Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3056
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

Post by Shemtov »

This is the language of The Kan Kingdom (Native name Ȟàn) which was influencial on the Nihon-Suomi Kingdom, which became one of the dominant groups of the Fuhe-Suomi. It also gave rise to the Kanic languages, minority languages in northeastern Fuhe.



Phonology:

Top

/p pʰ b t tʰ d t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ c͡ç c͡çʰ k kʰ kʷ kʷʰ/ <p ph b t th d c ch x č čh j q qh k kh kw kwh>

/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n nh ng>

/ɸ θ s ʃ ç x xʷ h/ <f z s š ś ȟ ȟw h>

/l ʎ/ <l ĺ>

/w ɹ j/<w r y>



/ i ɨ ʉ u e o ɛ ɔ a/ <i ï ü u e o ɛ ɔ>

/ei oi əi ɛi ɔi ai/ <ei oi äi ɛi ɔi ai>


/eɨ oɨ ɛɨ ɔɨ aɨ/ <eï oï ɛï ɔï aï>



/eʉ oʉ əʉ ɛʉ ɔʉ aʉ/ <eü oü äü ɛü ɔü aü>


/eu ou əu ɛu ɔu au/ <eu ou äu ɛu ɔu au>

/iɐ uɐ eɐ oɐ / <ia ua ea oa>

˥ ˧ ˩ <V́ V V̀>

(C)(l/w/ɹ/j)V(p/t/k/m/n/ɲ/ŋ/ɹ/l)


The noun phrase:
Nouns may be optionally reduplicated for plural.
There are two types of noun phrases: Topic and non-topic. Topic phrases begin an utterance (T-phrase), and are not necceraly subjects, but if they are not subjects there is a marking, that will be discussed when I post the syntax of whole T-phrases.

First, the basic structure of a non-topic NPs (I will leave off numbers for this post):
(DEIC POSSESOR-POSSESPART ADJ NOUN)
The Deictics are Zɛ̀ (prox.) and Śɔïm (dist)

The Possesive Particle is Ša̋il


Thus:
Zɛ̀ nhwɔ́ang šäil ĺük xyán
this king POSS yellow stone
"This yellow stone of the king"

The topic phrase takes the topic connector bá after it if it has an adj or possessor. The adj or possesor comes after bá, and if there is both, bá occurs before both:

Zɛ̀ xyán bá ĺük bá nhwɔ́ang šäil
"This yellow stone of the king"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3056
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

Post by Shemtov »

Numbers 1-99:

1 Rít

2 Nhȉ

3 Zán

4 Śa̋i

5 Ngwɔ̀r

6. Ĺɔ́uk

7. Śït

8. Phat

9. Ȟjǘ

10. Qhwú



11 Qhwúrít

12 Qhwúnhȉ

13 Qhwúzán

14 Qhwúśa̋i

etc.

20 Nhȉqhwú

21 Nhȉqhẃurít

22 Nhȉqhwúnhȉ

23 Nhȉqhwúzán

etc.

30. Zánqhwú

40 Śa̋iqhwú

50. Ngwɔ̀rqhwú

etc.

Numbers are followed by counters:

Common counters:

Small roundish objects: Hól

People: Nhàüm

Long slender things: Kweak

Items associated with writing: Šú

Natural features of the land: Mlin

Bodies of water: Sàp



Thus:

Zɛ̀ nhwɔ́ang šäil ĺük zán hól xyán

"These three yellow stones of the king"



When in a topic phrase, the same bá applies to the number and the adjective(s):

Zɛ̀ xyán bá ĺük zán hól bá nhwɔ́ang šäil

"These three yellow stones of the king"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3056
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

Post by Shemtov »

The pronouns are unusual, as they have a unique nominative form, and a form for non-nominative. The non-nominative form is used for possesives, followed by Ša̋il.
Focus is marked by the unique particle Wàr.
Nominative forms:
1P sing: Nhwóa
1P plr Nhwóameïr
2P sing Nèü
2P plr: Nèümeïr
3P sing: Kwhì
3P plr Kwhìmeïr

Non-nominative:
1P sing: Ngɔ́ü
1P plr Ngɔ́ümi̋n
2P sing Nèn
2P plr: Nènmi̋n
3P sing: Ȟwìa
3P plr Ȟwiami̋n
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3056
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

Post by Shemtov »

Polite pronouns are circumlocations used to refer to people deictically. They are treated as nouns phrases, and not as pronouns.
When speaking to a superior, 1st Person, is Zɛ̀ nheang "This person" It may made even more polite by using the phrase Śɔïm nheang ša̋il ba̋ük "That person's servant". 2P would be Śɔïm nheang "That person" or more politely Zɛ̀ nheang ša̋il čɔ́ü "This person's master"

When speaking to an inferior 1P is Śɔïm nheang ša̋il čɔ́ü "That person's master" and 2P is Śɔïm nheang ša̋il ba̋ük "That person's servant".

3P polite is Śɔïm nheang ȟwrɛ̀ïk "That honored person"

When speaking to elders in the family, a generalized relation word followed by ȟwrɛ̀ïk is used e.g. for female ancestors Mȁür ȟwrɛ̀ïk "Honored mother" is used as both a 2P and a 3P pronoun.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3056
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical Ȟanese/Proto-Kanic

Post by Shemtov »

Verbs are unmarked for tense, but certain particles that I will call preverbs are put in front of verbs to mark aspect and mood. Post-verbal adverbs are placed after the verb. The verb unmarked by a preverb is assumed to be in the perfective. In a whole phrase, an unmarked verb of motion is placed first, followed by a time adverb, which locates the coding time, followed by verbs modified by preverbs that are anchored to the verb of motion's coding time. The verb of motion can be, from a strict point of view be seen as an auxillary, but there are lexical choices for which verb is used, though they are extremely complex, and will not be considered now.

The unmarked verb is negated by the particle ĺü, while the particle bóak is used for verbs with preverbs, though ĺü is used if one wishes to negate a modal preverb itself. If the main verb is negated, this negates the non-preverbs preformed by the subject, but it must be negated again if another subject is put in the verb chain.

Zɛ̀ nhwɔ́ang xyù dám thuk, dìp fáng śɔïm nhwɔ́ang šäil ĺük xyán
this king go.out previous week PROG display those king GEN yellow stone
"Last week, the king was displaying his yellow stone"

Zɛ̀ nheang páük ĺü khít zɛ̀ qlà, zit féak chwì féak, nhwɔ́ang šäil ĺük xyán, nhwɔ́ang bóak hu yét ngup nheang páük
this person low.class NEG come this night COND steal CONAT steal king GEN stone yellow king NEG TERM think bad person low.class
"If the ruffian does not try to steal the king's yellow stone tonight, the king will no longer suspect him"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
Post Reply