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Posted: 11 Nov 2020 20:16
by Shemtov
Maillys is a restart from scratch of the idea of a Celtic-inspired language spoken near Fuheko. In the old version of the World of Fuhe, there were two such languages, both using the Fuheko method of mixing two languages: M'aillys (the namesake of this language) which was Welsh+Russian, and NĆaulaosz- Irish+Polish. However, this Maillys is totally from scratch, and is just Celtic inspired, and aims to be more like Goidelic, though influence from Brythonic is taken.

Maillys is the Koine of the Maill kingdoms, which are south of Fuhe, and also on the Maill Peninsula.

Phonology (phonemes in paranthesis are used only with mutation):
/p b t d t͡s d͡z t͡ɬ t͡ɬʲ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g/ <p b~mP t d~nD x z~nX tl ćl ć j~nĆ c g~nC>
/f (ⁿf) v (ⁿv) θ ð s (ⁿs) (z) ʃ (ⁿʃ) (ʒ) ɬ (ⁿɬ) ɬʲ (ⁿɬʲ) x (ɣ) h/ <f~ph mF bh mh th dh s~xh nS zh ś nŚ jh ll nLl ĺĺ nĹl ch gh h~fh~sh~śh>
/m n nʲ (ŋ)/ <m n ń ng>
/l lʲ/ <l ĺ>
/r̥ r̥ʲ r rʲ / <rr ŕŕ r ŕ>

/i ɨ u/ <i y u>
/e o/ <é ó>
/ə/ <a>
/ɛ ɔ/ <e o>
/a/ <á>
/aɪ əi ɛi ɔi eɪ oɪ aʊ əu ɛu ɔu ɨu/ <ái ai ei oi éi ói áu au eu oi yu>

Syllable structure:

Note that except in mutated words, <bh th dh> can never occur word intially.

Mutation: There are four kinds of mutation (though the last kind has a subtype).

p>ph (f)
x>xh (s)
ć́>ćh (ś)
f>fh (h)
s>sh (h)
ś>śh (h)

p>bP (b)
b>mB (m)
t>dT (d)
d>nD (n)
ć>nĆ (j)
j>nJ (ń)
c>nC (g)
ĺĺ <nĹl>

Mixed mutation:
f>fh (h)
s>sh (h)
ś>śh (h)


There is a subtype of fortition: h-Fortition, which puts an h before vowel-initial words

There is also umlaut:

And palatalazation:

Re: Maillys

Posted: 11 Nov 2020 21:42
by Shemtov
Nouns come in two genders: Masculine and Feminine, though this only applies for adjectival concord.
There are two pluralazation forms in the nominative: Suffix -y and suffix -(a)ná. All vowel-final nouns use -ná, though a great minority consonant final stems use -aná.
There are three cases: Nominative, Oblique, and Genitive. There are four classes for forming the Oblique and the Genitive, which have the same base form in the singular:
Class I: Umlaut of last vowel
Class II: Last vowel, which can be part of a -i off-glide diphthong becomes said diphthong.
Class III: Palatalazation of final consonant
Class IV: Suffix -i

Genitives are pluralized by the suffix -yu, while obliques by -ibh. In class IV nouns, these suffixes replace -i.

The noun takes a required article. The singular definite form is Sa, while the plural is Śé. The indefinites are Na and Ńoi. These cause lenition in the oblique, and nasalazation in the genetive.

Class I noun: Cádhól "River"
Nom sing: Sa cádhól
Nom plr: Śé cádhóly
Obl sing: Sa chádhél
Obl plr: Śé chádhélibh
Gen sing: Sa gCádhél
Gen plr: Śé gCádhélyu

Nom sing: Na cádhól
Nom plr: Ńoi cádhóly
Obl sing: Na chádhél
Obl plr: Ńoi chádhélibh
Gen sing: Na gCádhél
Gen plr: Ńoi gCádhélyu

Class II: Dymár "sword"
Nom sing: Sa dymár
Nom plr: Śé dymáraná
Obl sing: Sa dhymáir
Obl plr: Śé dhymáiribh
Gen sing: Sa nDymáir
Gen plr: Śé nDymáiryu

Nom sing: Na dymár
Nom plr: Ńoi dymáraná
Obl sing: Na dhymáir
Obl plr: Ńoi dhymáiribh
Gen sing: Na nDymáir
Gen plr: Ńoi nDymáiryu

Class III: Becyd "Woman"
Nom sing: Sa Becyd
Nom plr: Śé Becydy
Obl sing: Sa Bhecyj
Obl plr: Śé Bhecyjibh
Gen sing: Sa mBecyj
Gen plr: Śé mBecyjyu

Nom sing: Na becyd
Nom plr: Ńoi becydy
Obl sing: Na bhecyj
Obl plr: Ńoi bhecyjibh
Gen sing: Na mBecyj
Gen plr: Ńoi mBecyjyu

Class IV: Pyll "Hill"
Nom sing: Sa pyll
Nom plr: Śé pyllaná
Obl sing: Sa phylli
Obl plr: Śé phyllibh
Gen sing: Sa mPylli
Gen plr: Śé mPyllyu

Nom sing: Na pyll
Nom plr: Ńoi pyllaná
Obl sing: Na phylli
Obl plr: Ńoi phyllibh
Gen sing: Na mPylli
Gen plr: Ńoi mPyllyw

Re: Maillys

Posted: 13 Nov 2020 21:53
by Shemtov
In the genitive phrase, only the genitive takes an article, which is applied to the whole phrase. Using the word Táŕŕobh, which means "a patrilineal line that has political power" which I will transalate as "clan":

Śe dTáŕŕoibh dymáry
"The clan's swords"

Sa dTáŕŕoibh pyll
"The clan's hill"

However, feminine singular genitives cause the possesum to mix-mutate, while feminine plurals cause it to fortition:

Sa mBecyj dhymár
"The woman's sword"

Sa mBecyj dTáŕŕobh
"The woman's clan"

Sa mBecyjyu tymáry
"The women's swords"

Sa mBecyjyu táŕŕobh
"The women's clan"

Re: Maillys

Posted: 16 Nov 2020 07:39
by Shemtov
Pronouns come in four cases: Nominative, Accusative, Oblique and Genitive. On the 3P singular, Masc and Fem are distinguished, as are proximate and obviate on all 3P pronouns.

1P singular: My
1P plr: Mán
2P sing: Ty
2P plr: Tán
3P sing masc prox: Y
3P sing fem prox: Hy
3P plr prox: Ywn
3P sing masc obv: Sy
3P sing fem obv: Ĺy
3p plr obv: Sywn

1P singular: Mys
1P plr: Maidh
2P sing: Tys
2P plr: Taidh
3P sing masc prox: Ys
3P sing fem prox: Hys
3P plr prox: Idh
3P sing masc obv: Sys
3P sing fem obv: Ĺys
3p plr obv: Sin

1P singular: Myn
1P plr: Meiń
2P sing: Tyn
2P plr: Táiń
3P sing masc prox: Yn
3P sing fem prox: Hyn
3P plr prox: Iń
3P sing masc obv: Syn
3P sing fem obv: Ĺin
3p plr obv: Siń

1P singular: Mi
1P plr: Mái
2P sing: Ti
2P plr: Tái
3P sing masc prox: I
3P sing fem prox: Hi
3P plr prox: Ini
3P sing masc obv: Si
3P sing fem obv: Ĺi
3p plr obv: Sini

The genitive Singular 1P and 2P pronouns trigger lenition:
Mi tháŕŕobh
"My clan"
Mi dhyḿar
"My sword"
Ti tháŕŕobh
"Thy clan"
Ti dhymár
"Thy sword"
The 3P sing masc and 1P and 2P plurals trigger no mutation.
But both 3P sing fem trigger mixed mutation:
Hi dTaŕŕobh
"Her clan"
Hi dhymár
"Her sword"

While both plr 3p trigger fortition:
Ini taŕŕobh
"Their clan"
Ini tymáry
"Their swords"

Re: Maillys

Posted: 16 Nov 2020 08:27
by Shemtov
Adjectives decline like nouns, though they have pretty regular forms for oblique and genitive: Umlaut, Umalaut plus palatazation if it ends in a non-palatalized coronal, e>ei, é>éi, and suffix -i in the singular if the last vowel is i, but if these vowels are followed by non-palatalized coronal, only palatazation. The plural is always -y.

Masculine plurals are lenited, fem singulars are nasalized and fem plurals are

" The Large clan(s)":
Nom sing: Sa taŕŕobh arrtách
Nom plr: Śé taŕŕobhaná arrtáchy
Obl sing: Sa taŕŕoibh arrtech
Obl plr: Śé thaŕŕobhibh arrtáchibh
Gen sing: Sa nTaŕŕobh arrtech
Gen plr: Śé nTaŕŕobhyu arrtechyu

The Small Clan(s):
Nom sing: Sa taŕŕobh bybhig
Nom plr: Śé taŕŕobhaná bhybhigy
Obl sing: Sa taŕŕoibh bybhigi
Obl plr: Śé thaŕŕobhibh bhybhigibh
Gen sing: Sa nTaŕŕobh bybhigi
Gen plr: Śé nTaŕŕobhyu bhybhigyu

The Evil Clan(s):
Nom sing: Sa taŕŕobh cát
Nom plr: Śé taŕŕobhaná chát
Obl sing: Sa taŕŕoibh ceć
Obl plr: Śé thaŕŕobhibh chećibh
Gen sing: Sa nTaŕŕobh ceć
Gen plr: Śé nTaŕŕobhyu chećyu

The good clan(s):
Nom sing: Sa taŕŕobh dyn
Nom plr: Śé taŕŕobhaná dhyny
Obl sing: Sa taŕŕoibh dhiń
Obl plr: Śé thaŕŕobhibh dhińibh
Gen sing: Sa nTaŕŕobh dhiń
Gen plr: Śé nTaŕŕobhyu dhińyu

"The big woma/en"
Nom sing: Sa Becyd arrtách
Nom plr: Śé Becydy harrtáchy
Obl sing: Sa Bhecyj arrtech
Obl plr: Śé Bhecyjibh harrtechibh
Gen sing: Sa mBecyj arrtech
Gen plr: Śé mBecyjyu harrtechyu

"The small woma/en"
Nom sing: Sa Becyd MBybhig
Nom plr: Śé Becydy pybhigy
Obl sing: Sa Bhecyj mBybhigi
Obl plr: Śé Bhecyjibh pybhigibh
Gen sing: Sa mBecyj mBybhigi
Gen plr: Śé mBecyjyu pyhigyu

"The Evil woma/en":
Nom sing: Sa Becyd nCát
Nom plr: Śé Becydy cáty
Obl sing: Sa Bhecyj nCeć
Obl plr: Śé Bhecyjibh cećibh
Gen sing: Sa mBecyj nCeć
Gen plr: Śé mBecyjyu cećyu

The Good woma/en
Nom sing: Sa Becyd nDyn
Nom plr: Śé Becydy tyny
Obl sing: Sa Bhecyj nDiń
Obl plr: Śé Bhecyjibh nDińibh
Gen sing: Sa mBecyj nDiń
Gen plr: Śé mBecyjyu tyńyu

Re: Maillys

Posted: 16 Nov 2020 18:51
by Shemtov
Verbs have three synthetic Tense-aspects: Non-Past, Plain Past, and Past perfect.

Conjugation of regular verb "Sógaŕ "To hold"
1P singular: Sógaŕybh
1P plr: Sógaŕabhá
2P sing: Sógaŕyth
2P plr: Sógaŕathá
3P sing prox: Sógaŕ
3P plr prox: Sógaŕyu
3P sing masc obv: Sógaŕis
3p plr obv: Sógaŕyun

Plain past:
1P singular: Sógaŕaim
1P plr: Sógaŕémy
2P sing: Sógaŕaj
2P plr: Sógaŕéja
3P sing prox: Sógaŕyń
3P plr prox: Sógaŕybhin
3P sing masc obv: Sógaŕiś
3p plr obv: Sógaŕińe

Past perfect:
1P singular: Sógaŕyĺybh
1P plr: Sógaŕiĺybhá
2P sing: Sógaŕić
2P plr: Sógaŕiĺyć
3P sing prox: Sógaŕiĺ
3P plr prox: Sógaŕyu
3P sing masc obv: Sógaŕyĺyś
3p plr obv: Sógaŕiń

Sógaŕaim hi dhymáir
"I held her sword"

Sógaŕ hy hi dhymáir
"She holds her [own] sword"

Sógaŕ hy ĺi dhymáir
"She holds her [someone else's] sword"

Sógaŕ hy i dymáir
"She holds his sword"

Sógaŕiĺ sa becyd na dhymáir
"The woman has held a sword"

Re: Maillys

Posted: 17 Nov 2020 06:39
by Shemtov
The extesensial and auxillary verb "Bóx":

1P singular: Bóxybh
1P plr: Bóxabhá
2P sing: Bóxyth
2P plr: Bóxathá
3P sing prox: Bóx
3P plr prox: Bóću
3P sing masc obv: Bóćys
3p plr obv: Bóćun

Plain Past:
1P singular: Abhéjaim
1P plr: Abhéjémy
2P sing: Abhézaj
2P plr: Abhézéja
3P sing prox: Abhéjyń
3P plr prox: Abhéjybhin
3P sing obv: Abhéjiś
3p plr obv: Abhéjińe

Past perfect:
1P singular: Géćaim
1P plr:Géćaŕémy
2P sing:Géxaj
2P plr:Géxéja
3P sing prox: Géćyń
3P plr prox: Géćybhin
3P sing obv: Géćiś
3p plr obv:Géćińe

1P singular: Abhózybh
1P plr: Abhózabhá
2P sing: Abhózyth
2P plr: Abhózathá
3P sing prox: Abhóz
3P plr prox: Abhóju
3P sing masc obv: Abhójys
3p plr obv: Abhójun

The auxillary places a verbal noun after the main arguements. The verbals noun is formed by -oig added to the verb, preceded by the preposition yll, which causes lenition.

The present aux causes a habitual meaning
Bóx hy sa dhymáir yll shógaŕoig
"She often holds a sword"

The plain past has a past habitual meaning:
Abhéjyń hy sa dhymáir yll shógaŕoig
"She used to hold a sword"

The past perfective causes a past progressive meaning:
Géćyń hy sa dhymáir yll shógaŕoig
"She was holding a sword"

The future, of course, causes a future meaning:
Abhóz hy sa dhymáir yll shógaŕoig
"She will hold a sword"