish between this preposition, the article and the pronoun.

Fine!

Lesson 11 - Prepositions, part 2

Let's just remember the Emilian prepositions:
[tick] Ed
[tick] A
[tick] Da
In
Coun
Só/Edcǒ/In vàtta a
Par
Tra/Fra

Today, we will study the remaining five prepositions.

In
The meaning of this preposition is not hard to guess. Let's just see its usage.
Primarily, in expresses state in a closed place - in other words, use it only when you can use inside.

A soun in cà. - I'm inside (my) house.

Notice that, just like I told in my Italian lessons, in and a have slightly different meanings here. If you are in cà, you are phisically inside the building. If you are a cà, you might as well be in the yard or in the garden, as long as they belong to the house. Thus, you can't say a vâg *a cà (I'm going home) if you are in the garden, you must say a vâg in.
As you might notice from this last sentence, again there is no difference between motion to a place and state in place: thus, in can express motion.

Vê-t in bâgn? - Are you going to the toilet?

Coun
Coun /kɒ̃ʊ̃/ means with. Remember, however, that Emilian has comitative pronouns, thus you shouldn't be using coun with personal pronouns unless you want to emphasize the pronoun itself.

Gisto l'è spuṡê coun la Ceṡîra. - Gisto is married with Cesira. (notice that you have to put the proper article before feminine personal names. We Emilians do this in Italian, too, but that's incorrect. The origin of this practice is unclear to me)

Só, edcǒ, in vàtta a
means on, but it's almost never used without an article, so we won't even talk about it now; just know that it exists. Edcǒ and in vàtta a both mean on top of, and they are used a whole lot more than . Just avoid using this latter one unless you know what you are doing, and prefer one of the other two (edcǒ is western and central Emilian, so also Modenese, and in vàtta a is eastern, so also Bolognese).

La bîro l'è edcǒ la têvla. - The pen is on the table. (quite classic sentence)
Al gât l'è in vàtta a la televiṡioun. - The cat is on the TV. (a doesn't merge with la - but again, we will see this later)

Par
The most exact translation of par is for. As such, it's mainly used to express the consignee of something:

Cal reghêl chè l'è par tè. - This gift is for you.

It's also used to express an opinion.

Par mè, l'è méjj la mùṡica rock ca al rap. - To me, rock music is better than rap.

Use par to express the purpose of something.

A vójj studiêr par dvintêr un brêv dutǒr. - I want to study to become a good doctor.

Sometimes, but only in specific sentences, it's used to express state in/motion to place; this happens mainly with par têra and par âria (on the floor and in the air, respectively).

Ateint! Al bicěr al câsca par têra! - Watch out! The glass is falling on the floor!

Finally, par is the reading of the multiplication sign.

Trî par trî i ein nǒv. - Three times three is (Eml. are) nine.

Tra/fra
Both prepositions can mean both between and among.

Al lêt l'è tra al mûr e la pǒrta. - The bed is between the wall and the door.
Tra tótt chi quêl chè, ag srà bein quêl da magněr! - Among all these things, there is (eml. will be, as you are wondering) for sure (eml. well) something to eat!

They are also used to mean in as in in two minutes.

Tra dǒ ǒri a soun a cà tǒ. - I'll be by your house in two hours.


Fine, that's the end of prepositions. Now practice by completing these sentences with the correct preposition (underlined in English). You have to use the prepositions of the previous lesson, too.

1. Un uṡêl l'à fât al nîd ____ la pianta lè fǒra. - A bird nested on the tree out there.
2. A vâg a cumprêr sě ǒv ____ butěga. - I'm going to the shop to buy six eggs. (NB - you are supposed to buy the eggs inside the shop...)
3. Môdna l'è ____ Bulàgna e Ràżż. - Modena is between Bologna and Reggio.
4. Vǒ-t andêr ____ tǒ pêder a Milan edman? - Do you want to go to Milan with your father tomorrow?
5. ___ żughêr a la loterìa, t'ê ____ avěr deṡdôt an. - To play bingo, you have to be at least 18. (watch out - have to)
6. A-j-ò lêt l'ûltem lébber ____ Dan Brown, ma an m'è ménga piaṡû. - I read Dan Brown's last book, but I didn't like it.
7. L'è gnû ____ Råmma ____ vàdder al dôm ____ Môdna. - He came from Rome to see the dome of Modena.
8. ____ mè, lè ló l'an capéss gnint. - In my opinion/To me, he doesn't understand anything (periphrasis for "he's an idiot").
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

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kanejam
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

Sorry I haven't stopped by in a while. Here are all the exercises and keep going with this because Emilian is so cool! Some of these consonant clusters are crazy :)
Spoiler:
1) «Lûca, vin chè!» «A soun Alêsio, nôna!» - «Luca, come here!» «I am Alessio, granny!» (always happens with my grandmother. Luca is my cousin, so he's her grandchild as well.)
2) Lè lǒr i ein i Ràss, i ân la cà a Spilamběrt. - They are the Rossi (family), they have (their) house in Spilamberto.
3) Me surêla l'à l'ambrǒṡ e mè nò. An n'è ménga gióst! - My sister has a fiancé and I don't. It's not fair!
4) «Chi sî-v?» «A sàmm l'Ànna e Gîno!» - «Who's there (lit. who are you)?» «We are Anne and Louis!»
5) An sàmm brîṡa récc, però a gh'avàmm na cà al mêr. - We are not rich, but we have a house by the sea.
6) Vuêter an gh'avî prôpria nisun curâg'! - You really don't have any courage!
Spoiler:
1) Incǒ mě fradêl l'è a Bulàgna. - Today my brother is in Bologna.
2) Stà ferm! La bôcia l'è ed gåmma, la scôpia sa la câsca edcǒ a chi ciǒld lè! - Stop! The ball is made of rubber, it will explode if it falls on those nails!
3) Al gât ed Arìstide a-s ciâma Gîg'. Mo'c nåmm par un gât! - Aristide's cat's name is Louis (lit. Aristide's cat calls itself Louis). What a name for a cat! (the owner doesn't have such a modern name, as well...)
4) 'sa gh'è a cumpurtêret acsè? - Why are you behaving like that?
5) A-n pôs ménga gnîr incǒ. A soun a scǒla fin a trî ǒr. - I can't come today. I'm at school until 3 o'clock.
6) A gh'ò a durmîr měno, s'an vójj ménga pêrder la curěra! - I have to sleep less if I don't want to miss the bus!
Spoiler:
1. Un uṡêl l'à fât al nîd edcǒ la pianta lè fǒra. - A bird nested on the tree out there. (In English it's in the tree)
2. A vâg a cumprêr sě ǒv in butěga. - I'm going to the shop to buy six eggs. (NB - you are supposed to buy the eggs inside the shop...)
3. Môdna l'è tra Bulàgna e Ràżż. - Modena is between Bologna and Reggio.
4. Vǒ-t andêr coun tǒ pêder a Milan edman? - Do you want to go to Milan with your father tomorrow?
5. Par żughêr a la loterìa, t'ê a avěr deṡdôt an. - To play bingo, you have to be at least 18.
6. A-j-ò lêt l'ûltem lébber ed Dan Brown, ma an m'è ménga piaṡû. - I read Dan Brown's last book, but I didn't like it.
7. L'è gnû da Råmma par vàdder al dôm ed Môdna. - He came from Rome to see the dome of Modena.
8. Par mè, lè ló l'an capéss gnint. - In my opinion/To me, he doesn't understand anything (periphrasis for "he's an idiot").

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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

I see only two mistakes in your exercise, and I think one is due to me not being clear in my explanation.
When I talked about prepositions not eliding before proper names, I actually meant only "da". "ed" elides even there, as you can see from the example above. The context made it look like both couldn't, but "ed" can. So: d'Arìstide and not *ed Arìstide.
The other mistake is with avěreg da, which you treated like avěreg a (that does not exist).

I'm particularly curious about this, since speakers of every language have their own thoughts about it: what clusters do you consider "crazy"? To me, for example, /tɲ/ sounds strange but that's because it's not present in Italian, I can pronounce it without difficulties. /tl/ could be also... they say you aren't Emilian if you can't pronounce turtlein /tʊr'tlæ̃ĩ/ correctly (most not-Emilian people pronounce [turtǝlεin]; if you leave out the minimal difference between /ʊ/ - /u/ and /æ/ - /ε/, that merged in some dialects, there is still a schwa that shouldn't be there, or sometimes even a [e]). Actually I realize that cluster as [tˡ], with a lateral release - otherwise I find it kind of impossible.

Anyways, let's go for today's lesson.

Lesson 12 - Past tense

In Emilian there are three past tenses, as opposed to Italian's five. That's because Emilian has completely lost any form of remote/historical/simple/whateveryoucallit past, so it lacks an equivalent of Italian's passato remoto and trapassato remoto. Thre three past tenses left are the so-called recent past (which I call just past, as there is no "remote past" whatsoever), the imperfect past and the past perfect. Today, we will study the recent past.

The recent past is a compound tense formed by conjugating the proper auxiliary - ěser or avěr - in the present tense, and then adding the past participle of the verb. You should already be able to conjugate those two verbs, so two problems remain:
1) Knowing what auxiliary you should use;
2) Forming the past participle.

99% of the times, the auxiliary used in Emilian is the same used in Italian. Thus, I'd leave this part out and just send you to viewtopic.php?f=29&t=2736&hilit=passato ... 20#p125866 (Italian lesson where I explained the recent past) to check the rules (essere = ěser, avere = avěr). Anyways I'll always state the auxiliary for every verb when I introduce them.

As for the past participle, there are three rules:
1) Verbs in -ÊR and -ÎR just lose the -R. Thus: ciacarêr (speak) → ciacarê (spoken), durmîr (sleep) → durmî (slept - durmîr is irregular in the present, but not in the past participle). The Italian verb dare, whose past participle is dato, is regular in Emilian: dêr. Exceptions to this rule: fêr (do/make) → fât (done/made), dîr (tell/say) → détt (told/said).
2) Verbs in -ĚR take -Û: psěr (can) → psû (could - p.p.), vlěr (want) → vlû (wanted). This works even with avěr → avû.
3) Most verbs in -ER - if not all - have an irregular past participle. Thus vàdder (see) → vést (seen), màtter (put) → màss (put - p.p.), armâgner (stay) → armêṡ (stayed), etc. I will write these when we come across them.
The past participle of ěser is stê. This is identical to the past participle of the verb stêr, which means stay (I'd say it's a synonym for armâgner)

Let's now see the usage of the past tense. Use it basically whenever you are talking about a (past) punctual action.
Et m'ê pistê un pě! - You stepped on my foot (lit. you pounded me a foot)!

Use it also to talk about actions in the past whose continuity is of no importance, as long as they're already concluded.
A-j-ò lêt (vb. lěżer) Harry Potter - I read Harry Potter. (of course it took you a while to read it, but what the listener cares about is knowing that you have actually read it)

As we'll see when we'll study the imperfect past, the "recent" past is also used in combination with it to describe an event that occurred while another action was ongoing - kind of like English past simple with "while" and the past continuous.
Meinter ch'a magnêva (imperfect), l'è arivê a cà mě pêder. - While I was eating, my father got home.

Finally, here are the most common irregular past participles.
ěser (be) → stê
fêr (do/make) → fât
dîr (say/tell) → détt
vàdder (see) → vést
tǒr (take) → tólt (I'm not sure I can describe this as a short O - it's someway in between a short and a long one...)
båvver (drink) → bvû (often realized as [bʋuː])
lěżer (read) → lêt (which means "bed" as well)
scrévver (write) → scrétt
màtter (put) → màss
tgnósser (know) → tgnusû
seinter (hear, feel) → sintû
avrîr (open) → avěrt
cràdder (believe/think that) → cardû (notice the inversion of <r> and <a> - it's not a typo)

And we're done for today! It's almost become a habit but I have no time for your exercises - and I've been writing this lesson for the past 3 days in the time I had, I have problems at home... - so I will post them as soon as I can write them.
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

I finally got around to watching Rush and have to say that it is an incredible movie! Very well done, very involving and very fair portrayal of both of them. I also liked how it was quite sweet in the end and showed their friendship alongside their rivalry.

Anyway, I'll just have to remember that ed elides. It's very interesting all the ways that Emilian is similar to French. The past participles especially remind me of French; vlû ~ voulu, avěrt ~ ouvert, durmî ~ dormi. Also, what are the regular -er past participles? Sintû, bvû and tgnusû feel pretty regular, with the û of the -ěr verbs and vowel reduction.

And that's okay about the exercises, the lessons are the interesting part! Hope everything at home works out though.

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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Now that you mention it, I think you are right, Kanejam - it looks like you could say that -û is a regular ending for verbs in -er, as it's the most common. Also, ablaut applies, just like when conjugating them; båvver even shows a syncope.
I have some time now, so after these exercises I'll also post a very short lesson (the conjugation of a couple of irregular verbs).

Complete these sentences with the past form of the verb in brackets. An E after the verb means that the auxiliary is ěser, A means that it's avěr.

1) Ajěr a ____________ a Vgnǒla. (andêr E) - Yesterday I went to Vignola.
2) Ôci! Al can l'___________ edcǒ la têvla! (salîr E) - Watch out! (lit. eyes!) The dog got on the table!
3) Quand al m'__________ , l'___________ acsè cunteint ch'al m'____________. (vàdder A, ěser E [avěr and ěser are their own auxiliaries], baṡêr A) - When he saw me, he was so happy that he kissed me (supposedly and hopefully on the cheek).
4) A-j-_________ na fadîga... (fêr A) - I struggled so hard... (lit. I made [such] a fatigue...)
5) Al sêl l'__________ par têra! Adêsa a pôrta sfîga! (caschêr E) - The salt fell on the floor! Now it will make us unlucky! (lit. it brings bad luck)
6) Ciâno ______________ ch'al vǒl magnêr a sêt ǒr, ménga pió têrd! (dîr A) - Luciano said that he wants to eat at 7 o'clock, not any later!

OK, now here's the present conjugation of two common irregular vebrs: durmîr (sleep) and dîr (say/tell).

DURMÎR - Sleep
Mè a drôm
Tè-t drôm
Ló al drôm
Nuêter a durmàmm
Vuêter a durmî(v)
Lǒr i drômen
(once you know that the irregular root is drôm-, you are done)

DÎR - Say, tell
Mè a dégg
Tè-t dî
Ló al dîṡ
Nuêtr'a giàmm
Vuêtr'a gî(v)
Lǒr i dîṡen
Notice how the /d/ in the root shows slight palatalization - as <g> is not really palatal, it's /dz̠ / - before 1 and 2pl, and so before <i/î>, but not before the <î> in 2 and 3sg. I think 1pl comes from an evolution of diṡàmm, cognate with Italian diciamo; still, 2pl of dire in Italian is dite and not dicete (which would "produce" diṡî), so 2pl probably comes from a prior stage of the common ancestor (whatever it is). Too bad I still haven't found any resource about this. I will search Vignola's big library for some as soon as possible, I still haven't checked that place... let's cross our fingers!
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Incredible but true, I have free time now! So... new lesson!

Lexicon Lesson 1 - Numbers

Emilian features a classic Romance numeral system:
- The numbers are read on a big-endian basis
- The system is vigesimal up to number 20
- Tens, hundreds etc. are formed by applying a suffix to the digit representing them
Under many aspects, this system is identical to the Italian one.

Numbers up to 20
1 - Ón
2 - Dû or dǒ (I've heard the same person use both; this happened with more people more than once, so I guess this is not a dialect matter. I use all the time)
3 - Trî
4 - Quâter
5 - Zinc
6 - Sě
7 - Sêt
8 - Ôt
9 - Nǒv
10 - Děṡ
11 - Óndes
12 - Dàddes
13 - Tràddes
14 - Quatôrdes
15 - Quéndes
16 - Sàddes
17 - Darsêt (watch out - I've been saying dessêt myself for years before somebody finally corrected - and laughed at - me)
18 - Desdôt
19 - Desnǒv
20 - Vint

Numbers ending in -des show syncope + palatalization of this ending in -(g)g' before vowels, so:
A-j-ò vést óndes gât. - I saw 11 cats.
but:
A gh'ò óng' an. - I'm 11. (lit. I have eleven years)

Numbers from 21 to 30
21 - Vintiun
22 - Vintdû (sometimes vintedû to distinguish from the omophone vindû = sold)
23 - Vinttrî
24 - Vintquâter
25 - Vintzinc (<tz> is realized as a dental affricate, rather than as two separate sounds; <ts> stays two sounds, however)
26 - Vintsě
27 - Vintsêt
28 - Vintiôt
29 - Vintnǒv
30 - Treinta

Basically, attach the units to the tens, but use un instead of ón and insert -i- before un and ôt.

Tens from 40 on
40 - Quaranta
50 - Zinquanta
60 - Ssanta (with a geminate /sː/ - here comes another one! It's at the beginning of a word, too! Don't worry - pronouncing this word as if it was <essanta> is universally accepted and often, although not always, done by native speakers)
70 - Stanta
80 - Utanta
90 - Nuvanta (realized as [nuʋãːnta] - /uv/ is almost always realized as [uʋ])

When attaching the units to the tens from 40 on, remove the final -a and don't insert -i-: ssantun, stantôt ecc.

Hundreds
100 - Zeint
200 - Duṡeint
300 - Tarṡeint
400 - Quaterzeint
500 - Zinczeint
600 - Sezeint
700 - Setzeint
800 - Otzeint
900 - Novzeint

Thousands
1.000 - Méll
2.000 - Dumélla
3.000 - Trimélla
(= tens + mélla)
Notice that, as most Romance writing systems, mine uses a dot as thousand separator and a comma as decimal separator.
Numbers after the comma are pronounced normally and preceded by the conjunction e (and): 2,3 = dû e trî, 5,69 = zinc e ssantanǒv.

Bigger numbers
1.000.000 - un milioun (2.000.000 - dû milioun etc.)
1.000.000.000 - un miliêrd (2.000.000.000 - dû miliêrd etc.)

Digits from thousands on need the conjunction e to be combined with other numbers: 1245 = méll e duṡeintquarantazinc.
However, use e only once for each number: 1.200.500 can be both un milioun e duṡeintméllazinczeint and un milioun duṡeintmélla e zinczeint, but not un millioun *e duṡeintmélla *e zinczeint.
Put the spaces between numbers as you like. I tend to put a space after millions and bigger numbers and when I have to add e, but as always, that's a standard I created myself.

Fine! Try to write these numbers.

1.995 (my birth year)
2.014 (the current year)
1.300.000.000.000 (the Italian public debt in Euros)
176 (my height in cms)
3.041 (street number of nearby house - it's in meters from the beginning of the street, stupid system)
123.456.789 (random number)
Last edited by Alessio on 11 Apr 2014 19:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by DesEsseintes »

My answers to the exercise in lesson 10:
Spoiler:
1) Incǒ mě fradêl l'è a Bulàgna.
2) Stà ferm! La bôcia l'è ed gåmma, la scôpia sa la câsca edcǒ a chi ciǒld lè!
3) Al gât d'Arìstide a-s ciâma Gîg'. Mo'c nåmm par un gât!
4) 'sa gh'è da cumpurtêret acsè?
5) A-n pôs ménga gnîr incǒ. A soun a scǒla fin a trî ǒr.
6) A gh'ò da durmîr měno, s'an vójj ménga pêrder la curěra!
I'm still following this btw, just have been busy with other conlangs and the relay, so have been lazy to do the exercises. I hope you carry on, Alessio.

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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

Spoiler:
1) Ajěr a soun andê a Vgnǒla. (andêr E) - Yesterday I went to Vignola.
2) Ôci! Al can l'è salî edcǒ la têvla! (salîr E) - Watch out! (lit. eyes!) The dog got on the table!
3) Quand al m'à vést , l'è stê acsè cunteint ch'al m'à baṡê. (vàdder A, ěser E [avěr and ěser are their own auxiliaries], baṡêr A) - When he saw me, he was so happy that he kissed me (supposedly and hopefully on the cheek).
4) Ai ò fât na fadîga... (fêr A) - I struggled so hard... (lit. I made [such] a fatigue...)
5) Al sêl l'è caschê par têra! Adêsa a pôrta sfîga! (caschêr E) - The salt fell on the floor! Now it will make us unlucky! (lit. it brings bad luck)
6) Ciâno al détt ch'al vǒl magnêr a sêt ǒr, ménga pió têrd! (dîr A) - Luciano said that he wants to eat at 7 o'clock, not any later!
You'l notice I wrote ai ò instead of a-j-ò which i find sort of ugly with the number of hyphens. Alternatively I might have written aj'ò bu then it's not really a contraction.

Also is there any reason you wrote Nuêtr'a giàmm and Vuêtr'a gî(v) with the contraction here and not for the forms for durmîr? In English, the apostrophe goes where the deleted vowel was, so I would expect nuêt'ra giàmm unless Italian does it differently.
Spoiler:
1.995 (my birth year) - méllnovzeint nuvantazinc.
2.014 (the current year) - dumélla quatôrdes.
1.300.000.000.000 (the Italian public debt in Euros) - un bilioun e tarṡeintmiliêrd (ón e trî bilioun?)
176 (my height in cms) - zeint stantasě.
3.041 (street number of nearby house - it's in meters from the beginning of the street, stupid system - wow that is a really dumb system) - trimélla quarantaiun.
123.456.789 (random number) (I gave up here lol)
Is there any reason for the switching between s and z in the words for hundreds?

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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Well, the reason for nuetr'a is quite simple: I don't like mid-word apostrophes. There is no such problem in Italian as the only words that can be elided are some prepositions and articles ending in a vowel, so the apostrophe goes at the end and that's it. In the few written Emilian documents, I always saw the form nuetr'a, but as I always say there is no official writing system, so write the way you want, as long as it's understandable. Your ai ò is perfectly fine to me, therefore. Oh, if I ever didn't elide nuêter/vuetêr it was for clarity's sake - I chose to begin to shorten up things later on. You can always do that as long as there is a vowel after them.

Correction. The only error in the part about the past tense is al détt instead of l'à détt. As for the numbers, you kind of invented the word bilioun... there is no word for 1,000 billion, so you have to say méll e tarṡeint miliêrd (a thousand three hundred billion). I don't really know why zeint becomes ṡeint in the words for hundreds, it simply does... just like I don't know why 17 is darsêt and not dessêt as one (including me, dammit) would expect.
I found out that I actually forgot to write a part in "tens from 40 on" - the rule of inserting -i- works only with 20's and 30's. With 40's, 50's etc. you have to take away the last vowel instead: quarantun, zinquantôt ecc. I will add this information immediately.
Finally, the number you gave up: zeintvinttrî milioun e quaterzeintzinquantasemélla setzeintutantanǒv.

OK, let's get down to business.

Lesson 13 - Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns

Unlike most Romance language, Emilian possessive adjectives don't decline at all, just like the English ones. This is their only possible form:




Nôster (can be shortened to nôst'r - nôstr' before vowels, see previous notes)
Vôster (can be shortened to vôst'r - vôstr' before vowels)
Sǒ (some speakers use lǒr, adapting the Italian loro - however, it's way more common to hear somebody say suo in Italian adapting Emilian than vice-versa)

These possessive adjectives go before the noun they modify and they require the proper article before them (according to the gender of the noun, but the first letter of the pronoun), unless they are followed by a (singular) family member.
Al mě gât l'è un sorian. - My cat is a Sorian.
I mě amîg i ein quî lè. - My friends are those there.
mêdra la gh'à quarantasêt an. - My mother is 47 (lit. has 47 years).

Curiously, the Italian exception that applies to mamma (mum) and papà (dad), which require an article before the possessive adjective that modifies them (la mia mamma and il mio papà), is not valid in Emilian: mě mâma and mě bâbo. However, another exception does apply: my house (it. casa mia) is cà mě and not *la mě cà.

If you use an indefinite article before a possessive adjective, this is what happens:
Un mě amîg l'è andê a Milan. - One of my friends went to Milan.

The possessive pronouns are identical to the possessive adjectives. They still require the proper article before them, even when they replace family members. You can't use indefinite articles with possessive adjectives.
Al tǒ gât l'è bianc, al mě l'è něgher. - Your cat is white, mine is black.
Tǒ pêder l'è un calzulêr, al mě l'è un camiunésta. - Your father is a shoemaker, mine is a truck driver.

And that's all for lesson 13. Exercise: complete with the correct possessive adjective or pronoun. Don't forget the article!
1. Ě-t vést ______ ucě? Ói, i ěren edcǒ la têvla coun _____. - Did you see my glasses (masculine plural)? Yes, they were on the table with mine. (notice that yes can be said as ói, clearly coming from oïl, or , coming from Italian )
2. Quand ____ marî l'è andê in guêra, a-j-ò vindû tótt _____ quêl. - When my husband (family member!) left for the war (lit. went to war), I sold all of his things.
3. Cà ____ l'è atěs a Spilamběrt. - My house is near Spilamberto.
4. ______ genitǒr i-n vǒlen brîṡa ch'la vâga fǒra měg. - Her parents don't want her to go out with me (vâga is a subjunctive).
5. _________ nôn i-n srévven ménga cunteint ed tè. - Our grandparents wouldn't be happy with you.
6. ______ lavǒr i ein chè. Indù ein-i ______? - My works are here. Where are yours (2pl)?
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

Spoiler:
And that's all for lesson 13. Exercise: complete with the correct possessive adjective or pronoun. Don't forget the article!
1. Ě-t vést i mě ucě? Ói, i ěren edcǒ la têvla coun i mě. - Did you see my glasses (masculine plural)? Yes, they were on the table with mine. (notice that yes can be said as ói, clearly coming from oïl, or sè, coming from Italian sì)
2. Quand al mě marî l'è andê in guêra, a-j-ò vindû tótt i sǒ quêl. - When my husband (family member!) left for the war (lit. went to war), I sold all of his things.
3. Cà l'è atěs a Spilamběrt. - My house is near Spilamberto.
4. I sǒ genitǒr i-n vǒlen brîṡa ch'la vâga fǒra měg. - Her parents don't want her to go out with me (vâga is a subjunctive).
5. I nôster nôn i-n srévven ménga cunteint ed tè. - Our grandparents wouldn't be happy with you.
6. I mě lavǒr i ein chè. Indù ein-i i vôster? - My works are here. Where are yours (2pl)?

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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

Fine, Kanejam, your only mistake is in sentence 2 - as I wrote, a husband is a family member, so you don't need the article: mě marî.

Lesson 14 - Articulated Prepositions

Articulated Prepositions
Just like in Italian, Emilian prepositions merge with articles. This merger is even simpler than it is in Italian, for all you need to do is generally attach the article as it is to a single letter replacing the preposition itself.
Remember the essential Emilian prepositions:
Ed
A
Da
In
Coun
Só/Edcǒ/In vàtta a
Par
Tra/Fra

To merge ed with an article, just add d- before the article itself. Watch out: in Italian, ed is di. In Emilian, di is ed + i, and as such it means of the which in Italian is dei. Don't confuse Emilian and Italian di!
Al nåmm dla scǒla ind'a vâg l'è "Agostino Paradisi". - The name of the school where I go is "Agostino Paradisi".
I bâf di gât i-g fan catêr la vía par turnêr a cà. - Cat whiskers (the whiskers of the cats) let them find the way home (eml. to go back home).
Note that the articulated forms of ed represent the partitive articles:
Vǒt dal zóccher indal cafè? - Do you want some sugar in your coffee?

A is quite irregular in merging with articles. First of all, it never merges with la and l'.
A la fin... - At the end...
It does merge with al and aj', but the two <a>'s reduce to just one, so basically the article stays the same.
A l'ò dê al can. - I gave it to the dog.
Ě-t telefunê aj'amîghi ed tǒ fiǒla par dîreg dal cumplean? - Did you phone (to) your daughter's (female) friends to tell them about the birthday (party)?
The only situation where you can see a proper merger is with i and j'.
Ai ninàtt a-g piěṡ al fang. - Pigs like mud. (lit. mud is pleasant to pigs).

Da is identical to ed when it merges with articles, so watch out. You're not obliged to merge it with any article, though.
A végn dla/da la campagna. - I come from the countryside.

In is merged directly with articles, but you have to insert a t (Eastern Emiliano and Romagnolo) or a d (Western and Central Emiliano) after the preposition itself.
Al quaděren l'è indla cartêla. - The copy book is in the bag.
I've seen this preposition written in all possible ways - ind la, in dla, in'dla, ind'la and even in d'la, as three separate words. I've decided to go for indla (and therefore indi, indal etc.) because I can't find the origin of the <d>, and therefore I suppose it's a euphonic letter; why would one append it to either word, then? Curiously, Italian developed these prepositions losing the <i> rather than adding other letters, so you have nel for indal.

Coun merges only with al, only when it's masculine, and even in this case only very rarely. In this case, you'd say còl, but I've hardly ever heard it. I advise you to use it as it is, without merging it with articles, to avoid problems.

Of , edcǒ and in vàtta a, only merges with articles (whereas the <a> in in vàtta a follows the normal merging rules, and edcǒ doesn't merge at all). Actually, it merges only with al, forming sól. Anyways, this preposition is hardly ever used, mostly with idiomatic sentences such as và só l'ôstia (f**k you, lit. go on the wafer - the same wafer that returns in Romagnolo òscia patàcca, a general exclamation. I don't know why we use this word so much).

Par and tra/fra don't merge with articles, and that's it.

Fine, now, as an exercise, fill in the gaps as always. If needed, revise the articles (we haven't seen all the possible combinations where they are regular).
1) T'ě la pió bêla ____ månd! - You are the most beautiful (girl) in the world (Emilian: of the world. World is masculine).
2) A-n vâg ménga dimóndi d'acôrd ______ computer. - I don't get on very well with the computer. (Computer is masculine)
3) A soun stê _______ fîra ed San Lâżer, oilì, oilà! - I went to the expo in St. Lazarus! (part of an Emilian song from Andrea Mingardi called la fîra ed San Lâżer; if you want to look for it, don't use the diacritics)
4) Un dè, Guglielmo Marconi ed Bulàgna l'ěra ___________ sǒ culeina... - One day, Guglielmo Marconi from Bologna was on top of his hill... (again a song from Mingardi, called sócc'mel. We're definitely going to talk about this word soon... anyways, Mingardi is Bolognese so he uses in vàtta)
5) ________ mě zitê e la tǒ i gh'ein quêsi zinczeint chilômeter. - From my city to yours (eml. between my city and yours) there are almost 500 kilometers. (city is feminine)
6) Al l'à squadrê _____ tésta _____ pě. - He looked at him carefully. (in Emilian - and Italian - you say: he looked [with a special verb, though] at him from the head to the feet. Foot is masculine)
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

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kanejam
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Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by kanejam »

Spoiler:
Fine, now, as an exercise, fill in the gaps as always. If needed, revise the articles (we haven't seen all the possible combinations where they are regular).
1) T'ě la pió bêla dal månd! - You are the most beautiful (girl) in the world (Emilian: of the world. World is masculine).
2) A-n vâg ménga dimóndi d'acôrd cól coun al computer. - I don't get on very well with the computer. (Computer is masculine)
3) A soun stê a la fîra ed San Lâżer, oilì, oilà! - I went to the expo in St. Lazarus! (part of an Emilian song from Andrea Mingardi called la fîra ed San Lâżer; if you want to look for it, don't use the diacritics)
4) Un dè, Guglielmo Marconi ed Bulàgna l'ěra in vàtta al sǒ culeina... - One day, Guglielmo Marconi from Bologna was on top of his hill... (again a song from Mingardi, called sócc'mel. We're definitely going to talk about this word soon... anyways, Mingardi is Bolognese so he uses in vàtta)
5) Par mě zitê e la tǒ i gh'ein quêsi zinczeint chilômeter. - From my city to yours (eml. between my city and yours) there are almost 500 kilometers. (city is feminine)
6) Al l'à squadrê dla tésta ai pě. - He looked at him carefully. (in Emilian - and Italian - you say: he looked [with a special verb, though] at him from the head to the feet. Foot is masculine)

Alessio
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Location: Modena, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Re: Tgnàmm Bôta - Emilian lessons and resources

Post by Alessio »

I apologize to all of you for not writing on this thread for so long.
Unfortunately, a lot of (bad) things happened and made me busy day and night, and also this year I have my final exam at school (we only have one true exam for every school grade) so I really have to study a lot.
This thread is suspended until things get solved here, or at least until I pass my exam. I owe you all explanations and they will come at some point.
Tgnàmm bôta ch'ag n'è biségn! (let's hold on, we really need it!)
:ita: :eng: [:D] | :fra: :esp: :rus: [:)] | :con: Hecathver, Hajás, Hedetsūrk, Darezh...

Tin't inameint ca tót a sàm stê żōv'n e un po' cajoun, mo s't'armâgn cajoun an vōl ménga dîr t'armâgn anc żōven...

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