Lexember 2020

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Iyionaku
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Lexember 25th - Yélian

tápuʻat [ˈtaːpʉʔɐt] - custom, rite, convention, folkway
Etymology: uncertain - either tat "occurrance" or tal "event indicator" + puʻat "old", but this might be a folk etymology instead. Some sources point to Caelian dyabwet "tradition".

Pun reo aoda vut ciavet tápuʻat pi tolest riuran pès evaneʻi u ilvat o'devin.
[pun ˈɾeː.ɔ̈ ˈaʊ̯da vʉt‿ˈɪ̯aːʋət ˈtaːpʉʔɐ‿pɨ ˈtoːləst ˈɾiː.ʉɾɐn pɛs əʋɐˈneːʔi u ˈilvɐt ɔ̈ˈdeːʋɨn]
in 1SG.POSS village 3SG.INDEF exist-3SG custom that gift-1PLEX book-PL to each_other TEMP day DEF.GEN=goddish_aspect
In our village it's custom to gift books to each other on the day of their spiritual guardian.

Bonus word :esp:

nochebuena [not͡ʃeˈbwena] - christmas eve
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

25m Decembr
amigtað colleger /ˌa.majˈtað ˌko.leˈgɛr/ [ˌa.mɐjˈtah ˌko.lɪˈgɛː] workplace banter, camaraderie; often used somewhat derisively to refer metonymically to externally-imposed socialisation in the workplace
< phrase coined in 1859 as amité collégiale by the Dijon Ministry for Work as the Global Workshop period took over the French polities and the nascent Drengot Collusion. The phrase appears in Boral shortly after Borland's entry into the Collusion and the abdication of Natalie II on Revillion [Christmas Eve] 1894. It was likely used ironically in speech almost as soon as it appeared in official memoranda; the earliest attestation in writing is from one of Bellamy's romances.

The word amigtað "friendship" is synchronically analysable as amig "friend" < Latin amīcus/a "friend" with the nominaliser -tað, but in fact likely derives directly from the Late Insular Latin *amictate, from Vulgar Latin amīcitās "friendship". The adjective colleger "of the workplace, in the office" is an adjectival derivation via -er < Latin -ārius of the noun colleg "colleague, coworker". This in turn is a Middle Boral borrowing from Latin collega "a partner in office".

D'alcun sunt a amigtað colleger vil jo Marc supportar.
/daˈgɪn ˈsɪnt a ˌa.majˈtaθ ˌko.leˈgɛr vɪl ʒo ˈmark ˌsi.pɔrˈtar/
No amount of camaraderie will get me to tolerate Mark.
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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Shemtov
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Shemtov »

Day 25:
Maillys: "Nećlyubha" "A fast day to avert disaster"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Ñahtleōuj "Period of national mourning"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
shimobaatar
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 25

Gán Vẽi (Entry 25):

sròi /ʂoj˥˧/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. religion, sect, cult, denomination, belief system
2. faith, belief, trust, acceptance (of an idea)
3. conviction, zeal
4. thought, philosophy
sròi /ʂoj˥˧/ (comparative sròi ma /ʂoj˥˧ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. religious; of or pertaining to a religion
2. religious, faithful, zealous
3. philosophical
sròi /ʂoj˥˧/ (causative xā sròi /ɕa˥ ʂoj˥˧/)
Verb:
1. to believe in
2. to believe that, to accept that, to be convinced that
3. to believe (someone), to trust
4. to think that
5. to think, to ponder, to wonder

Etymology
From Old TBD srôiʔ "to contemplate, to ponder, to wonder", from Proto-TBD *si "silent, quiet, peaceful" + *ro "to see, to know" + *rɛp "part, segment, piece".
Usage notes
Like many typically inanimate nouns relating to religion, sròi may be treated as animate by particularly zealous poets and writers wishing to emphasize the strength of their faith.

Example sentence:
Bỏu gìm kỏu gìm píu lou mêm sròi vẽ?
/ɓow˨˩˨ ɣim˥˧ kow˨˩˨ ɣim˥˧ piw˩˧ low˧ mem˦˥˧ ʂoj˥˧ ve˧˩/
[ɓɔw˨˩˧ ɣʲɪ̃m˦˧ kɔw˨˩˧ ɣʲɪ̃m˦˧ pɪw˩˧ ɫ̪ɔw˧ mɛ̃m˦˥˧ ʂœj˥˧ ʋeː˧˩]
bỏu gìm kỏu gìm píu lou mêm=sròi=vẽ
heaven and hell and from real 2s.HAB=believe=INT
Do you really believe in heaven and hell?

Thedish (Entry 25):

Feader Yule /ˈfɛːdər ˈjyːl/
(Proper) Noun:
1. Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas; a Christmas gift-bringer, specifically a bearded old man
2. (dated) Father Christmas; a personification of Christmas
3. (rare) Old Man Winter, Jack Frost; a personification of winter or cold weather

Etymology
From feader "father" + yule (see Entry 21). feader is from Old Thedish fæder, from Proto-Germanic *fadēr.
Usage notes
The Christmas season has been personified as Feader Yule for centuries, but in recent decades, this figure has come to be largely conflated with the gift-bringing Santa Claus. As there are many possible names for the holiday he represents, Feader Yule may also be called Feader Cristmess or Feader Kerstfeest, for example. In addition, his familial title may be swapped out for one signaling authority or age, producing variant names such as Keng Cristmess, Erchbishop Yule, and Elder Kerstfeest. At times, he may simply be called de Yuleman or de Cristmessman.

Sant Nickolaes or Santeclaes may be synonymous with Feader Yule as well, but often traditionally refer instead to a folkloric gift-bringer who comes around on December 5th/6th and is associated with the historical St. Nicholas of Myra. The Christ Child or Baby Jesus is not commonly featured as a holiday gift-bringer in Thedish folklore, but may occasionally appear alongside Feader Yule or Santeclaes as de Cristling.

Jack Puik /ˈd͡ʒak ˈpœʏ̯k/
(Proper) Noun:
1. a figure who acts as a benevolent companion of and assistant to Santa Claus, Father Christmas, or Saint Nicholas
2. (dated) a more malevolent companion of Saint Nicholas, akin to Knecht Ruprecht, Krampus, Belsnickel, etc.

Etymology
From Jack, borrowed from English Jack, + puik "goblin, hobgoblin, fairy, sprite", from Old Thedish pūca, from Proto-Germanic *pūkô.
Usage notes
Traditionally, the figure known as Jack Puik was the more mischievous, if not outright malicious or violent, counterpart of Feader Yule or Santeclaes. However, especially in recent decades, he has come to be more commonly portrayed as an equally jolly companion and/or employee of the old man, essentially a Christmas elf. Although Jack Puik has become his most common moniker, the character has gone by a variety of names over the years and in different regions, and even to this day, two neighboring towns may prefer to call him entirely different things. Other common given names applied to this figure include Jaen, Shoan, Yonnas, Reb, Pite, Lars, and Nick. Other possible surnames include Goedman, Wyt, Cove, Bedge, and Gobbelyn.

Example sentence:
Feader Yule en Jack Puik hes in de wyk an her slide riden, durgh ne toom ef yeit en reinduers tretchen werdend.
/ˈfɛːdər ˈjyːl ɛn ˈd͡ʒak ˈpœʏ̯k hɛs ɪn də ˈwʌɪ̯k an hɛr ˈsliːd ˈriːdən | dʊrx nə ˈtoːm ɛf ˈjɛɪ̯t ɛn ˈrɛɪ̯nˌdyːrs ˈtrɛt͡ʃən ˈwɛrdənd/
[ˈfɛːdəɾ ˈjyːl‿ə̃n ˈd͡ʒæk̚ ˈpʰœʏ̯k̚ həs‿ɨ̃n‿nə ˈwʌɪ̯k‿ə̃n həɾ ˈsliːd ˈɾiːdə̃n | dɨɾ nə ˈtʰõːm‿əf ˈjɛɪ̯t‿ə̃n ˈɾɛ̃ɪ̯̃nˌdyːɾs ˈtɾ̥ɛt͡ʃə̃n ˈwɛɾdə̃nd]
Feader Yule en Jack Puik he-s in de wyk an her slide rid-en, durgh ne toom ef yeit en reinduer-s tretch-ed werd-end
Father Christmas and Jack Puck have.PRES-PRES in DEF village on 3p.GEN sleigh ride-PST.PTCP, by INDEF team of goat.PL and reindeer-PL pull-PST.PTCP become-PRES.PTCP
Father Christmas and "Jack Puck" rode into town on their sleigh, pulled by a team of goats and reindeer.
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silvercat
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by silvercat »

Dammit, I will finish Lexember this year. To almost catch up, all the words I currently have for Ntukso, the language that invented the runes. Each of these are also the name of the rune/letter they start with.

10. oddo /ˈɔːd.dɔ/ (horse)
11. vjivrw /ˈvjɨːð.ɾu/ (person)
12. ikaha /ɨ.ˈka.haː/ (river)
13. moriaddr /nɔ.ˈrɨad.dɨ̥r/ (hall, home)
14. fwdis /θu.ˈdɨs/ (chicken)
15. rikaddvof /ˈrɨː.kaːd.ðɔθ/ (fire)
16. whsaivroʀ /uh.ˈsaɨːð.ɾɔʀ/ (boat)
17. damjss /da.ˈmiːz/ (day)
18. savis /ˈtsaː.vɨs/ (summer)
19. akksia /ˈaːk.sɨa/ (magic spell)
20. kiavsa /ˈkɨaːv.sa/ (food, meal)
21. bajbaharm /ˈbai.ba.haːɾm/ (harvest)
22. jirss /ˈjɨɾz/ (night)
23. ʀosaok /ʀɔː.ˈsaɔk/ (tree, trunk)
24. hiriah /hɨː.ˈɾɨah/ (hunger, need)

That gets me almost caught up...
my pronouns: they/them or e/em/eirs/emself
Main conlang: Ŋyjichɯn. Other conlangs: Tsɑkø (naming language), Ie, Tynthna, Maanxmuʃt, Ylialis
All my conlangs
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qwed117
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 25th
thè1 /tʰɛ˧/ n gift
thè1-ang2 /tʰɛ˧aŋ˥/ v to give [of a gift]
prá3 /pɻaː˧˩˥/ n pine tree
haw2-yë4 /haw˥jɤ˩˥/ n star
mát3-o1 /maːt˧˩˥o˧/ n fragrance
röp2-miw3 /ɻəp˥miw˧˩/ adj silent


*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
rh̩₂s₁ adj energetic, excited, happy, joyful
Once you have a phoneme, you gotta use it, am I right?


Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
van˨˩ n 'typhoon' from Proto-Hlai *hwənɦ, cf. Nadouhua, Baoting van5, Ha Em, Tongzha, Zandui, Yuanmen van2, Changjiang, Moyfaw, Baisha vaŋ2

Sardinian
donu nm 'gift' from Latin DONUM, cf. Spanish don, Italian dono 'gift', Galician doa 'bead'

Didn't want to leave all the Christmas themed entries for *after* Christmas
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

The SqwedgePad
Iyionaku
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Lexember 26th - Yélian

cena [ˈkeːnɐ] - to praise, commend
Etymology: cross-derivation from the root *(l)cn-, cognates include locan "much", can "for", cenia "to be worth" or loclém "banqueting hall, royal hall"

Barcai tan ivabarcei? Væt, cenai sao ravel, cut ciletarai pi bei verdelota.
[ˈbaɾkaɪ̯ tan ɨʋɐˈbaɾkɛɪ̯? vœt, ˈkeːnaɪ̯ saʊ̯ ˈɾaːʋəl, kʉt‿ɨləˈtaːɾaɪ̯ pi bɛɪ̯ ˈveɾdəˌloːta]
ask-1SG 3SG.FEM.OBL VOL-ask-2SG? INTJ, praise-1SG 2SG.POSS courage, but NEG-believe-1SG that have-2SG chance-big
Do you want to ask her? Well I commend your courage, but I don't think you stand much of a chance.

Bonus word :esp:

nieve [ˈnjeβe] - snow
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

26m Decembr
scaumel /xoˈmɛl/ [xʊˈmɛw] pen, stylus, writing implement; pipe, duct; whistle, (in apposition) woodwind; drinking straw
< attested since the thirteenth century in early Middle Boral scaumel /ʃauˈmɛl/ “reed pen, quill pen”. This comes from late Old Norman chaumel “reed, rush; reed pen” (modern chalemeu “clarinet, pipe” with influence from more southerly forms), which reflects Late Latin calamellus “reed (pen)”, a diminutive of calamus “reed, cane, stalk, straw”. This in turn is a borrowing from Greek κᾰ́λᾰμος (kálamos) with the same sense, and so scaumel is cognate with calamon “aerial, antenna”, which is taken directly from the Greek. The non-writing senses date from the 17C and were probably absorbed from the French cognates on the continent.

Pos jo scaumel t'emprontar ? Mell'un es repars.
Could I borrow one of your pens? I’ve lost mine.
/ˈpɔz ʒo xoˈmɛl ˌtɛm.prɔnˈtar | meˈlɪn ɛz reˈparz/
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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Click
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Click »

I’ll post the last week’s Corcyran entries here.

Lexember 21st

Corcyran has got compounds which are just short verb phrases fused into a single word.

tınastope n. f.
tí‧na‧stó‧pe [ˌtiˑnɐˈstoˑpe̞]

1. corkscrew
— Univerbation of tına stope “pulls corks out”, see tınar “pull” and stopa “cork, stopper”. The word is grammatically singular in spite of containing a plural form.

Lexember 22nd

Most, if not all Romance languages innovated an /u/ in verb forms such as passive participles, e.g. French parvenu and Italian veduta. Corcyran went a step further and analogized that into a new conjugation – the fifth.
The main sources of 5th conjugation verbs are Latin -uī perfects and borrowings, with today’s word being one of them:

cunıur v. 5th
cú‧nıur [ˈkuˑnɪ͜ʊɹ]

1. cut hair
2. shear
— Borrowed from Greek κουρεύω and assigned to the fifth conjugation because of the labial environment: κουρεύ- /kuˈɾe.v-/.

Lexember 23rd

Sick of palatalization? You’ve come to the right place!

lachenda n. f.
la‧chèn‧da [lɐˈkɛ̃ndɐ]

1. chub mackerel (Scomber colias)
— Dalmatian substrate loanword originally from Latin lacerta “lizard”, also borrowed into Croatian as lokarda. Lack of palatalization reveals the source language as Dalmatian; compare capola “onion” from Lat. cēpulla.

Happy Lexember 24th - Christmas Eve!

Black risotto is traditionally eaten on Christmas Eve in the Corcyras. Other than that, it’s a well-loved staple of celebrations such as weddings.

meḷorızaro n. m.
me‧ḷo‧rı‧zà‧ro [me̞ɫo̞ɹɪˈzaˑɹo̞]

1. black risotto
— Composed from meḷaro rızaro, with the ending of the first word haplologized away. As meḷaro can also refer to ink, the etymology hints that the dish owes its distinctive color to squid ink.

Bor Nadıedàd!

amón n. f.
a‧món [ɐˈmõn]

1. love
— Latin amor, -ōris.

Lexember 26th

Lexember 26th starts the strange liminal period between Christmas and New Year’s Day, in which I’ll post only the most random stuff from the Corcyras.

lımasón n. m.
lı‧ma‧són [lɪmɐˈsõn]

1. limasoni – ribbon-shaped pasta, broader along the sides but narrower in the middle. Raw limasoni are coiled into spirals which slowly come undone as they cook. The texture is solid yet porous, making it ideal for thick sauces.
— Of unknown provenance. A possible source is lımaga “slug”, although the spiral shapes of uncooked limasoni resemble snails more than the other kind of gastropod. Phonology-wise, the gs correspondence is difficult to justify.

Lexember 27th

Submarine springs are an interesting landform found throughout the Corcyras; they are broadly common in limestone terrain. The local word is pozo.

pozo n. m.
pó‧zo [ˈpoˑzo̞]

1. submarine spring
— Inherited from Latin puteus “pit; well, cistern”. The former meaning displaced by buya, borrowed from Venetian bugia, whereas the latter was covered by cestenda (from cisterna).
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Shemtov
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Shemtov »

Day 26:
Maillys: "Llabhyucháll"
1. The 10 deities of the main pantheon (these vary from place to place, but are always 10)
2. A deity who is a member of above

Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Tlapōcātl "A Deity, especially one that is the main one of a Shrine "
Bonus Momṭẓʿālemeōm word: Juēitz῾iḷapōcātl "The winged serpent deity, who commands dragon-angels, and is the God of Government, Power, and Luck"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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qwed117
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 26th
yòu2 /jɔu˥/ adj bad
ğil4 /ɰil˩˥/ adj good
khu2 /kʰu˥/ n wool
thác2-mö1 /tʰaːt͡ɕ˥mə˧/ n sky, air
khu2-ang4 /kʰu˥aŋ˩˥/ v to grow [in size, of an animal]
ruang2 /ruaŋ˥/ v to carry
-sua(1) /sua˧/ sfx denoting origin


*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
bˀr̩- pfx evil, bad


Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
(h)han˨˩ n 'sun' from Proto-Hlai *hŋwən, cf. Cunhua hon4, Nadouhua vanʔ4 Bouhin ven1, Ha Em, Baoting van1, Tongzha, Zandui, Yuanmen van4, Moyfaw, Baisha vaŋ1

Sardinian
duene nm, nf 'gnome', a mythological creature said by some to be evil and by some to be good, also causes people to weaken and become thin from Spanish duende 'gnome', a mischievious mythological creature, from Old Spanish duen de casa 'master of the house',
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 26

Gán Vẽi (Entry 26):

hǒng /hoŋ˧˨˧/ (animate)
Noun:
1. god(ess), deity; a generally benevolent supernatural being
2. idol, icon; an earthly depiction of a deity
3. godhood, divinity
4. (figurative) any particularly powerful entity or concept
hǒng /hoŋ˧˨˧/ (comparative hǒng ma /hoŋ˧˨˧ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. godly, divine; of or pertaining to gods
2. of or pertaining to idols and icons
3. divine; of or pertaining to godhood
4. (figurative) powerful, influential
hǒng /hoŋ˧˨˧/ (causative xā hǒng /ɕa˥ hoŋ˧˨˧/)
Verb:
1. to act (of a god)
2. to deify
3. to worship, to venerate, to pray to
4. to idolize, to exalt, to honor, to praise
5. to depict (a god)

Etymology
From Old TBD hoohng "virtue, saintliness, purity, morality, beatitude", from Proto-TBD *xɔɔs "soul, spirit, essence, mind" + *sɤŋ "inheritance, allotment, wealth, riches".

Example sentence:
Ye céu mãu hǒng vóu lĩ hō.
/je˧ cew˩˧ maw˧˩ hoŋ˧˨˧ vow˩˧ li˧˩ ho˥/
[ʝeː˧ t͡ɕɛw˩˧ mɑw˧˩ ɦɔ̃ŋ˧˨˧ ʋɔw˩˧ ð̞iː˧˩ ɦoː˥]
ye céu mãu hǒng vóu lĩ=hō
PROX temple at god rain COP=DIR
This is the temple of the rain goddess.

Thedish (Entry 26):

Widens Yaut /ˈwiːdəns ˈjaʊ̯t/ (plural Widens Yautes /ˈwiːdəns ˈjaʊ̯t(ə)s/)
Noun:
1. (folklore) the Wild Hunt
2. (figurative) north wind
3. (figurative) winter storm, blizzard
4. (figurative) a strong, loud gust of wind, especially during the winter
5. (informal, dated) a particularly raucous hunting party or other group
6. (figurative, rare) the afterlife

Alternative forms
Weddens Yaut, Wends Yaut, Widensyaut, Weddensyaut, Wendsyaut
Etymology
From Widens, the genitive form of Widen "Odin, Woden, Wotan", + yaut "hunt, hunting, chase, pursuit".
Widen is from Old Thedish Wēden or Wōeden, from Proto-Germanic *Wōdinaz, a variant of *Wōdanaz.
yaut is from Old Thedish jagaþ or jagōþ, from "Proto-West Germanic" *jagōþu.
Usage notes
Sense 1 is typically uncountable, but exceptions may be encountered in, for example, discussions of comparative mythology. Sense 6 is found almost exclusively in the phrase Widens Yaut joindern "to join the Wild Hunt", euphemistically referring to death. Whether this is meant to sound like a desirable or undesirable fate depends on the context.
Spoiler:
Four cases - nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative - were present in Old Thedish. By the beginning of the "Middle Thedish" period, however, the nominative and accusative had already merged, and the dative likewise fell out of use as a morphologically distinct case shortly thereafter. The genitive - by then typically only distinguished from the nominative/accusative/dative in the singular - stuck around for a while longer, so to speak, but gradually "lost ground" to constructions involving prepositions like ef, fram, or fan. At first, sufficiently "animate" possessors could still take the morphological genitive case, but for all other nouns, possession had to be expressed periphrastically. Eventually, the morphological genitive only remained in use for nouns referring to human beings. Now, in most varieties of the modern language, only personal pronouns retain distinct nominative, "oblique", and genitive/"possessive" forms. Nevertheless, the genitive suffix -s survives on nouns in certain fixed expressions, such Widens Yaut - as opposed to de Yaut ef Widen. Such expressions often preserve irregularities as well, mostly "stem changes" that analogy would have eliminated elsewhere by the time the morphological genitive became archaic. Therefore, variants such as Weddens Yaut or Wends Yaut - the latter resembling Wendsday "Wednesday" and several place names with the element Wends - may occasionally be found.

As with many elements of traditional folklore, the Wild Hunt may be known by different names in different regions. Widens Yaut or (de) Norders Yaut - casting a personified North Wind as the party's leader - are particularly common in the north and west, while the south and east tend to prefer names referencing Christian "villains", such as Herodes Yaut, Cains Yaut, or de Duivels Yaut. Occasionally, the head huntsman may be a mythological king instead, resulting in variants such as Arthures Yaut, Elvrys Yaut, or de Alderkengs Yaut. In addition, yaut may be swapped out for hunt, duwt "host, horde, army", or hundes "hounds, dogs", while the leader's name may be replaced or followed by an adjective, often wild, fremmed "bizarre, strange", rerend "roaring, bellowing", or huilend "howling, hollering".
couderling /ˈkɔʊ̯dərlɪŋ/ (plural couderlings /ˈkɔʊ̯dərlɪŋs/)
Noun:
1. a benevolent or neutral household spirit or god
2. a malevolent or mischievous spirit outside of the home

Alternative forms
codderling, cocgedling, covederling, covouderling, coverling
Etymology
From some uncertain element (see below) + -er "agent suffix" + -ling "diminutive suffix".
-er is from Old Thedish -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz.
-ling is from Old Thedish -lenġ, from Proto-Germanic *-ilingaz.
Spoiler:
The most widely accepted theory is that the initial element derives from Old Thedish cofagod "household god/spirit", from Proto-Germanic *kubô + *gudą, akin to Old English cofgod and equivalent to modern cove "nook, chamber, alcove, shed, closet" + god "god". The expected reflex of Old Thedish cofagod [ˈkovaˌgod] would simply be covegod /ˈkoːvˌgɔd/, but proponents of this theory suggest that, as Christianization progressed, speakers of Old Thedish retained their belief in household spirits, but no longer felt comfortable referring to them as "gods". As a result, cofagod was no longer treated as a compound, coming to be pronounced as [ˈkovagod] or [ˈkovaɣod]. In Middle Thedish, these could have become [ˈkɔvgəd], [ˈkɔːvəwd], [ˈkɔːvəd], or [ˈkɔvd]. coud- /ˈkɔʊ̯d/, codd- /ˈkɔd/, cocged- /ˈkɔg(ə)d/, coved- /ˈkoːv(ə)d/, and covoud- /ˈkoːvɔʊ̯d/ are thus derived from these later forms, rather than directly from OTh. cofagod /ˈkovaˌgod/. It is not unprecedented for Old Thedish compounds to have later been reanalyzed as single roots, and words like hauk /ˈhaʊ̯k/ "hawk" and houd /ˈhɔʊ̯d/ "head" - from Old Thedish hafoc [ˈhavok] and hōafod [ˈhɔːvod], from Proto-Germanic *habukaz and *haubudą - are offered as evidence for [Vv(V)C] > [Vʊ̯C] elsewhere in the language. However, none of the proposed intermediary forms are attested in writing from the Middle Thedish period, and as it only appears once or twice in written records, some doubt that cofagod was ever actually used in spoken Old Thedish.

Opponents of this theory have also questioned the notion that speakers chose to stop analyzing cofagod as a compound containing god for cultural reasons, calling it unrealistic. Instead, a common alternative proposal is that the initial element of couderling derives from a compound of OTh. cofa + hold, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz and equivalent to modern hold /ˈhɔld/ "faithful, reliable, trustworthy, congenial". This would make couderling etymologically similar to, and possibly influenced by, Dutch kabouter and German Kobold. The theory is that OTh. cofahold [ˈkovaˌhold] became MTh. [ˈkɔːvəld] or [ˈkɔld], resulting in modern covoud- /ˈkoːvɔʊ̯d/, coved- /ˈkoːv(ə)d/, and coud- /ˈkɔʊ̯d/. However, this fails to account for the other variants. The first element coverling /ˈkoːvərlɪŋ/ is likely descended from Old Thedish cofa alone, but this still ignores codd- and cocged-. In addition, coda [l]-vocalization and intervocalic [v]-loss are historically uncharacteristic sound changes for the dialects associated with the variant coud- /ˈkɔʊ̯d/, and no explanation has been given for the reduction of the diphthong in coved- /ˈkoːv(ə)d/. Nevertheless, this may be the actual etymology of covouderling, which originates from a dialect showing (relatively) more influence from Dutch than most other varieties.
Numerous other attempts have been made to connect the initial element of couderling to a variety of different words - mostly from Proto-Germanic, Proto-Celtic, Old Norse, or Old French - but none of these have been very well-received.

Example sentence:
Uir couderling hes uis forleaten, med ne welkry fan Widens Yaut te huy.
/œʏ̯r ˈkɔʊ̯dərlɪŋ hɛs œʏ̯s fɔrˈlɛːtən | mɛd nə ˈwɛlkrʌɪ̯ fan ˈwiːdəns ˈjaʊ̯t tə ˈhœʏ̯/
[ʔøɾ ˈkʰɔʊ̯dəɾlɨ̃ŋ həs‿øs fəɾˈlɛːtə̃n | məd nə ˈwɛɫkɾe fə̃n ˈwiːdə̃ns ˈjaʊ̯t̚ tə ˈhœʏ̯]
uir couderling he-s uis forleat-en, med ne welkry fan Widen-s Yaut te huy-Ø
1p.GEN household_spirit have.PRES-PRES 1p.OBL leave-PST.PTCP, with INDEF valkyrie from Odin-GEN hunt to marry-S.INF
Our house spirit left us to get married to a valkyrie from the Wild Hunt.

I really got carried away a few times there. I've put the longer paragraphs under spoilers.
Iyionaku
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Posts: 1779
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Lexember 27th - Yélian

acadsóline [aːkɐdˈsoːlɨnə] - civil war
Etymology: acad "citizen-, national, people's" + sóline "war"

Æn'acadsólinæméricanian yiperblodut aquis an'acadienartodan yicivuvʻi an'acadie liyd deo valarnúm yivaglobet æ'crayosé.
[ənˌaːkɐdˈsoːlɨnəˈmeːɾɨkɐnɪ̯ɐn ɕɨpəɾˈbloːdʉt ˈaːkɨs ɐnɐˈkaːdɪ̯əˌnaɾtɔ̈dɐn ɕɨkɨˈʋuʋʔi ɐnɐˈkaːdɪ̯ə la̯iːd ˈdeː.ɔ̈ ˌvalɐɾˈnuːm ɕɨʋɐˈgloːbət əˌkraːʃɔ̈ˈseː]
DEF.CONC=civil_war-American PST-INGR-fight-INV.3SG.INAN after DEF.ANIM=state-southern-PL PST-leave-3PL DEF.ANIM=state because REF_OBJ.OBL government PST-VOL-prohibit-3SG DEF.CONC=slavery
The American civil war started after the Southern states left the union, because the latter's government wanted to abandon slavery.

Bonus word :esp:

barro [baro] - mud
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

27m Decembr
from Y Gið Scos por Ausbagn (The Secret Guide to Ausbagn), sold in 1967 for 1⍚ in the Calder Museum of Health’s leavingstore.
Por sgart laðessem, Ausbagn ag siecr docem ados fay veraçter cort dy Jarlað Sothbaran ; a 1190 saut es Jarl Steign asseye l'annað enter ag bourg coster, y majon veil a Heitriç tramettent ag fraðr jundr.
For context, the Ausbagn of the late twelfth century is the de facto seat of the County of Sothbar; by 1190 Count Steven is known to have resided year-round in the coastal town, bequeathing the old house in Heitriç to his younger brother.

Ausbagn se situant all'un cost dy Stuer Rustig surcou ant valour eðegler immens, cos militer e marcer y dou.
The location of Ausbagn on one side of the Rustigh Strait proved to be of immense strategic value, both militarily and economically.

Y Grant Delug Fly ne 1171 landau y largeç de Frigs Bas apart, e devastau Willemy enter.
The Great Flie Flood of 1171 swept away much of Lower Frisia, and was devastating for all of Willemy.

L'oc no sta mendrem dec y Duc, luy Lovis y Haut, sta n'Amstel ig moment, eð er occis par y delug.
This was not least because the Duke, one Lovis the Tall, was in Amstel at the time, and was killed in the deluge.

Toð cas final, Ausbagn sta dezein plusour apres l'ouçon fagl de havan por y marcant calscon najant des l'eðegl dannesc tras y domain drengoçan vars Spagn e l'aur dy Miterran.
In any case, Ausbagn was for several decades afterward the obvious choice of harbour for any trader moving from the Danish lands through the Drengot domain and onward to Spain and the riches of the Middlesea.
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
Khemehekis
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Khemehekis »

This week's theme in the LCV:

TIME (Part IV)
Spoiler:
time
time (took a long ~)
time (as resource: waste ~)
time (spare time: Jim doesn’t have ~ to play video games)
long (time)
short (time)
long (journey)
short (journey)
range (of time)
brief
temporary
permanent
temporary (job)
permanent (job)
eternal, everlasting
current (day, year)
current (event)
current (price)
current (girlfriend, boyfriend)
ongoing (investigation)
ongoing (project)
ongoing (situation)
ongoing (debate)
recent
time (of day, such as 9:20 p.m.)
time (we’ll meet at this ~)
date
period
period, era, time, age
moment, point (particular point in time)
moment (very short period of time)
second (or equivalent)
minute (or equivalent)
quarter (of an hour)
half (of an hour)
hour (or equivalent)
day (from midnight to midnight)
day (any consecutive 24 hours)
week (or equivalent) (from midnight Sunday to midnight Sunday or midnight Monday to midnight Monday)
week (or equivalent) (any consecutive 7 days)
month (e.g. June 1 to June 30)
month (any consecutive 28-31 days)
season
year (from January 1 to December 31)
year (any completed year, e.g. August 25, 1980 to August 25, 1981: 19 ~s old)
decade
century
millennium
night (in hotel)
weekend
middle (of day, week, night, winter)
dawn
morning (early morning)*
morning (late morning)*
day, daytime*
noontime (about 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.)
afternoon
evening*
night*
midnight (12:00 midnight)
a.m., morning (midnight to noon)
noon (12:00 noon)
p.m. (noon to midnight)
spring
summer
autumn, fall
winter
day (I had a busy ~)
anniversary
anniversary (of death)
delay
past (distant past)
past (recent past)
present
future (near future)
future (distant future)
lifetime (time a person is alive)
eternity
eve
to mark (represent: this ~s ten years)
to approach (draw near)
to come (time, summer)
to pass (elapse)
instant
immediate (~ effect)
immediate (~ consequences)
immediate (concerns, problems, needs)
gradual
quick
sudden
slow (reply)
quick (reply)
due (when is Heather’s baby ~?)
early
early (of bus or train)
on time, punctual
on time, punctual (of bus or train)
late
late (of bus or train)
early (in the day)
late (in the day)
early (~ September)
late (~ September)
early (in her ~ twenties)
late (in his ~ twenties)
early (in a series: one of the band’s ~est hits)
late (in a series: one of his ~est experiments)
in between (in time)
remote (distant in time)
remote (~ past, ~ future)
beginning (of month/year)
end (of month/year)
spare (~ time)
done, through
former (~ life)
former (~ student)
former, ex- (~ girlfriend)
former (~ Soviet Union)
over (the reign of Pol Pot is ~)
ancient
modern
old-fashioned
modern (car, chair, technology)
classic (book, film)
classic (Tom’s ~ white T-shirt)
contemporary (of the same era)
contemporary (present-day)
to update
to update (file, records)
long-term (effects, prospects, future)
short-term (effects, prospects, future)
long-term (memory)
short-term (memory)
long-term (plans, strategy, solution)
short-term (plans, strategy, solution)
long-term (contract)
short-term (contract
daily (every day)
weekly (every week)
monthly (every month)
annual (every year)
daily (once a day)
weekly (once a week)
monthly (once a month)
annual (once a year)
daily (computed once a day)
weekly (computed once a week)
monthly (computed once a month)
annual (computed once a year)
daily (published daily)
weekly (published weekly)
monthly (published monthly)
annual (published annually)
MORE TIME (Part V)
Spoiler:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
dusk, twilight
to rise (of the sun)
to set (of the sun)
sunset
up (the sun is ~)
down (the sun is ~)
duration
duration (of a film)
New Year’s Day
Passover
Easter
Christmas
Chanukkah
hourglass
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 67,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
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qwed117
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Weekly Wrap Up
Like the past weeks, I'm just gonna give some appreciative comments to everyone who participated in Week 4 (by order of first participation in the week). I won't be doing this next week, but just a general congratulatory post. I'm a bit strapped for time, so sorry if my comments are short. I hope I didn't miss anyone

Davush:
Spoiler:
Davush wrote: 23 Dec 2020 13:41 22 and 23

puru 'leg'

purui- 'to run (away)' (from puru + i to move away)
puruma- 'to run towards'(from puru + ma to move towards)

Puruisa samoote
run-go-PST-3sg mountain-OBL
'He ran (away from here) to the mountain'

paki- 'to ascend, go up'
peema- 'to ascend, come up'

Peemarea samoote nuuse
ascend-come-IRR-3PL mountain-OBL moon-OBL
'They will come up the mountain at night'
I really love how this langauge looks, especially the long vowels, which remind me of Finnic languages. It really looks cool!
shimobaatar:
Spoiler:
shimobaatar wrote: 21 Dec 2020 22:08 Day 21

Gán Vẽi (Entry 21):

kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. (inanimate) hell; the realm of demons and the damned
2. (animate, collective) demons, evil spirits
3. (inanimate) hell, inferno, perdition, (unpleasant) afterlife
4. (inanimate) cave, cave system
5. (animate) subterranean ecosystem, cave ecosystem
6. (inanimate, informal) pain, suffering, agony
7. (animate, collective, informal) bandits, gang members, gangsters, mobsters, mafiosi
8. (animate, informal) earthquake, seismic activity
9. (inanimate, informal) a particularly dense forest or steep mountain
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (comparative kỏu ma /kow˨˩˨ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. hellish, infernal; of or pertaining to hell
2. demonic, devilish, evil; of or pertaining to evil spirits
3. of or pertaining to an unpleasant afterlife
4. cavernous; of or pertaining to caves
5. subterranean, underground; of or pertaining to the ecosystem of a cave
6. (informal) painful, suffering, in agony
7. (informal) of or pertaining to organized crime
8. (informal) seismic; of or pertaining to earthquakes
9. (informal) dense, steep, difficult to traverse (of a forest or mountain)
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (causative xā kỏu /ɕa˥ kow˨˩˨/)
Verb:
1. to work, to act, to cause trouble (of demons)
2. (informal) to be in prison
3. (rare) to explore underground, to go spelunking
4. (rare) to mine, to dig, to prospect
5. (rare) to live in a cave, to live underground, to hibernate (of animals)
6. (informal) to suffer, to be in pain, to be in a state of agony
7. (informal) to raid, to rob, to plunder, to extort, to racketeer
8. (informal) to shake (of the earth)
9. (rare, informal) to have a difficult time traveling
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/
Preposition:
1. (dated, poetic, rare) below, under; lower than
2. (dated, poetic, rare) under; spanning from below
3. (dated, poetic, rare) beneath, under, underneath; cradling, supporting, covering from below
4. (dated, poetic, rare) below, beneath, under, underneath; falling short of

Etymology
From Old TBD goo "hell, cave, ground, soil", from Proto-TBD *gɔɔ "earth, ground".
...

Example sentence:
Kỏu mãu dũp da ye gỏm pé sīp ngàt yé.
/kow˨˩˨ maw˧˩ ɗup˧˩ ɗa˧ je˧ ɣom˨˩˨ pe˩˧ sip˥ ŋat˥˧ je˩˧/
[kɔw˨˩˨ mɑw˧˩ ɗ̪ʊp̚˧˩ ɗ̪aː˧ ʝeː˧ ɣɔ̃m˨˩˨ peː˩˧ sɪp̚˥ ŋat̪̚˥˧ ʝeː˩˧]
kỏu mãu dũp da ye gỏm=pé sīp ngàt=yé
hell at night area PROX 3s.HAB=bark roam love=HSY
Demons love to roam around and wail at night around here, they say.

Thedish (Entry 21):

yeighel /ˈjɛɪ̯xəl/ (plural yeighels /ˈjɛɪ̯xəls/)
Noun:
1. (dated) party, celebration, social gathering
2. feast, feast day, holiday (especially a minor or local one)
3. fair, fest, fête, festival, fundraiser, event
4. fairgrounds
5. fair, funfair, carnival, circus
6. farmers' market, Christmas market
7. (informal) birthday, name day, anniversary
8. jubilee

Alternative forms
yiyghel, yeeghel
Etymology
From Old Thedish jehhel, from Proto-Germanic *jehwlą. Compare Finnish juhla.
Usage notes
In theory, any holiday could be called a yeighel, but the term is more likely to be applied to minor feast days and local celebrations characteristic of particular towns or regions. Speakers may refer to major holidays this way in order to emphasize their personal connections to these celebrations or to indicate that they are specifically referring to the particular traditions of their family or town surrounding that holiday.

Frequently, yeighel refers to generally secular events, especially those that are small-scale, community-organized, and open to the public. It is also commonly used for traveling fairs, carnivals, circuses, and other kinds of amusement-oriented exhibitions, as well as for seasonal markets and periodic agricultural events.

Sense 1, referring to a private party or more intimate social gathering, is decidedly dated and likely to sound pretentious to modern ears if the speaker using yeighel in this sense fails to adequately convey their humorous intent. Sense 7 is more likely to refer to, for instance, the date on which someone was born than an event in celebration of someone's birthday.

yuel /ˈjyːl/ (plural yuels /ˈjyːls/)
Noun:
1. Christmas, Christmas day
2. Christmastime, Christmastide, Yuletide, the 12 days of Christmas
3. (archaic) December
4. (archaic, rare) January
5. the winter solstice
6. midwinter
7. (historical, Germanic paganism) Yule, Yuletide
8. (neopaganism) Yule, Yuletide
9. (rare) any midwinter or winter solstice festival

Alternative forms
yule, Yuel, Yule
Etymology
From Old Thedish jēol, from Proto-Germanic *jeulō, the nominative/vocative/accusative plural form of *jehwlą. Compare English Yule, Icelandic jól, Faroese jól, Finnish joulu.
Usage notes
When referring to a particular holiday or period of time, Yuel is often capitalized. It it still accepted as a name for the Christian holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus, although names containing Crist /ˈkrɪst/ or Kerst /ˈkɛrst/ - such as Cristmess /ˈkrɪstˌmɛs/, Kerstfeest /ˈkɛrstˌfeːst/, Cristday /ˈkrɪstˌdaɪ̯/, Kerstnaut /ˈkɛrstˌnaʊ̯t/, or Cristtyd /ˈkrɪstˌtʌɪ̯d/ - are more common. Compounds like Kerstyeighel /ˈkɛrstˌjɛɪ̯xəl/ or Cristyuel /ˈkrɪstˌjyːl/ are not unheard of. In any case, Yuel remains far more common than any of the rare alternative names for Christmas borrowed from Celtic or Romance languages, such as Noel /ˈnuːl/, Nowell /nɔʊ̯ˈɛl/, or Nadly /ˈnadlʌɪ̯/.

Example sentence:
Yuel is myn favorite yeighel! … Is det pletch?
/ˈjyːl ɪs mʌɪ̯n favɔˈriːt ˈjɛɪ̯xəl || ɪs dɛt ˈplɛt͡ʃ/
[ˈjyːɫ‿s mẽɱ ˌfaˑvəˈɾiːt̚ ˈjeːχəɫ || ɨz dət̚ ˈpl̥ɛt͡ʃ]
yuel is-Ø myn favorite yeighel || is-Ø det pletch
Christmas be.PRES-PRES 1s.GEN favorite holiday || be.PRES-PRES that boring
Christmas is my favorite holiday! … Is that boring?

yeighel and yuel are similar to wheighel "(steering) wheel" and whuel "wheel, tire", the words I used on December 2nd, in that both pairs consist of one word derived from the nominative singular form of a Proto-Germanic word - wheighel from *hwehwlą and yeighel from *jehwlą - and another derived from the nominative plural form of the same word - whuel from *hweulō and yuel from *jeulō. Most modern languages with reflexes of these words seem to have preserved the originally plural forms, although since Icelandic and Faroese apparently have reflexes of *hwehwlą and *hweulō as separate words, I was inspired to do the same for this language, but to try making the resulting pair of words even more semantically distinct.

I knew I wanted to do something similar with yeighel and yuel, despite the fact that no Germanic natlangs seem to preserve reflexes of the originally singular *jehwlą. However, while putting this post together today, I discovered a pair of words in Finnish - juhla and joulu - which seem to have been borrowed from Germanic at different points and appear to reflect *jehwlą and *jeulō, respectively. In addition, the meanings of these words matched up pretty well with what I'd already had in mind for yeighel and yuel here, so… "ANADEW" or whatever the acronym is, I suppose!
I really like how, for the Gán Vẽi and Thedish entries, the citation form uses multiple forms, which reminds me of how a real dictionary (and natural languages work). I also find the etymological route of yeighel to be interesting as well. A Natlang Already Does (Except Weirder) indeed! Always good to know you're within the bounds of naturalism.
Dormouse559:
Spoiler:
Dormouse559 wrote: 22 Dec 2020 08:08 21 lexembre - Iluhsa

Building on what I said yesterday about Iluhsa, I decided on the cardinal numbers. I'm doing a combination of base-14 and base-28. The numbers 1-4 behave mainly like adjectives in that the noun they modify is the head of the phrase. In contrast, higher numbers are more noun‑y, becoming the head of the phrase they appear in while the noun takes the genitive case. These higher numbers also have two forms: one for counting and another for quantifying nouns (I'll list those forms below in that order).

So here are the main numbers I have. I'll put some examples below:

1 - délit
2 - ani
3 - kèiru
4 - žugi
5 - ként, kinétsa
6 - satu, satura
7 - tér, térza
8 - karélti, karéltira
9 - andi, andira
10 - žim, žizza
11 - bòuð, boudétsa
12 - sahin, sahézza
13 - rin, rizza
14 - tabud, bódza

28 - kallunu, kallónura
56 - anunu, anónura
84 - kèirunu, keirónura
112 - žugunu, žugónura
140 - kéntunu, kintónura
168 - satévunu, sativónura
196 - miþu, miþura


délit unid, ani und, undoġ kinétsa
[ˈdelit ˈunid | ˈani ˈund | ˈundoŋ kiˈnetsa]
délit unid | ani und | und-òġ ként-za
one egg.SG | two egg.PAUC | egg-GEN five.ABS-PRED

one egg, two eggs, five eggs

Taġuivituk délto undo. Taġuivituk anio undo. Taġuivituk undoġ kéntora.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈdelto ˈundo | taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈani̯o ˈundo | taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ ˈkentora]
taġu-évit-k délit-òu unid-òu | taġu-évit-k ani-òu und-òu | taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-òu-za
see-PFV-1S.NOM one-DAT egg-DAT | see-PFV-1S.NOM two-DAT egg-DAT | see-PFV-1S.NOM egg-GEN five-DAT-PRED

I saw one egg. I saw two eggs. I saw five eggs. (declension example, dative)


kéntunu tabud andéhus
[ˈkentunu ˈtabud anˈdehus]
ként-unu tabud andi-hus
five-twenty_eight fourteen nine-and

one hundred sixty-three (counting form; 5 × 28 + 14 + 9)

undoġ kintónura bódza andéhus
[ˈundoŋ kinˈtonura ˈbodza anˈdehus]
und-òġ ként-ónu-za bód-za andi-hus
egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-PRED fourteen-PRED nine-and

one hundred sixty-three eggs (quantifying form)

Taġuivituk undoġ kintónuora bódora andéhus.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ kinˈtonu̯ora ˈbodora anˈdehus]
taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-ónu-òu-za bód-òu-za andi-hus
see-PFV-1S.NOM egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-DAT-PRED fourteen-DAT-PRED nine-and

I saw one hundred sixty-three eggs. (declension example, dative)
I think this use of numerals is really cool! That's a part of languages that I usually ignore far too much. I think it's interesting that the numerals are more noun like and take the genitive of the noun. I also find the mixed base-14/base-28 numeral system to be interesting, similar to French.
Iyionaku:
Spoiler:
Iyionaku wrote: 23 Dec 2020 10:56 Lexember 23rd - Yélian

ulapèsa [ˌuːlɐˈpɛsa] - to curse
Etymology: from ula "curse" + pèsa "to cast, cast upon", coined from the preposition pès "to, towards, indirect object marker"

Additional new words for the example sentence:
Spoiler:
apua [ɐˈpuː.a] - to work on sth. focused for a long time, while being stuck
Etymology: apua "to sit"; The idea is that you're just sitting there, you try to progress but you just can't. I used the word in this context in Lexember 2019 already, but only now formalized its usage.

espèral [əsˈpɛrɐl] - expense
Etymology: from espèra "to spend" + nominalization suffix -l

tanisé o'masacad [tɐnɨˈseː ɔ̈mɐˈsaːkɐd] - tax law
Etymology: "law of taxes"
Adésapuai pur edutsani perta liyd reo espèraun o'pídedal. Ulapèsai æ'taniséogor o'masacad!
[ɐˌdeːsɐˈpuː.aɪ̯ pʉd̟ ˈeːdʉt͡sɐni ˈpeɾta la̯iːd ˈɾeː.o əsˈpɛɾaʊ̯n ɔ̈ˈpiːdədɐl. ˌuːlɐˈpɛsaɪ̯ ətɐnɨˈseːˌoːgɔ̈d̟ ɔ̈mɐˈsaːkɐd]
already-sit-1SG for hour-PL-ENUM four because_of 1SG.POSS expense-PL DEF.GEN=transport | curse-1SG DEF.CONC=law-damned DEF.GEN=tax
I've been stuck here for four hours already because of my travel expenses. I curse the f*ing tax law!
I really love the example sentence here! It doesn't sound like a stilted example sentence, but like something that a person, perhaps a businessman stuck at an airport shouting over the phone, would say.
Shemtov:
Spoiler:
Shemtov wrote: 24 Dec 2020 06:55 Day 22:
Maillys: "Féśyll" "Dragon (guardian of the underworld)"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Juēitz῾iḷ"Dragon (Angels of the Winged Serpent Deity)"

Day 23:
Maillys: "Gyurr" "Little Person; Goblin"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Ceōtl "Minor Demon"

Day 24:
Maillys: "Muryth" "Libation Altar"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Mōlitʿa "Shrine"
Cool to see you fleshing out the mythology of the cultures while also adding words to the languages. The differences between the languages are interesting.
Jackk:
Spoiler:
Jackk wrote: 26 Dec 2020 16:41 26m Decembr
scaumel /xoˈmɛl/ [xʊˈmɛw] pen, stylus, writing implement; pipe, duct; whistle, (in apposition) woodwind; drinking straw
< attested since the thirteenth century in early Middle Boral scaumel /ʃauˈmɛl/ “reed pen, quill pen”. This comes from late Old Norman chaumel “reed, rush; reed pen” (modern chalemeu “clarinet, pipe” with influence from more southerly forms), which reflects Late Latin calamellus “reed (pen)”, a diminutive of calamus “reed, cane, stalk, straw”. This in turn is a borrowing from Greek κᾰ́λᾰμος (kálamos) with the same sense, and so scaumel is cognate with calamon “aerial, antenna”, which is taken directly from the Greek. The non-writing senses date from the 17C and were probably absorbed from the French cognates on the continent.

Pos jo scaumel t'emprontar ? Mell'un es repars.
Could I borrow one of your pens? I’ve lost mine.
/ˈpɔz ʒo xoˈmɛl ˌtɛm.prɔnˈtar | meˈlɪn ɛz reˈparz/
I love seeing more of Boral, I really find the language to be exceptional. I also love how you've been putting detail into the IPA pronunciations, with the (semi)vocalization of /l/ and the raising of the vowel /o/. Boral is definitely one of the coolest languages, and I hope to see more pronunciation stuff with Boral.
KaiTheHomoSapien:
Spoiler:
KaiTheHomoSapien wrote: 24 Dec 2020 19:10
qwed117 wrote: 21 Dec 2020 00:12 For some reason vépos distinctly reminds me of Finnish and Estonian, so I think it's pretty cool that it's primarily used in the allative. I love the mix of aesthetics this language is developing.
I remember when I first introduced Lihmelinyan, you said the name sounded Finnish/Estonian. (It does bear a stunning resemblance to the Finnish word ihmeellinen which means "wonderful". Coincidence? I like to think it's a folk etymology. :P)

20th

Katéstā - name of goddess. Katesta is the nature goddess, associated with the color green and the spring time. The Arculese city Katéstavōr (located in the Sélbis region) is named for her. (-vōr is a suffix found in city names ultimately derived from a word for "city", vórom). The Mantians believe the gods come down to earth to test or help people; Katéstā is said to often take the form of a young woman or girl in the woods in shimmering white dress illuminated by sunlight. According to legend, if you see her and try to follow her, she's impossible to catch up with but you'll find she's led you to fresh water or a way out of the woods if you're lost.

21st

sarpāmi - I consecrate, dedicate, sacrifice

This common verb of religion has a few different meanings and is of obscure origin. It is somewhat archaic and appears mainly in formal and ritual texts.

22nd

siókos - masc. - temple

Cf. Lihmelinyan šákā

Example sentence: We walked to the temples of the city.

Siókōsde vórosjo língātomu.
temple-ALL.PL city-GEN.SG. walk-1.PL.PAST

23rd

daíkīr - masc. - priest
daíkrī - fem. - priestess (daikīr + -ī feminine suffix)

Cf. Lihmelinyan taíhēr

Example sentence: The priest consecrated the bread in the temple.

Dáikīr blétom siókei sárpād.
priest-NOM bread-ACC temple-LOC consecrate-3.SG.PAST

Note that Arculese has no augment and the verbs have been greatly reanalyzed in comparison with the archaic Lihmelinyan verbal system.

24th

Gelānnes - "Origins" (lit. "beginnings" from gelāmi "I begin") - name of one of the three principle religious texts used in the Mantian religion. The Book of Origins is primarily mythological and is the longest of the three books.
I really have loved seeing Arculese and Lihmelinyan over the last four weeks. It's a really interesting language. As I've mentioned before the aesthetics remind me of other languages, but yet it still manages to make its own flavour, like in dáikīr and siókei.
silvercat:
Spoiler:
silvercat wrote: 26 Dec 2020 02:31 Dammit, I will finish Lexember this year. To almost catch up, all the words I currently have for Ntukso, the language that invented the runes. Each of these are also the name of the rune/letter they start with.

10. oddo /ˈɔːd.dɔ/ (horse)
11. vjivrw /ˈvjɨːð.ɾu/ (person)
12. ikaha /ɨ.ˈka.haː/ (river)
13. moriaddr /nɔ.ˈrɨad.dɨ̥r/ (hall, home)
14. fwdis /θu.ˈdɨs/ (chicken)
15. rikaddvof /ˈrɨː.kaːd.ðɔθ/ (fire)
16. whsaivroʀ /uh.ˈsaɨːð.ɾɔʀ/ (boat)
17. damjss /da.ˈmiːz/ (day)
18. savis /ˈtsaː.vɨs/ (summer)
19. akksia /ˈaːk.sɨa/ (magic spell)
20. kiavsa /ˈkɨaːv.sa/ (food, meal)
21. bajbaharm /ˈbai.ba.haːɾm/ (harvest)
22. jirss /ˈjɨɾz/ (night)
23. ʀosaok /ʀɔː.ˈsaɔk/ (tree, trunk)
24. hiriah /hɨː.ˈɾɨah/ (hunger, need)

That gets me almost caught up...
I really love these words. The use of <ʀ> reminds me distinctly of Wikipedia's reconstruction of Proto-West Germanic (and presumably Old Norse/Northern Germanic which used these in runes). I also really like the way the letters don't have an exact correspondence to the phonemes, with <o> representing both /ɔ/ and /ɔː/. It feels naturalistic. Words like akksia are also faintly reminiscent of Finnish, which I like.
Click:
Spoiler:
Click wrote: 27 Dec 2020 00:36 I’ll post the last week’s Corcyran entries here.

Lexember 21st

Corcyran has got compounds which are just short verb phrases fused into a single word.

tınastope n. f.
tí‧na‧stó‧pe [ˌtiˑnɐˈstoˑpe̞]

1. corkscrew
— Univerbation of tına stope “pulls corks out”, see tınar “pull” and stopa “cork, stopper”. The word is grammatically singular in spite of containing a plural form.

Lexember 22nd

Most, if not all Romance languages innovated an /u/ in verb forms such as passive participles, e.g. French parvenu and Italian veduta. Corcyran went a step further and analogized that into a new conjugation – the fifth.
The main sources of 5th conjugation verbs are Latin -uī perfects and borrowings, with today’s word being one of them:

cunıur v. 5th
cú‧nıur [ˈkuˑnɪ͜ʊɹ]

1. cut hair
2. shear
— Borrowed from Greek κουρεύω and assigned to the fifth conjugation because of the labial environment: κουρεύ- /kuˈɾe.v-/.

Lexember 23rd

Sick of palatalization? You’ve come to the right place!

lachenda n. f.
la‧chèn‧da [lɐˈkɛ̃ndɐ]

1. chub mackerel (Scomber colias)
— Dalmatian substrate loanword originally from Latin lacerta “lizard”, also borrowed into Croatian as lokarda. Lack of palatalization reveals the source language as Dalmatian; compare capola “onion” from Lat. cēpulla.
...

Bor Nadıedàd!

amón n. f.
a‧món [ɐˈmõn]

1. love
— Latin amor, -ōris.

...
Lexember 27th

Submarine springs are an interesting landform found throughout the Corcyras; they are broadly common in limestone terrain. The local word is pozo.

pozo n. m.
pó‧zo [ˈpoˑzo̞]

1. submarine spring
— Inherited from Latin puteus “pit; well, cistern”. The former meaning displaced by buya, borrowed from Venetian bugia, whereas the latter was covered by cestenda (from cisterna).
This is really interesting! I haven't seen your stuff here in a while. I didn't know that you were working on a (at least, sort of) Romance language. I hope to see more of Corcyran in the future, especially with the interesting shifts between Latin. Pozo is very reminiscent of Spanish pozo, which retained the 'well' meaning to my knowledge.


Lexember 27th
ja1 /ɕa˧/ day

*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
s₃arsun- n 'ale, beer, mead'

Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
loʔ˥ n 'kiss' from Proto- Hlai *ɾjuːc 'kiss', cf. Bouhin, Ha Em zuːt7, Cunhua luːt, Lauhut ruːc, All Qi/Gei tut8, Moyfaw zuŋ2

Sardinian
scialema nf 'feast' related to Italian scialo, of unknown etymology, maybe from Latin EXALTO?
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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silvercat
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by silvercat »

Some Maanxmusht words that can be names (spelling the same as IPA)

25 lindalumd - first (ordinal + one)
26 liniwa - second (ordinal + two)
27 piuva - cold

Will be putting more details in my Thunlangs scrap thread
my pronouns: they/them or e/em/eirs/emself
Main conlang: Ŋyjichɯn. Other conlangs: Tsɑkø (naming language), Ie, Tynthna, Maanxmuʃt, Ylialis
All my conlangs
Conlanging blog posts
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Location: PA

Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 27

Gán Vẽi (Entry 27):

dũp /ɗup˧˩/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. night, nighttime
2. the night, the night sky, the darkness of night
3. midnight
4. dusk, twilight, sunset
5. early morning before the sunrise
6. (figurative) shadows, shade
dũp /ɗup˧˩/ (comparative dũp ma /ɗup˧˩ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. of or pertaining to night, nocturnal
2. dark (of the sky)
3. dusky, dim
4. setting (of the sun)
5. early (of the morning)
6. (figurative) shadowy, shady
dũp /ɗup˧˩/
Adverb:
1. at night
2. nightly, every night
3. tonight, this evening
4. last night
dũp /ɗup˧˩/ (causative xā dũp /ɕa˥ ɗup˧˩/)
Verb:
1. to set (of the sun)
2. to spend the night (somewhere or doing something)
3. to stay up at night
4. to go out at night

Etymology
From Old TBD duhp "darkness, dusk, night sky", from Proto-TBD *dus "peat, tar, pitch, coal" + *bow "sky, heaven".
Usage notes
dũp may be treated as animate when the night is being personified or if a writer or poet is trying to draw attention to the apparent downward motion of the sun in the evening.

Example sentence:
Dũp mãu lảng nám xè hō.
/ɗup˧˩ maw˧˩ laŋ˨˩˨ nam˩˧ ɕe˥˧ ho˥/
[ɗʊp̚˧˩ mɑw˧˩ ɫ̪ɑ̃ŋ˨˩˨ nɑ̃m˩˧ ɕeː˥˧ ɦoː˥]
dũp mãu lảng nám=xè=hō
night at house 1s.HAB=sleep=DIR
At night, I'm usually asleep at home.

Thedish (Entry 27):

ruimbry /ˈrœʏ̯mˌbrʌɪ̯/ (plural ruimbrys /ˈrœʏ̯mˌbrʌɪ̯s/)
Noun:
1. capital, capital city
2. the largest and/or most culturally influential city in a given country or region, regardless of its political status
3. the most important city for a particular field (art, cinema, music, fashion, science, religion, etc.)
4. (archaic) pilgrimage destination

Alternative forms
rumbry, ruimbrow, rumbrow, ruimburgh, rumburgh, ruimbergh (pl.), rumbergh (pl.)
Etymology
From Old Thedish Rūm "Rome", from Proto-Germanic *Rūmō, + burg or burh "city, fort, castle, stronghold", from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Compare Icelandic Rómaborg.

As the name of the city in Italy, Rūm was replaced by Rōm fairly early on, and today only survives as part of the word ruimbry. The modern reflex of Rōm, Roem or Roeme /ˈruːm/, has itself been mostly replaced in the past century or so by Rome /ˈroːm/. On its own, the modern reflex of OTh. burg or burh is burgh /ˈbʊrx/, but -bry /brʌɪ̯/ appears fairly regularly in place names.

moment /mɔˈmɛnt/ (plural moments /mɔˈmɛnts/)
Noun:
1. moment, instance; a brief but unspecified amount of time
2. (informal) a minute, sixty seconds
3. (dated) momentum
4. (informal) panic attack
5. (informal, rare) 15 minutes of fame

Alternative forms
momentum, momenta (pl.)
Etymology
Borrowed from French moment or English moment, ultimately from Latin mōmentum.

Example sentence:
Huyveul ruimbrys can duy in ne moment sedge?
/ˈhœʏ̯ˌvøːl ˈrœʏ̯mˌbrʌɪ̯s kan dœʏ̯ ɪn nə mɔˈmɛnt ˈsɛd͡ʒ/
[ˈhœʏ̯vəɫ ˈɾœ̃ʏ̯̃mbɾes kə̃n‿nø ʔɨ̃n nə məˈmɛ̃nt̚ ˈsɛd̥͡ʒ̊]
huyveul ruimbry-s can-Ø duy in ne moment sedge-Ø
how_many capital_city-PL can.PRES-PRES 2s.NOM in INDEF moment say-S.INF
How many capital cities can you name in about a minute?

qwed117 wrote: 27 Dec 2020 21:34
Spoiler:
I really like how, for the Gán Vẽi and Thedish entries, the citation form uses multiple forms, which reminds me of how a real dictionary (and natural languages work). I also find the etymological route of yeighel to be interesting as well. A Natlang Already Does (Except Weirder) indeed! Always good to know you're within the bounds of naturalism.
Thank you!
Iyionaku
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

qwed117 wrote: 28 Dec 2020 02:16 I really love the example sentence here! It doesn't sound like a stilted example sentence, but like something that a person, perhaps a businessman stuck at an airport shouting over the phone, would say.
Thank you! It was a pain in the back to write this sentence, and I needed to coin half the words in this sentence, which rarely happens anymore in Yélian.

Lexember 28th - Yélian

A few pieces of food from cristlovenúm (christmas market) today!

asoldap [ɐˈsoːldɐp] - cotton candy
Etymology: from asól "sugar" + dap "foam", literally "sugar foam"

dresdenól [dɾesdəˈnoːl] - stollen [sweet German bread with raisins and icing sugar]
Etymology: from Dresden + -ól, a suffix used in many candies

langoy [ˈlaŋgɔ̈ʃ] - lángos
Etymology: From Hungarian Lángos

lècanvendats [ˈlɛkɐnˌvendɐt͡s] - bratwurst
Etymology: lècan "sausage" + venda "to fry" + adjectivizer -ts

medvedsól [ˌmedvədˈsoːl] - burnt almonds
Etymology: from medved "almond" + -sól, a suffix used in many candies

nurnbergól [nʉɾnbəɾˈgoːl] - gingerbread, lebkuchen
Etymology: from Nürnberg + -ól, a suffix used in many candies

sèrtersól [ˌsɛrtəɾˈsoːl] - crêpe
Etymology: sèrter "pan" + -sól, a suffix used in many candies

vinpulvon [ˈvinˌpulvɔ̈n] - mulled wine
Etymology: from vin "foreign wine" + pulvon "hot"

Bonus word :esp:

vino caliente [ˈbino kalˈjente] - mulled wine
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 28

Gán Vẽi (Entry 28):

mỉp /mip˨˩˨/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. day, daytime
2. the day, the sky during the day, daylight
3. midday, noon
4. dawn, daybreak, sunrise
5. afternoon, late in the day before sunset
6. (figurative) sunlight
mỉp /mip˨˩˨/ (comparative mỉp ma /mip˨˩˨ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. of or pertaining to day, diurnal
2. light, bright, clear (of the sky)
3. shining, bright
4. rising (of the sun)
5. of or pertaining to noon or the afternoon
6. (figurative) sunny, well-lit
mỉp /mip˨˩˨/
Adverb:
1. during the day
2. daily, every day
3. today, this afternoon
4. yesterday, this morning, earlier today
mỉp /mip˨˩˨/ (causative xā mỉp /ɕa˥ mip˨˩˨/)
Verb:
1. to rise (of the sun)
2. to spend the day (somewhere or doing something)
3. to relax during the day
4. to travel during the day

Etymology
From Old TBD mưưp "light, sunlight, dawn", from Proto-TBD *mɯɯ "sun, light; bright, shining" + *bow "sky, heaven".
Usage notes
mỉp may be treated as animate when the day is being personified or if a writer or poet is trying to draw attention to the apparent motion of the sun in the morning and throughout the day.

Example sentence:
Rĩu Ya-Góu bỏi mỉp gá.
/ɻiw˧˩ ja˧ ɣow˩˧ ɓoj˨˩˨ mip˨˩˨ ɣa˩˧/
[ɻɪw˧˩ jaˑ˧ ɣɔw˩˧ ɓœj˨˩˨ mɪp̚˨˩˨ ɣaː˩˧]
rĩu Ya Góu bỏi=mỉp=gá
to shade mountain 1p.PROG=day=INFER
We'll be spending the day in Ya Gou (a town), I guess.

Thedish (Entry 28):

ruin /ˈrœʏ̯n/ (long inf. ruinen /ˈrœʏ̯nən/, pst. ptcp. ruined /ˈrœʏ̯n(ə)d/, pres. ptcp. ruinend /ˈrœʏ̯nənd/, ger. ruining /ˈrœʏ̯nɪŋ/)
Verb:
1. to speak softly, to speak in hushed tones
2. to speak in private
3. to conspire, to plot
4. to deliberate, to debate
5. to theorize
6. to whisper, to say in a whisper
7. to speak to someone while whispering

Alternative forms
ruind (pst. ptcp.)
Etymology
From Old Thedish rūnoian, from Proto-Germanic *rūnōną, related to *rūnō. Compare English round (Etymology 2).

read /ˈrɛːd/ (plural reades /ˈrɛːd(ə)s/)
Noun:
1. advice, counsel, suggestion
2. help, assistance, support
3. piece of wisdom, saying, expression, adage, proverb, parable
4. (informal) truism, cliché, platitude
5. (rare) council, board, committee, jury
6. (dated) stance, opinion, position
7. (dated) attempt at persuasion, argument
8. (dated) plan, plot, scheme, blueprint
9. (archaic) decision, choice, judgement, ruling, edict, decree
10. (archaic) reason, reasoning, logic, explanation, motive

Etymology
From Old Thedish rǣd, from Proto-Germanic *rēdaz. Compare Saterland Frisian Räid, Dutch raad, German Rat, Faroese ráð, Danish råd.
Usage notes
read is often countable, but Senses 1-2 may be treated as uncountable due to influence from English "advice".

Example sentence:
Yef shell duy bloot my whet read yeve, dan moest duy im neut ruinen.
/jɛf ʃɛl dœʏ̯ bloːt mʌɪ̯ hwɛt ˈrɛːd ˈjeːv | dan muːst dœʏ̯ ɪm nœt ˈrœʏ̯nən/
[jəf ˈʃɛɫ dø ˈbloːt̚ me wət̚ ˈɾɛːd ˈjeːv̥ | də̃m‿ˈmuˑst̚ dø̃‿m nət̚ ˈɾœ̃ʏ̯̃nə̃n]
yef shell-Ø duy bloot my whet read yeve-Ø, dan moest-Ø duy im neut ruin-en
if will-PRES 2s.NOM just 1S.OBL what advice give-S.INF, then must-PRES 2s.NOM 3s.N.OBL NEG whisper-L.INF
If you're just going to give me some advice, you don't have to whisper it.
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