Pelna Juikpuna

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Pelna Juikpuna

Post by Omzinesý »

This is my current conlang (when I'm writing this).

At last, I ended uo to name Pelna Juikpuna ['pelnɐʒui'k͡punɐ]. It means 'the language of the Djuipkuna.

It is relatively analytic and syntax is surely the most interesting part of its grammar.

I imagine it is spoken on some Pacific island, but I'm not reconstructing language contacts so it could be a fantasy lang, as well. There can be some international words, though.
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Re: A Project Again

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Phoneme inventory

Consonants
p t t͡ʃ k k͡p (ʔ) <p t ch k kp (.)>
b d d͡ʒ g g͡b <b d dj g gb>
β ɹ ʒ j ɣ w <v r j y q w>
s <s>
z <z>
m n <m n>
l <l>

- The status of prenasalized stops mb and nd is questionable. I here analyse them as consonant clusters. They can appear word-initially, but then there must be a preceding word ending in a vowel.
- The glottal stop appears between any two vowels as hiatus. It can be analysed as a phonetic rule, as well.

Vowels (basic 5)
i u
e o
a

i: u: <ii uu>
e: o: <ee oo>
a: <aa>

- I'm still considering diphthongs.


Any of the three vowels can be followed by /a/, /i/, or /u/, creating long vowels
/a:/, /i:/, and /u:/
and diphthongs
ea̯, ia̯, oa̯, ua̯ (like in German)
ai, ei, oi, ui
au, eu, iu, ou.

Phonotactics

(C)V(l/N)

- The onset C can be any consonant.
- The nucleus V can be any vowel, with one or two segments.
- The coda is either lateral /l/ or a nasal that assimilates with the following consonant. Word-finally, it is alveolar.

A former syllable cannot have a coda if the latter syllable doesn't have an onset. In that context, the coda consonant is pronounced geminated. The gemination does not always bevisible in the orthography.
VCi.V => VCi.CiV

Stressing

Stress in phonetic and always appears on the penultimate syllable.

Compounds and genitive constructions differ in that compounds have only one primary stress on the last component while all nouns in the genitive construction have their own stresses.

This is a mora-timed language, which is quite evident since it has long and short vowels.

Morphological processes

Initial mutation

Most words have to stems: unmutated and mutated. They appear in different syntactic environments. The mutated stem is formed from the unmutated one by changing the first consonant of the word, like described below.

p => b, t => d, t͡ʃ => dʒ, k => g, k͡p => g͡b
b => β, d => ɹ, dʒ => ʒ, g => ɣ, g͡b => w
s => z
m => mb, n => nd
l => ll
∅ => j

If the preceding word has a coda, an /a/ is added before /mb/, /nd/, and /ll/ of a mutated stem.

Native stems do not start with β ɹ ʒ ɣ w z or j. The nonnative stems that do, so not undergo the initial mutation.
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Re: A Project Again

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Basic word order

The basic word order is either VSO (or VOS).

Some tendencies affect the order of the subject and the object (and other participants).
- Long NPs tend to come last.
- NPs with more animate referents tend to come first.
- Pronouns tend to come first. (consequence of the two tendencies above)
- Object NPs with unspecific or other ways non-discourse-relevant referents appear before the verb in the mutated stem (a kind of incorporation).
- Subjects still precede objects, if no other tendency has effect.

Information structure does not affect word order, per se. (Incorporation is a discourse-pragmatic phenomenon though.)


VOS, because of a long subject NP
(1)
Agbuula gawati tana jadan nume.
agbuula gawati tana MUT.adan nume
buy banana man NMLZ.see pl1INCL
'The man that we saw is buying bananas.'

If the relationship between the subject and the object is somehow atypical (subject is less animate, the subject is a stimulus argument*), the subject is marked by preposition te. Te causes an initial mutation.

VOS, because the subjectis less animate; te, because the subject is a stimulus argument
(2)
Adan ose te reeni*.
adan ose te MUT.deeni
sees sg3 SUBJ bird.
'She/he sees a bird.'


Usually the rules above clarify who does to whom. Ambiguity is, however, possible. (3a) is unambiguous, because both NPs are of equal length and the subject thus precedes the object. (3b) is ambiguous, because [siiji gbooria vinu] comes last because it is long.

(3a)
Enonbala siiji dovi.
kissed girl boy
'The girl kissed a/the boy.'

(3b)
Enonbala dovi siiji gbooria vinu.
enombala dovi siiji MUT.kpooria MUT.binu
kissed boy girl GEN.hair GEN.long
'The girl with a long hair kisses a/the boy.' or 'The boy kissed a/the girl with a long hair.'


---------
* Stimulus arguments (the "causers" or emotions and perceptions) are coded as subjects with the experiencers are coded as objects.
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Re: A Project Again

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Syntax within NPs

This language is generally head-initial. That is, modifiers follow their head.

Modifiers appear in the mutated stem. I gloss the mutation as Genitive (GEN) in that case.
Adjectives is not a word class in this language. Characteristics are usually expressed by abstract nouns. They work like any modifiers.

(1)
tana yoSuuno
tana MUT.oSuuno
man GEN.oSuuno
'oSuuno's husband'

(2)
tana qunaama.
tana MUT.gunaama
man GEN.sincerity
'a/the sincere man' ~ 'a/the man of sincerity'


The modifier can also be a nominalized clause. Clauses modifying NPs are called relative clauses. In (3), the mutations is glossed as nominalization (NMLZ), but it is basically the same modifier marking.

(3) (repeated)
Agbuula gawati tana [yadan nume].
agbuula gawati tana [MUT.adan nume]
buy banana man [NMLZ.see pl1INCL]
'The man [that we saw] is buying bananas.'


NPs are coordinated with particle do, which does not cause mutation.

(4)
dovi do siiji
'boy and girl'
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Re: A Project Again

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Verb morphology

This lang resembles English in that basically any noun can be made a verb, but the exact semantic relation between the noun and the verb varies by lexemes. While nouns have basically no morphology, verbs always have TenseMood prefixes and often also discourse prefixes.

-2 Discourse Prefix
-1 MoodTense Prefix
0 Stem

Slo -1 prefixes (obligatory if a verb)

a- Simple Tense Indicative
ū- Simple Tense Subjective mood

en- Perfect Indicative
un- Perfect Subjective mood
on- Perfect Reportative

Maybe Prospective as well
Maybe Static passives




Semantics of the moods

Subjective mood
I'm not sure if Subjective is the best label for the mood.
- With non-first persons, it can be translated 'I think...'. It thus represents propositions as opinions or inferences. It thus indicates some uncertainty.
- With first persons, it is more frequent than Indicative. It expresses everything that cannot be seen as anl fully objective fact, basically all introspection.

Indicative mood
- Indicative is the main mood in narratives.
- The speker makes a commitment on truth (telative to the genre) of propositions stated in Indicative.
- It is also the neutral mood in subordinate clauses.

Reportative mood (only in Perfect)
- Second-hand knowledge (rumors or from a known source)
- The speaker does not express his own stance, so Reportative is a purer evidential than Subjective.


Semantics of the tenses

Simple tense
- It is the tense main flow of events, whatever the time is relative to the present.

Perfect
- Expresses events before the main flow of events. Longer discourses are not told in Perfect.


Slot -2 prefixes (optional)

t- 'and then', 'thereafter'
It expresses the event as a single time sequence (telic) and thus brings forward the flow of events. It could be called 'Perfective' but it only has the function of carrying on the discourse.

tav- 'thus'
It implies that the event is somehow caused by the events of the preceding clause.

k- REQUEST
This prefix is used as an imperative or an optative. Politeness is encoded by particles.

s- QUESTION
It expresses both polar and wh questions.

waq- SENTENCE FOCUS
It usually starts discourses.

mom- AGREEMENT
It expresses general agreement with the preceding utterance, usually said by the adressee.

...


Orientation of the verbs

Verbs are either unergatives without object

-kala 'to sing'
-rino 'to urinate'

or ambitransitive
(syntactically) transitive (i.e. have subject and object) or unaccusative.


-kpe 'to fall', 'to fell'
-sen 'go', 'take'
-dan 'to see', 'to see X'
-para 'sleep' 'put to sleep'
-pupu 'progress', 'do/make'
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Re: A Project Again

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Focusing a participant

Focusing a participant is expressed with pronominal prefix //ka//. As a focus marker, it does not trigger lenition.

(1a) repeated
Anonbala siiji dovi.
kissed girl boy
'The girl kissed a/the boy.'

(1b) subject focused
Anonbala kasiiji dovi.
kissed FOC-girl boy
'It was the girl who kissed a/the boy.'

(1c) object focused
Anonbala siiji kadovi.
kissed girl FOC-boy
'It was the boy who the girl kissed.'


Like any NP with a pronominal prefix, the focused NP can also be right-dislocated. Then ka appears in situ and has its own stress while it's also repeated in the right-dislocated NP.

(2b) subject focused
Anonbala ka dovi, kasiiji.
kissed FOC boy FOC-girl
'It was the girl who kissed a/the boy.'

(2c) object focused
Anonbala siiji ka, kadovi.
kissed girl FOC FOC-boy
'It was the boy who the girl kissed.'

-------
Reflexive pronoun

The primary meaning of //ka// is a reflexive pronoun and derives from 'The girl herself kissed the boy.'. It still appears in that meaning, too, but then it causes lenition. It usually attaches to its antecedent.

(3) a reclexive clause
Anonbala kaziiji.
kissed REFL-girl
'The girl kissed herself.'

-------

Demonstratives

Le + lenition 'this' Proximal
Ne + lenition 'that' Distal
Jo + lenition 'that good X' speaker's positive opinion
Ronu + lenition 'that fucking X' speaker's negative opinion

Dalle 'this visible' (see + this (voici))
Danne 'that visible' (see + that (voilà))
The two last pronouns are usually indefinite and used to introduce new referents to the discourse.
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Re: A Project Again

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Nouns have optinal plural suffixes:

-po 'collective plural' (in the meaning of contrasting with distributive)
-ki 'distributive plural'

They are obligatory if there is reflexive pronoun ka-, as well. Combined with -po, it has a reciprocal meaning.

(1)
Anambola kaziiji
'The girl kissed herself.'

(2)
Anambola kaziijiki.
'The girls kissed themselves.'

(3)
Anambola kaziijipo.
'The girls kissed each other.'


-ki and -po are also used as "and" words joining NPs together. The marker is added as an enclitic to all but the first NP. Examples (3) and (4) are ambiguous in that -ki and -po can also be interpreted as plural markers so that the two NPs are interpreted as subject and object.

(4)
Ensen sījī doviki.
went girl boy-PL.DISRT
'The girl and the boy left.' (separately)
or
'The girl took the boys.' (separately)

(5)
Ensen sījī dovipo.
went girl boy-PL.COLL
'The girl and the boy left.' (together)
or
'The girl took the boys.' (together)
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Re: A Project Again

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Omzinesý wrote: 31 Dec 2020 15:59 [...]
The verb still lacks something.

It's simultaneously kitchen-sinky and lacks interesting features interacting with syntax.

I'm still wondering how statives work. Many abstract characteristic nouns (replacing adjectives) can be made stative verbs. There might be a habitual aspect for all verbs, but idk.

gunaama 'sincerity '
aqunaama 'be sincere'

There could also be an infinitive.

Atm. I think there are two series of perfects: agent-orineted and patient-oriented. But I don't know how they interact with ambitransitives. Some kind of split alignment? With an auxiliary, I could derive a passive an an antipassive from them. ('He is becoming the one having written.' vs 'It is becoming the one being written.')

There might also be a same-subject marker. It would allow subject drop without problems with ambitransitives. It would be especially handy with relative clauses.
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Re: A Project Again

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Incorporation

This language does not have "real incorporation", but positioning the object noun with lenition first right to the verb has some similarity to it.

The "incorporated" noun is either
generic ("cat/Cats has/have long a tail/tails", cats generally)
or
unimportant in the discourse. It will not be spoken about later.

(1)
Agbuula-qawati tana.
agbuula-LENITATION.gawati tana
buy-LENITATION.bananata man
'The man is buying bananas.' ~ 'The man is banana-buying.'

Incorporated nouns cannot be modified by any other noun. Compounds though can be incorporated.


When it comes to valence, the incorporated object is still considered an object. Transitive verbs do not become intransitive by incorporation.
There is also a pronoun //nomo// 'it' or 'they' referring to generic or mass nouns. It can take an incorporated object as its antecedent.

One can, however, add another object beside an incorporated one. It is usually a subset of the incorporated object. It can also be a dummy pronoun with a modifier that cannot be attached to the incorporated noun.

(2)
Adunsen-dana siijii gi qunaama.
want_take-LENITATION.husband girl one GEN.sincerity
'The girl wants to take a sincere husband.' (lit. 'The girl wants to husband-take a sincere one.')
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Re: A Project Again

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Predicatives cannot have modifiers. 'He is a sincere man.' is expressed with preposition {pu} 'as'.

(1)
Aqunaama ne pu dama.
be.sincere sg3 PREP man
'He is sincere as a man.'

As a verb root, {pu} is the copula.

(2)
Abu ne tana.
is he man
'He is a man.'
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Re: A Project Again

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Prepositions

sū 'in, on, at'
- the least specified preposition of location and direction


Prepositions of location cause lenition. Prepositions of goal do not.

(1)
sū djoona
'in the house'

(2)
sū choona
'to the house'


The endpoint of dynamic verbs is usually encoded as a goal.

(3)
Anboru dovi sū nboru
sit boy PREP GEN.seat
'The boy is/was sitting on a chair.'

(4)
Anboru dovi sū moru.
sit boy PREP seat
'The boy sit/sat down on the chair.'

egbi 'direction' is used in prepositions.

(5)
sūyegbi choona
'towards the house' ~ 'to the direction of the house'
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Re: A Project Again

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A new attempt for the verb

[-3, Future ? ][-2 Evidentiality][-1, Perfect + Derived voice][0, Stem][1, Mood]

The basic TAM will be just the bare stem.

boru 'sit, sits, sat, is sitting, was sitting'

Perfects are still prefixes. They distinguish voice (still uncertain about the exact semantic spaces) and evidentiality.

Direct evidential e-
Reportative o-

Passive n-
Antipassive l-

olboru 'has slept, they say'

Subjective mood is marker:
-yu

Subjunctive mood marker is:
-ye

I have to think if reportative perfects can coappear with mood markers and what they mean.

The Future marker is {ke}, but it looses /e/ when followed by a vowel. It is also the verb 'become'.

keboru 'will sit'

If Perfect/Aspect markers appear with Future, the forms are Passive and Antipassive forms:

kengbuula 'is/was being / gets bought' (German "wird gekaufen")
kelgbuula 'is/was buying'
kel
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Re: A Project Again

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Idea for long vowels and diphthongs

Any of the three vowels can be followed by /a/, /i/, or /u/, creating long vowels
/a:/, /i:/, and /u:/
and diphthongs
ea̯, ia̯, oa̯, ua̯ (like in German)
ai, ei, oi, ui
au, eu, iu, ou.

/e:/ and /o:/ do not appear anymore.
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Re: A Project Again

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I think I'm getting further with the problem of argument structures and ambitransitives.

Statives

Statives are words that can appear as things (nouns), characteristics ("adjectives"), and predicates (verbs).

Some statives:
binu 'size'
gunaama 'sincerity'
duja 'love'
meme 'parenthood'
moru 'sitting'
para 'sleep'
togo 'standing'

Morphology of statives
Staives can have Perfect or Prospective prefixes, like nouns, but the prefixes are {na-} and {la-}, respectively. They do not distinguish voice or Reportative.
Statives cannot have Subjunctive suffix {-ye}, because when complements they are used more noun-like. They can have Subjective/Egophoric suffix {-yu} that appears with all word classes.
Like nouns and verbs, statives have a lenited first phoneme, when the modify something.

Staives as nouns
Statives are abstract nouns, but they can be modified by demonstratives.


Statives as modifiers of nouns
Statives can modify nouns like any noun, and correspond to SAE adjectives in that function.

(1)
tana qunaama
man GEN.sincerity
'a/the sincere man'

Diminutives of statives are usual in that use.

(2)
tana qunaamaji
man GEN.sincerity-DIM
'quite sincere a/the man'


Statives as predicates
Any stative can appear as a predicate. (Many nouns can be zero-derives to verbs and many verbs can be zero-derived to nouns, but when it comes to statives, the relationship is so predictable that they can be seen as one word class with many functions.)
Staives can have all verbal morphology: perfect prefixes and mood suffixes.

When monovalent, a stative means 'to be in the state X' /'to have the characteristic of X'.

(3)
Ganaama tana
sincere man
'The man is sincere.'

(4)
Meme tana.
parenthood man
'The man is a father.' / 'The man has kids.'

(5)
Duja dovi.
love boy
'The boy is in love.'

There are two bivalent constructions accepting stative predicates.

i) Construction with secondary predicative
Preposition {pu} 'as' specifies a group in which the one being X belongs to.

(6)
Gunaama ne pu dana.
sincere sg3 PREP GEN.man
'He is sincere as a man.' (the new info being that he is sincere)

ii) Construction with a stimulus/facilitator/causer of the state
The stimulus/facilitator/causer of the state is seen as the subject of the construction. It can either precede the object, and have no preposition, or follow the object, and have a preposition, the most common of which is {te}.

In (7), 'the girl' is seen causing the state of the boy.
(7a)
Duja siiji dovi.
love girl boy
'The boy loves the girl.'

(7b)
Duja dovi te ziiji.
love boy PREP GEN.girl
'The boy loves the girl.'

In (8), the girl is logically not causing the boy's sleeping, but verb "para" still appears in the construction.
(8)
Para dovi te ziiji
sleep/dream boy PREP GEN.girl
'The boy is having a (night) dream about the girl.'

In (9), Suuno is necessary for the man to be a father.
(9a)
Meme tana te Zuuno.
parenthood man PREP GEN.S
'The man is Suuno's father.'

(9b)
Meme Suuno tana.
parenthood S man
'Suuno is the man's child.'

With statives of location, the preposition is usually a preposition of location, the most common of which is "suu".
(10a)
Togo pehuni tana.
standing forest man
'The man is standing in the forest.'

(10b)
Togo tana suu behuni.
standing man in GEN.forest
'The man is standing in the forest.'

You can also say (10c), but it gets strange if you move "unta biti" before "dama", so "unta biti" is actually not the subject.
(10c)
Togo tana te yunta_biti.
stand man PREP GEN.walking_stick
'The man stands with a walking stick.' (He cannot without.)

(11a)
Moru dovi suu nborun
sit boy PREP GEN.seat
'The boy is/was sitting on a chair.'

(11b)
Moru morun dovi.
sit seat boy
'The boy is/was sitting on the chair.' (or maybe 'There is a boy sitting on the chair.')

Making statives of location to inchoative verbs
Statives with location arguments can be made inchoative verbs, just by replacing the preposition of location with a prepositions of goal (12). They do, however, always follow the subject, and are thus not subjects themselves. (11b) cannot be read to mean the same as (12).

(12)
Moru dovi suu morun. ("suu morun" 'to the seat', "suu nborun 'on the seat')
sit boy PREP seat
'The boy sit/sat down on the chair.'

Now, I start considering if one could say (13) that does not express location.
(13)
? Duja dovi te siiji.
? love boy PREP girl
? 'The boy fell in love with the girl.'
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Re: A Project Again

Post by Omzinesý »

Statives are such a big word class that Verbs must be much smaller and less important than in SAE. What is left for Verbs is actions with a real agent and telic events/actions.

-----------------
Still something about statives


cha- is a prefix deriving statives from nouns

sogi 'water, liquid'
chazogi 'to rain', 'rain', 'rainy'


I'm considering how statives are coordinated. How to say 'hungry and thirsty'? Just juxtaposition?
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Re: A Project Again

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I'm still considering if Verbs should have an infinitive. Statives don't, however, need such because they can be "action nominalizations" without affixes.

Complex sentences with statives are though syntactically hard to construct because the syntactic pivot/subject is "the one in the state", when the stative is used monovalently, and "the one keeping him in the state", when the stative is used bivalently. Coreferential subjects are dropped, so word order does not give hints.



(1) monovalent stative with coreferential subject (no problem)
Dezi oan te ruja
want SG1 PREP be.in.love
'I want to be in love.'

(2) monovalent stative with its own subject (no problem)
Dezi oan te ruja Suuno.
want SG1 PREP be.in.love S
'I want that Suuno is in love.'

(3) bivalent stative with two own arguments (no problem)
Dezi oan te ruja Suuno Pewo. ~ Dezi oan te ruja Pewo te Zuuno.
'I want that Pewo loves Suuno.'

(4) bivalent stative with two arguments of which the experiencer is coreferential (still quite easy because the stimulus can be made an te-argument and "te" being there codes a bivalent construction.)
Dezi oan te ruja te Zuuno.
want SG1 PREP love PREP S
'I want to love Suuno.'
lit. 'I want that [...] loves Suuno.'

(5) bivalent stative with two arguments of which the stimulus is coreferential ("Oan" must be repeated.)
Dezi oan te ruja oan Suuno.
'I want that Suuno loves me.'

"te" in these constructions is there because 'dezi' is a stative as well and has a "te-argument" of what is wanted.
Edit: Or maybe the basic auxiliaries should just have two variants 'wanna be' and 'wanna have' which could have different pivots.
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Re: A Project Again

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There are some clitics that can be attached to any open word class (Verb, Noun, Stative).

-ji 'diminutive'
'do a bit'
'a small thing'
'quite that-like'

-kpo 'negation'
'doesn't do'
'no thing'
'not that-like'

-yu 'subjective'
'I think X does'
'I think it's X who does'
'that-like IMO'
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Omzinesý
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Re: A Project Again

Post by Omzinesý »

Pronouns

oan 'sg1 general'
tende 'sg1 speaker is superior'

maa 'sg2'

oanmaapo 'we incl.'
oanpo 'we excl.'
maapo 'you pl'

mono 'it for mass nouns'

Demonstratives can also be used

Le 'this' Proximal
Ne 'that' Distal
Jo 'that good X' speaker's positive opinion
Ronu 'that fucking X' speaker's negative opinion
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Re: A Project Again

Post by Omzinesý »

Still revising the verb

There are two classes of verbs:
1) unergative or (syntactically) transitive, i.e. those with an agent
2) unaccusative

An group 1) verb can be derived from a group 2) verb with Causative prefix {e-}. No 1) verb can be causativized.

kotoru 'to fall'
ekotoru 'to fell'

There is no anticausative derivation.

Motion verbs, which have affected agents, are group 2) verbs.

In Perfect, verbs have a kind of split alignment:

Group 2) verbs have Perfect prefixes:
{on-} "Normal" Perfect
{un-} Reportative Perfect

onkotoru 'has/is fallen'
unkotoru 'has/is fallen, they say'

Group 1) verbs can have Active Perfect prefixes:
{en-} "Normal" Perfect
{in-} Reportative Perfect

enkpelo 'has eaten'
inkpelo 'has eaten, they say'

or Passive Perfect prefixes:
{on-} "Normal" Perfect
{un-} Reportative Perfect

onkpelo 'has been eaten/is eaten'
unkpelo 'has been eaten/is eaten, they say'

Causative prefix {e-} is lost in Perfect (etymologically, it is a part of class 1) Active Perfect prefixes), and Passive Perfect of a derived group 1) verb is thus identical to Active Perfect of a non-derived group 2) verb.
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Re: A Project Again

Post by Omzinesý »

Copular clauses are also made with derived statives. The stative-deriving prefix is {a-}.

(1)
Adana Pewo.
a-tana P
STATIVE-man P
'Pewo is a man.'

(2)
Adoka Pewo te Zuuno.
a-toka Pewo te Suuno
STATIVE-spouse P PREP S
'Pewo is married to Suuno.'

Many statives, like "adoka", can be used as inchoative verbs with a "goal argument".
(3)
Adoka Pewo te Suuno.
a-toka Pewo te Suuno
STATIVE-spouse P PREP S
'Pewo got married with Suuno.'

Like all statives, statives with {a-} are also like abstract nouns. "Adana" also means 'being a man', 'manhood'. "Adoka" also means 'marriage'.

Because this a-stative can be derived from every noun, it can also be used grammatically as an apposition (is apposition a semantic or syntactic term?) to mean "X that is Y ...".
(4)
Macron yaberesidente Baransa...
M LENITATIONa-peresidente LENITATION-Paransa
M GEN-STATIVE-president GEN-France
'Macron, the president of France, ...'

Statives are often causativized with {e-}, though the word causativized can well be "toka", 'spouse', as well.
(5)
Edoka meme Pewo te Suuno.
e-toka meme Pewo te Suuno
CAUS-spouse parent(s) P PREP S
'Parents made Pewo marry Suuno.'

The {a-} merges with tense prefixes, {na-} and {la-}.
(6)
nadoka
'was married'

(7)
ladoka
'will be married'
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