Omzinian Scrap thread

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Idea for a lang

- topic-prominent
- The semantic role of the topic is not marked
- Topic NP is marked for {normal topic, topicalization (new topic), contrastive topic/focus}
- the semantic roles of other participants are marked by adpositions (á la Japanese)
- Genitive and Direct morphological cases

- Aspect-Tense (Habitual-Iterative, Progressive, Past Perfective, Future Perfective) is marked by an obligatory particle between Topic and the clause.
- Verbs are clause-final
- Verbs are marked for mood (Indicative, Subjunctive, some relative-clause/DS mood), Impersonal form, which usually refers to 1st or 2nd person, and maybe Incoative and Cessative.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

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A new phonology

p t t͡ʂ t͡ɕ k <p t ch cy k>
b d d͡ʐ d͡ʑ g <b d jh jy g>
ɹ ʐ j w <r zh y w>
s h <s h>
z <z>
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ <m n nh ny ng>
l ɭ ʎ <l lh ly>

OR MAYBE

p t t͡ʂ k <p t ch k>
b d d͡ʐ g <b d j g>
β ɹ ɻ ɣ <v r rh gh>
s h <s h>
z <z>
m n ɳ <m n nh>
l ɭ <l lh>
j w <y w>

OR MAYBE

p t t͡ʂ k <p t ch k>
b d d͡ʐ g <b d j g>
β ɹ ʐ ɣ <bh r jh gh>
s h <s h>
z <z>
m n <m n>
l <l>
j w <y w>
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A IE lang

*bh -> ph -> f => h
*dh -> th -> ts
*g'h/gh/ghw -> kh -> x

(b -> v )
d -> z
g'/g/gw -> velar fricative

p
t
k'/k/kw -> k (rounding affects vowels)

s
n
m
l
r (a tap intevocally) (a "a"-style sound in coda, like in most dialects of German)
w -> v
j


p t t͡s k
s x~χ (h)
z ɣ~ʁ
m n
l ɾ~ɐ
ʋ j

y: i: u:
ʏ ɪ ʊ
ø e o
ä

/ar/ -> [a:]
Last edited by Omzinesý on 01 Dec 2020 20:36, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Word-final geminates are not allowed in any of my langs. Must make one with them.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

I new random idea:

A lang with an inverse alignment between subject, object, recipient argument, and other-complement argument (think about, feel about...).
There are 6 relations at best, coded in one verb.

("<" coding 'is less salient than' i.e. the inverse marker)
S < O, S < R, S < OCA
O < R, O < OCA
R < OCA

Recipient can be assumed more salient than the object, depending if goal arguments are also coded in it.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

jas 'does'
jax 'did'

et 'lies'
ak 'lied'

rez 'says'
reg 'said'
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

I could make another IE lang with one of my favorite phoneme inventory

p t t͡s k
s x~χ (h)
z ɣ~ʁ
m n nˠ ŋ
l lˠ r
ʋ j

y i u
yø ie uo
ø e o
ä

It could be positioned somewhere in Baltia.
This could be a clear Satem language.

*k' => s
*g' => z

*voiced aspirated stops and *voiced plain stops merge and become voiced fricatives.
*b/*bh => ʋ
*d/*dh => ð => z
*g/*gh(/*gw/*gwh) => ɣ

Through some version of RUKI conditioning:
s => š
and then all
š => x
(I don't actually know if RUKI applies to /z/ anywhere.)

ɣ => x word-initially

So the lang has quite nice Balto-Slavic sound changes, without further palatalizations, though.
š in newer loan words is substituted with s. (sūle from German Schule ...)

/t͡s/ is marginal
t => t͡s before /j/
t͡s corresponds to <c> in many Latin-based loanwords (informatsioon, korporatsioon ...)
Many /t͡s/s are borrowed with German loan words.

/h/ only appears in loan words.

Velarized and plain l and n only contrast in coda. In onset, they are always plain. There the velarized is the normal allophone and the plain one comes with loan words and /t/ + /n/ => n, /t/ + /l/ => /l/.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

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Omzinesý wrote: 07 Jan 2021 12:08 I could make another IE lang with one of my favorite phoneme inventory

p t t͡s k
s x~χ (h)
z ɣ~ʁ
m n nˠ ŋ
l lˠ r
ʋ j

y i u
yø ie uo
ø e o
ä

It could be positioned somewhere in Baltia.
This could be a clear Satem language.

*k' => s
*g' => z

*voiced aspirated stops and *voiced plain stops merge and become voiced fricatives.
*b/*bh => ʋ
*d/*dh => ð => z
*g/*gh(/*gw/*gwh) => ɣ

Through some version of RUKI conditioning:
s => š
and then all
š => x
(I don't actually know if RUKI applies to /z/ anywhere.)

ɣ => x word-initially

So the lang has quite nice Balto-Slavic sound changes, without further palatalizations, though.
š in newer loan words is substituted with s. (sūle from German Schule ...)

/t͡s/ is marginal
t => t͡s before /j/
t͡s corresponds to <c> in many Latin-based loanwords (informatsioon, korporatsioon ...)
Many /t͡s/s are borrowed with German loan words.

/h/ only appears in loan words.

Velarized and plain l and n only contrast in coda. In onset, they are always plain. There the velarized is the normal allophone and the plain one comes with loan words and /t/ + /n/ => n, /t/ + /l/ => /l/.
Attempt for a declension

NOM huut (German loan word 'hat')
ACC huun (IE accusative m)
DAT huunu (Balto-Slavic acc + vo)
LOC nuutu (EI locative + vo)
ABL huutut (IE Ablative)
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Idea

A Modern-Greek-style phonology (dental fricatives especially)
Phonotactics could allow any coda with diminishing sonority: ps, tx...
Stress is phonemic like in Modern Greek. There could even be a Swedish-style simple pitch accent.



three cases: NOM-ACC, GEN-DAT, and FOCUS CASE or EXCLAMATIVE

Some fusion of stems and endings

NOM-ACC fedhec
GEN-DAT fethenj
FOCUS fedheje

PL
NOM-ACC fedhece
GEN-DAT fethenje
FOCUS fedhecé

There might also be a Generic paradigm of noun beside Singular and Plural.

Focus Case is of course no a semantic case but just a part of the case paradigm sharing most of the semantics of Nom-Acc. A focused genitive needs a relative clause: 'the house that THE MAN has' where 'the man' is in Focus Case.

This could also be a good lang for testing light verbs, like 'to have effect on X' instead of 'to affect X'. But then I would like to have an oblique or ablative case as well. Some light verb constructions govern Genitive and some Oblique.


No too complex a verb system, because I fail such langs. But there could be some irregularity in the frequent verbs that are used as light verbs.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

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NGamira is a name for my one project.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A lang called Tamduk (ταμρουκ)
Inspired by Coptic, written with Greek letters

Triconsonantal and diconsonantal roots.

ta 'feminine definite article'
m- derivation 'related to'
duk 'the name of the folk'

p t̪ d~ɾ k ʔ <π τ ρ κ (spiritus lenis)> <p t d k '>
f θ ɹ x h <φ θ δ χ (spiritus aspis)> <f th r x h>
s z̙~ʒ <ς ζ> <s j>
m n̪̥ n <μ νν ν> <m nn n>
ɬ̪ l <λλ λ> <ll l>
j w <ι υ> <y w>

There is a voiceless laminodeltal series and a voiced apicoalveolar series. In some roots the dentals are interpreted as geminated alveolars, phonemically.

Vowels of stressed syllables:
i u <ι oυ> <i u>
e o <ε ο> <e o>
ɛ ɔ <η ω> <ê ô>
ä <α> <a>

Wovels of unstressed syllables:
ɪ~e, ʊ~o <ɛ, o> <i u>
ə <α> <a>
In final unstressed syllables only ə <α> is allowed.

No real length distinction of either vowels or consonants.

Verbs have two aspect forms that are formed with vowel alternations: Non-Habitual and Habitual. Non-Habitual has <a e o> while Habitual has <ô û û> respectively.

pa-xerda 'the book'
xrad 'wrote'
xrôd 'used to write'

xord 'read'
xurd 'used to read'

Nouns:

No indefinite article

pa- 'Masculine Definite Singular Nominative'
ta- 'Feminine Definite Singular Nominative'
wa- 'Plural Definite Nominative'

pe- 'Masculine Definite Singular Genitive-Accusative'
te- 'Feminine Definite Singular Genitive-Accusative'
we- 'Plural Definite Genitive-Accusative'

Genitive-Accusative is only used of animate nouns. Inanimate objects are simar to Nominatives. Only alienable possession is expressed with Genitive-Accusative. Alienable possession is expressed with an adjective, whose suffix is usually unstressed -a.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

p t k ʔ
s x
m n ŋ
l ʟ

Only dental and velar non-plosives can appear in coda. Velars don't precede dentals or vice versa, though.
Plosives have voiced fricative allophones [β ð z ɣ ɦ] between vowels.
All consonants can be geminated. Geminated /s x/ are however /ts kx/ respectively. They aren't affricates however.

Short
i u <i u>
e o <e o>
æ <a>

Long
i: u: <ī ū
e: o: <ē ō>
æ: ɒ̝: <ā ô>

Stress always on the second syllable. First syllables cannot be "extra-long", i.e. have both a long vowel and a coda. Other syllables can have all lengths.

- Verbs agree their subject in gender/number á la Tamil: Masculine, Feminine, Rational Plural, Irrational Singular, Irrational Plural
- perhaps an inverse alignment - nearly all objects with the unmarked noun case
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