Ivka language

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Omzinesý
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Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Ivka's main natlang influence is Northern Saami. I though add some other interesting features, too.


The mane of the people is Ivka
Their language is called either Ivka or Ifksepa 'Ivka language'.


Morphological characteristics
1) Consonant gradation marks grammatical functions
2) Compounding and incorporation are productive. The subordinate root in them is often reduced.

Morphosyntactic features
1) Control marked in most verbs
2) SOV
3) NOM, ACC, GEG, ESSIVE (that seems to appear in all my langs)

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Nominal Morphology

Four cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, and Essive (Singular Accuative and Genitive are alike.)
Two numbers: Singular and Plural. (Essive does not distinguish number.)

Code: Select all

------------------------------
SG.NOM		|	PL.NOM
------------------------------
SG.GEN-ACC	|	PL.ACC
		--------------
		|	PL.GEN
------------------------------
	ESS			
------------------------------

Ivka nouns (as well as verbs) can be divided into two groups if the penultimate syllable has a coda consonant or not.

Nouns without coda of penultimate syllable have the strong grade in Accusative and Genitive (and Singural Genitive-Accusative).
Nouns without coda of penultimate syllable have the weak grade in Nominative and Essive.

Code: Select all

	SG		PL
	------------------------------
NOM	sepa	|	sepa-x
	------------------------------
ACC	seppa	|	seppa-s-i
		--------------
GEN		|	seppa-s-a
	------------------------------
ESS		sepa-n		
	------------------------------

Nouns with coda of penultimate syllable have the strong grade in Singular Nominative, Plural Accusative, and Plural Genitive.
Nouns with coda of penultimate syllable have the weak grade in Singular Genitive-Accusative, Plural Nominative, and Essive.

Code: Select all

	SG		PL
	------------------------------
NOM	ivka	|	ifka-x
	------------------------------
ACC	ifka	|	ivka-s-i
		--------------
GEN		|	ivka-s-a
	------------------------------
ESS		ifka-n		
	------------------------------
As a dependent root in a compound, a root usually has the weak grade.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Verbal Morphology

Control: Control (CL), Noncontrol (NCL)
Tense: Nonpast (NPST), Past (PST)
Subject agreement


The subject markers are:
SG1 -j
SG2 -p
SG3 zero
PL1 -si
PL2 -psi
PL3 zero


The control markers are either:
-a 'control' and -u 'noncontrol'
or
-i 'control' and -æ 'noncontrol'

Some verbs can have -e or -o, but they don't differentiate control.


Tense is expressed by consonant gradation.

Verbs without a code in the penultimate syllable.

Code: Select all

	Control		Noncontrol 
Nonpast	SG1 tok-a-j	|	tokk-u-j
	SG2 tok-a-p	|	tokk-u-p
	SG3 tokk-a 	|	tok-u
	PL1 tokk-a-si	|	tok-u-si
	PL2 tok-a-psi	|	tok-u-psi
	PL3 tokk-a	|	tokk-u
	--------------------------------------------
Past	SG1 tokk-a-j	|	tok-u-j
	SG2 tokk-a-p	|	tok-u-p
	SG3 tok-a 	|	tokk-u
	PL1 tok-a-si	|	tokk-u-si
	PL2 tokk-a-psi	|	tokk-u-psi
	PL3 tok-a	|	tok-u


Last edited by Omzinesý on 21 Mar 2020 10:38, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Code: Select all

				Labials 	Dentals 	Prevelars 	Postvelars 	Glottals 
Stops 				p <p>		t <t>		c <k>		q <q>
Prestopped nasals 		pm <pm> 	tn <tn>		cɲ <kn>
Nasals 				m <m>		n <n>		ɲ <nj>
Fricatives 			f <f>		s <s>						h <h>
Prestopped liquids 				tl <tr> tr <tr>
Liquids 					l <l> r <r>
Prestopped semivowel 						cj <kj>
Semivowels 			ʋ <v> 				j <j>
See the message on consonant gradation also.

Stops and fricatives /s/ and /h/ can be geminated.
/f/ derives from prestopped /ʋ/ in which context it contrasts with /ʋ/ and is phonemic. It also sporadically appears in other contexts as a phoneme. When it precedes another consonant, it is considered a "short variant" of /ʋ/ and is not phonemic.


i, u <i, u>
e, o <e, o>
æ, ɑ <æ, a>

eu <eu>
ɑu <au>
Last edited by Omzinesý on 21 Mar 2020 12:42, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Phonotactics and consonant gradation


Syllable structure is relatively simple (C)(V)(C)(C).

Prestopped consonants can only appear as onsets.

Gradation of intervocalic consonants

Code: Select all

Weak	Strong 
p <p>	pp <pp>
t <t>	tt <tt>
c <k>	cc <kk>
q <q>	qq <qq>
s <s>	ss <ss>

m <m>	pm <pm>
n <n>	tn <tn>
ɲ <nj>	cɲ <kn>

r <r>	tr <tr>
l <l>	tl <tl>

j <j>	cj <kj>
v <v>	f <= *p̪v <f>

h <h>	ħħ <xx>
Gradation of consonant clusters

Code: Select all

C stands for any consonant 
N stands for a homorganic nasal 

Weak		Strong 
pC <pC>		b:C <bC>
tC <tC>		d:C <dC>
cC <kC>		j:C <jC>
(cc <kk>	ɟ:c <gk>) but
qC <qC>		v:C <vC>
(qq <qq>	ɢ:q <gq>) but 
sC <sC>		z:C <zC>

NC <nC> 	m:C <mC>
NC <nC> 	n:C <nnC>
NC <nC> 	ɲ:C <njC>

hC <hC> 	ɦ:C <hhC>
rC <rC>		r:C <llC>
lC <lC>		l:C <rrC>

Last edited by Omzinesý on 21 Mar 2020 15:55, edited 7 times in total.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Control

Salishan languages have an interesting new feature and I'm now first time applying it in a conlang.
There are two values of the feature: Control and NonControl. (I consider Agent-Centered and Patient-Centered could actually be better names, but I'm not composing my own terms.)

Control
Either the agent is a prototypical transitive agent. It acts intentionally and volitionally and has control over what it does.
or there is no prototypical transitive patient.

NonControl
Either the patient is a prototypical transitive patient. It is affected by the action. The action is successfully completed.
or there is no prototypical transitive agent.

Control thus emphasizes the agent while noncontrol emphasizes the patient.
Control creates an unintuitive result that actions that are not successful or are hardly successful are coded as control clauses, (1) (2).



(1)
Era letke-si josk-et-u.
E hand-PL.ACC wash-REFL.PST-CONTR
'Era was washing her hands.' ~ 'Era hardly washed her hands.' ~ 'Era tried to wash her hands.'

(2)
Era letke-si josk-etl-a.
E hand-PL.ACC wash-REFL.PST-NCONTR
'Era washed her hands clean.' ~ 'Era accidentally washed her hands.'


Control seems to have many same implications as split alignment. Ivka is however a very normal NOM-ACC language. Coding of the arguments does not change after control or noncontrol.

All Ivka verbs that have an agent or a patient have control inflection. The verb does not have to be bivalent. Verbs like 'go', 'sing' or 'die' do have control inflection, but verbs like 'love' that have neither prototypical agent nor patient do not.
Edit: Control suffix is also one factor determining whether an incorporated root is an object or an instrument.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 27 Mar 2020 15:13, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

Compounding

In compounding you combine two root to one "word". In Ivka, like in North-European languages, the the first root modifies the second one. For example Ifksepa in (1) is a language that is spoken by the Ivka.
(1)
Ifk-sepa
ivka-sepa
Ivka-Language
'Ivka language'

Incorporation

Ivka also has incorporation in which a nominal root is compounded with a verbal root.
There are three functions the first, nominal root can have:
i) Object of the verb
ii) Part or property of the referent of the object of the verb
iii) A tool that the subject uses in the action.

i) In (2) the object egta (traditional tea-like drink) is compounded with the verb.

(2)
egt-sila
egta-sila
egta.tea-drink.SG3
'drinks egta tea"

ii) In (3) the incorporated noun is a part of the referent of the object.

(3)
Ledkjozkuj pitru
letke-jozk-u-j pitru
hand-wash-NCTRL-SG1 you.ACC
'I washed you hand(s).' lit. 'I hand-washes you.'

iii) (4) only differs from (3) in that it has a control marker. It is however interpreted (usually) so that the incorporated noun is a tool with which the subject performed the action.
(4)
Ledkjozkaj pitru
letke-jozk-a-j pitru
hand-wash-CTRL-SG1 you.ACC
'I washed you by hand.' lit. 'I hand-washes you.'

Marking the role of the incorporated noun root is, however, only one of the functions of the control markers, among volitionality and aspect. In some contexts (3) and (4) could have reverse interpretations.



Morphology of compounding

1) The last vowel of the first root is deleted.
2a) If the root has only one consonant before the deleted vowel, the root has the simple weak grade, it has in Nominative.
2b) If the root has two consonants before the deleted vowel and the first vowel is a nasal, liquid, or fricative, the root has the weak grade, which it has in Genitive-Accusative.
2c) If the root has two consonants before the deleted vowel and the first vowel is a plosive, the root has the strong grade, it has in Nominative.

ivka
1) ivk-
2b) ifk-

egta
1) egt-
2c) egt-

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

There is relative pronoun (NOM) la, (ACC) tla.
Most different-subject complement clauses are formed as pseudorelative clauses, either finite or nonfinite.


Qora voqi Matra la juhha.
Qora.NOM say.PST.NCTRL.SG3 Mara.ACC REL.NOM eat.PRES.CTRL
Lit. 'Qora said [about] Mara who is eating.'
'Qora said that Mara is eating.'

I don't have participle morphology yet, but nonfinite preseudorelatives are very similar to the finite ones.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

The new consonant phoneme inventory

p t͡s t k c
f s θ ç x
v z ð j ɣ
m n ɲ
r l ʎ

p t͡s t k c
f s θ ç x
v z ð j ɣ
m n ɲ
r l ʎ





Consonants have three lenghts. Over-long consonants are though prevoiced.

Plosives: t t: d:t
Voiceless fricatives: θ θ: ðθ
Voiced fricatives: ð ð: ð:θ
Liquids: l l: l::
Nasals have two grades only. (Low-tone long vowel derives from vowel + nasal, so vowels play a role in gradation.)


Vowel phonemes
i u
ʲe (o)
ɛ ɔ
ä

Vowels have two lengths but long vowels always have a rising or lowering tone.
Long e and o are diphtongs: ie and uo.

Only one short coda consonant can follow a long vowel.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

I'm also adding an aspect distinction: Nonhabitual vs. Habitual.
I don't know how it plays with Control but they are not the same thing however.
So there are eight forms: Aspect x Control x Tense

Noncontrol x Habitual x Present and Noncontrol x Habitual x Past and Control x Habitual x Past are expressed with suffixes. Other forms are formed with stem changes.

There might also be an Indicative vs. Subjunctive contrast. :)

Code: Select all

			Nonpast		Past		Subjunctive 		
Nonpast	Nonhabitual  	stem change 	stem change 	stem change 
	Habitual	stem change 	suffix		stem change 
Past	Nonhabitual	stem change 	stem change 	stem change 
	Habitual	suffix		suffix		suffix




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Re: Ivka language

Post by sasasha »

Following this with interest and enjoyment. I have nothing to add, but curious to see how this develops.

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Re: Ivka language

Post by Omzinesý »

It's possible that I will split this project into a lang inspired by Greek and Baltic and the Saami stuff.
Salishan control is still preserved.

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