挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

I finally decided to post this, it's not "finished" by any means and probably never will be, but it's been a while since I worked on it and kinda dropped the motivation ball so I figured it's better to post it now or the months I spent on it will have been wasted. Obviously I meant to flesh the grammar out a lot more and stuff, but well. Maybe posting something concrete about it will get me motivated to continue working on it, I think it's not as stupid as most of my conlangs so maybe there's still some potential in it.

The idea was originally to make an Uralic conlang set on a fictional island near Japan and with heavy influence from Japanese, but then I decided to set it in China instead while still having Japanese influences. As I was working on it, it gradually became more and more Altaic so I decided it's better anyway to make it a vaguely Ural-Altaic language whose exact relationship is unclear. There are also some minor similarities to Yeniseian and Yukaghir at least in vocabulary, too, intended to be a "who knows if they're coincidental or not?" type of a thing. So, I guess it could be called "Para-Ural-Altaic" or something, but considering Altaic is (probably) not even a language family but a sprachbund... well, "Ural-Altaic" works best, I think.

It's admittedly a pretty bland conlang tbh, at least so far there aren't any cool semantic shifts or anything and its grammar is really simple, but well.

Conculture/althistory stuff in this post.

PHONOLOGY

/m n ŋ/ <m n ng>
/p b t d k g (ʔ)/ <p b t d k g '>
/kʷ (gʷ)/ <kw gw>
/t͡s (d͡z) t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ <ts dz ch j>
/s z ʃ (ʒ)/ <s z sh zh>
/j w h/ <y w h>
/r l/ <r l>
/t͡ɬ/ <cl>

/ɑ e i o u/ <a e i o u>
/ɑː eː iː oː uː/ <ā ē ī ō ū>

/ʔ/ only comes about due to syllable breaks and may be dropped, in which case usually a difference in pitch occurs
/gʷ ʒ/ only come about due to voicing assimilation, so they might not count as full phonemes.

The distinction between /d͡ʒ/ and /ʒ/ is rarely made, and in practice both are [d͡ʒ~ʒ] in free variation.
The distinction between /d͡z/ and /z/ is rarely made, the former only coming about due to voicing assimilation of /t͡ɬ/ and commonly merging with /z/.
Both of the above, however, are considered distinct in the standard language and educated speakers may preserve the distinctions in loanwords.

All consonants are palatalised to some degree before /i/.
In standard speech, before /e/ only /k g/ are palatalised; the palatalisation ranges from minimal to as prominent as before /i/. In various dialects not strictly confined to any single part of the dialect continuum, various other consonants (up to all of them) can be palatalised very strongly before both /e i/; dialects that palatalise /m p b/ before /e/ universally also palatalise /t d/, while /n/ is usually only palatalised in dialects that also palatalise /r l/.
Some northeastern dialects merge /t͡s d͡z s z/ with /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ/ before /e i/, while southeastern dialects merge them only before /i/; most dialects don't merge them even before /i/, maintaining the distinction as /t͡s d͡z s z/ [t̻͡s̪ʲ d̻͡z̪ʲ s̪ʲ z̪ʲ] and /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ/ [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ]. Western dialects may have [t͡ʂ d͡ʐ ʂ ʐ] before back vowels and [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ] before front vowels, or in some far northwestern dialects where the distinction has become one of aspiration, [t͡ʂʰ t͡ʂ] and [t͡ɕʰ t͡ɕ]. In standard speech, /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ/ are [t͡ʃ~t͡ɕ d͡ʒ~d͡ʑ ʃ~ɕ ʒ~ʑ] regardless of environment, although [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ] are (almost) universal before /i/.

/p t k t͡s t͡ʃ/ tend to be lightly aspirated, while /kʷ t͡ɬ/ tend to be unaspirated. In certain northern dialects, aspiration can be strong and apply to all voiceless plosives; in some far northern dialects the codification of aspiration can be so pervasive that voiced plosives may be pronounced as voiceless. In the standard language, the level of aspiration does not matter but pronouncing voiced plosives as voiceless is considered a speech impediment.

/k/ is usually [k̠~q] before /ɑ o/ and sometimes before /u/, while /kʷ/ tends to be [kʷ~k̠ʷ]

Usually, /g/ is [ɣ~ɣ̠~ʁ] between back vowels. This is why the language and people's endonym is sometimes transliterated eg. <Uldugha> rather than <Ulduga> in some languages, but the official romanisation is <Ulduga>.

/w/ can be [w~ʋˠ~ʋ~β̞ˠ~β̞], and when palatalised it usually becomes [ʋʲ~β̞ʲ~vʲ~βʲ].

Intervocalically, /z/ can be pronounced as a dental fricative [ð]; it may even approach a pre-alveolar approximant [ɹ̟]. Word-initially and after nasals, it is most often an affricate [d͡z].

/n t d t͡s d͡z s l t͡ɬ/ can be dental [n̪ t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ l̪ t̻͡ɬ̪] or alveolar [n t d t͡s d͡z s l t͡ɬ] in free variation, even inconsistently

The allophones of /h/ in standard speech are:
[x̠~χ~χˤ] before /ɑ/
[h~hˠ~x] before /e/
[ç~xʲ~hʲ] before /i/
[x̠~χ~χˤ] before /o/
[x~x̠~χ] before /u/

/r l/ are most commonly realised as:
[r l] word-initially
[ɾ ɮ] intervocalically
[r̝ ɮ] before voiced consonants
[r̝̊ ɬ] before voiceless consonants
[ɾ l] after consonants
[ɾ̞̊ ɬ] word-finally
However, in southern dialects, they tend to be [r~ɾ l~ɺ] in all environments, and in far southeastern dialects they often even merge, retaining only allophonic distinction of [ɾ] in syllable onsent and [l] in coda. In the standard language, it's considered acceptable to use the above allophones or [r~ɾ l] everywhere, but [ɺ] for /l/ is considered a speech impediment. Western dialects tend to have [ɹ~ɹ̠~ɻ] for /r/ at least in coda, and in far southwestern dialects even [ɻ̝~ʐ] is possible; in the standard language, coda [ɹ~ɹ̠] is considered acceptable, but [ɻ~ɻ̝~ʐ] is considered a speech impediment.

Intervocalically, the distinction between /ng/ and /ŋ/ is typically lost even in standard speech, both being pronounced [ŋ~ŋˑ~ŋː] in free variation.

/ɑ/ can be [ɐ~a~æ] when syllables surrounding it have front vowels. Most commonly, though, it's [ɑ~a̠~ɐ̠].
/i/ can be [ɨ~ɨ̞~ɯ̽] when syllables surrounding it have back vowels. Most commonly, though, it's [i~ɪ].
/e/ can be [ə~ɜ~ɛ] when syllables surrounding it have back vowels, or when the only vowel in a word is /e/. Most commonly, though, it's [e̞~ə̟].
/o/ can be [ɞ~ɵ̞] when syllables surrounding it have front vowels. Most commonly, though, it's [o̞~ɔ].
/u/ can be [ʏ~ʉ] when syllables surrounding it have front vowels. Most commonly, though, it's [u~ʊ].
Long vowels have no notable quality difference from short vowels, although sometimes they may be less prone to being centralised.

GRAMMAR

The default word order is SOV, so generally speaking marking some cases and using some particles is optional unless other word orders are used or sentences get complex enough to warrant it. The more formal the text or speech, the more redundant it can get.

NOUN DECLENSION
In collective nouns, plurals are usually not written even if pronounced. It's uncommon to use a plural suffix at all, but sometimes they're used.

plural: 多 -tV [after vowels and /n t r l/; optional]
plural: 多 -atV/etV/etV/otV/otV [after consonants; optional]
This suffix is more common than the one below, but has almost as much variation in the possible vowels when added to words that aren't usually pluralised. It does have regular vowels after consonants, but the final vowels can be very unpredictable in the words that have standardised plural forms. Although /ta/ is most common, it's far from universal.

plural: 等 -r(V) [after vowels; optional]
plural: 等 -ar(V)/er(V) [after consonants; optional]
It's rare for this suffix to have a final vowel, but when it does have one, it's often unpredictable and inconsistent even in the speech of the same speaker. In fossilised words with a plural, they're consistent, though, of course.

MONOSYLLABIC ROOTS
nominative: -Ø
accusative: 乎 -bo
accusative: 乎 -mo [if the consonant is /p b/]
genitive: 之 -no
agentive: 补 -n [rarely used in simple sentences]
instrumental: 以 -n
comitative: 与 -na/ne
ornative: 被 -ba/be/be/bo/bo
dative: 向 -nga/nge
dative: 向 -na/ne [if the consonant is /g/]
ablative: 从 -ta/te
locative: 在 -na/ne
temporal: 時 - nna/nne
comparative: 似 - da/de
essive: 況 -nna/nne/nne/nno/nno
abessive: 無 -tara/tere/tiri/toro/toro
abessive: 無 -tala/tele/tili/tolo/tolo [if the consonant is /r/]

POLYSYLLABIC ROOTS
nominative: -Ø
accusative: 乎 -m
genitive: 之 -n
agentive: 补 -n [rarely used in simple sentences]
instrumental: 以 -n
comitative: 与 -n
ornative: 被 -ba/be/be/bo/bo
dative: 向 -ga/ge
dative: 向 -na/ne [if the last consonant is /ŋ g/]
ablative: 从 -ta/te
locative: 在 -na/ne
temporal: 時 - nna/nne
comparative: 似 - da/de
essive: 況 -nna/nne/nne/nno/nno
abessive: 無 -tar/ter/tir/tur/tur
abessive: 無 -tal/tel/til/tul/tul [if the last consonant is /r/]

IMPORTANT NOTE:
If the stem ends in /n r l/, a vowel is added before the 乎, 之, 补, 以, 与, 在, 時 and 況 - the harmonic variants are: a-i-i-u-u

NOTES:
With the default SOV word order, direct objects are usually not marked with the accusative suffix except in very formal writing. With different word orders, it is more common to decline them, but still not necessary because the indirect object is declined. Monosyllabic words may be more likely to be take the accusative suffix even with SOV word order.

貓向家與咔 = 貓向家乎與咔
maya.ga koto anda.kka = maya.ga koto.m anda.kka
cat.DAT home give.IMP = cat.DAT home.ACC give.IMP
"give the cat a home"

The temporal case can be used with any noun, indicating that an action happens when that noun is present, or in the case of nouns referring to events or such, during the event; in the latter case, it can refer to an individual instance, but the more common usage is the former.

IRREGULAR DECLENSION OF '名 (nimu) - name'
nominative: 名 (nimu)
accusative: 名乎 (nim)
genitive: 名之 (nimun)
agentive: 名补 (nimun)
instrumental: 名以 (nimun)
comitative: 名与 (nimun)
ornative: 名被 (nimbe)
dative: 名向 (ninge)
ablative: 名从 (ninde)
locative: 名在 (ninne)
temporal: 名時 (nimune)
comparative: 名似 (nimunde)
abessive: 名無 (nintur)

IRREGULAR DECLENSION OF '人多 (koita) - people'
nominative: 人多 (koita)
accusative: 人多乎 (koito)
genitive: 人多之 (kuton)
agentive: 人多补 (kuton)
instrumental: 人多以 (kuton)
comitative: 人多与 (kuton)
ornative: 人多被 (kutaba)
dative: 人多向 (koida)
ablative: 人多从 (kutte)
locative: 人多在 (koide)
temporal: 人多時 (koide)
comparative: 人多似 (koitte)
essive: 人多況 (kuton)
abessive: 人多無 (kutur)

ADJECTIVE DECLENSION
comparative: 匕 -ba/be
mirative comparative: 比 -mba/mbe
superlative: 最 -mata/mete/mete/moto/moto [after monosyllabic roots]
superlative: 最 -nda/nde/nde/ndo/ndo [after polysyllabic roots]

adverbial: 然 -n
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after monosyllabic roots]
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after /m/, which assimilates -> /nn/ or two vowels]
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after the abessive suffix /tVr/~/tVl/, which assimilates -> /tVnnan/~/tVnnen/]
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after the abessive suffix /tVrV/, which assimilates -> /tVrran/~/tVrren/]
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after the abessive suffix /tVlV/, which assimilates -> /tVllan/~/tVllen/]
abessive: 弗 -tar/ter/tir/toro/toro [after monosyllables]
abessive: 弗 -tal/tel/til/tolo/tolo [after monosyllables if the last consonant is /r/]
abessive: 弗 -tar/ter/tir/tur/tur
abessive: 弗 -tal/tel/til/tul/tul [if the last consonant is /r/]

VERB CONJUGATION
negative: 不 na/ne- [before a consonant]
negative: 不 n- [before a vowel]
prohibitive: 勿 ba/bi/bi/bu/bu- [before a consonant]
prohibitive: 勿 ban/bin/bin/bun/bun- [before a vowel]

~stem~

honorific: 卬 -ki- [induces voicing, except in 咔 and 仍了]

conditional: 即 -sha/she/shi/sha/sho-
modal: 応 -lge/lgi/lgi/lge/lgi- [should, must; induces voicing in 可, 仍 and 可了]
passive: 匉 -la/le-
causative: 使 -ta/te/te/ta/to- [induces voicing, except in 咔]
desiderative: 欲 -sō- [induces voicing, except in 咔 and 仍了]
suddenly: 乍 -ja- [induces voicing, except in 咔 and 仍了]
reciprocal: 互 -nama/neme- [induces voicing, except in 咔 and 仍了]
reciprocal: 互 -nam/nem- [if final]

non-past: -Ø
past: 了 -da/de
inchoative: 始 -lga
terminative: 住 -kul
progressive: 延 -dim
habitual: 仍 -taga/tege
habitual: 仍 -daga/dege [after /ttV/]
epistemic 1: 能 -nu/ni [able to]
epistemic 2: 可 -sā/sē [allowed to]
imperative: 咔 -kka/kke
connective: 合 -l [used to join verbs together; if following verb begins with a vowel or /m p b t d k g kʷ t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ɬ/]
connective: 合 -la/li/li/lu/lu [used to join verbs together; if following verb begins with other consonants]

progressive imperative: 咔延 -kkadim/kkedim [eg. "keep practising!"]
progressive epistemic 1: 能延 -ndim [after short vowels]
progressive epistemic 1: 能延 -nudim/nidim [after long vowels]
progressive epistemic 2: 可延 -sādim/sēdim

past progressive: 延了 -dinda/dinde
past habitual: 仍了 -tāda/tēde
past epistemic 1: 能了 -nda/nde [was/were able to]
past epistemic 2: 可了 -satta/sette [was/were allowed to]
past reciprocal: 互了 -namida/nemide

interrogative: 吗 -ma/me/me/mo/mo [after a vowel]
interrogative: 吗 -am/em/em/om/om [after a consonant]
adverbial: 然 -n [after a vowel]
adverbial: 然 -nan/nen [after /m/, which assimilates -> /nn/ or two vowels]

The inchoative and terminative can be used on their own to indicate "to start [verb]-ing" and "to stop [verb]-ing" respectively, but can also be combined with other verbal suffixes.

The difference between the negative imperatives is as follows, using the verb 食 (sebu, "to eat") as an example:
不食咔 (nesebukka) = do not eat [medium command; expected to be followed, but implies some choice]
不食応咔 (nesebulgikka) = you should not eat [strong recommendation; expected to be followed, but implies some choice]
勿食 (bisebu) = do not eat [soft command; not necessarily expected to be followed; used sarcastically or playfully, etc.]
勿食応 (bisebulgi) = you definitely should not eat [very strong recommendation; implies that something bad is going to happen if not followed]
勿食咔 (bisebukka) = absolutely do not eat [strong command; expected to be followed, implies consequences for disobediance; used by parents, etc.]
勿食応咔 (bisebulgikka) = you must absolutely not eat [very strong command; implies severe punishment for disobediance; used in military, etc.]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '是 (bolo) - to be; become'
non-past: 是 (bol) - is/are
past: 是了 (bolda) - was/were
inchoative: 是始 (bolga) - start(s) to become
terminative: 是住 (bogul) - became
progressive: 是延 (boldum) - is/are becoming
habitual: 是仍 (bolga) - tend(s) to be/become
epistemic 1: 是能 (bolon) - is able to be/become
epistemic 2: 是可 (bolozo) - is/are allowed to be/become

past progressive: 是延了 (bolunda) - was/were becoming
past habitual: 是仍了 (bollada) - used to be/become
past epistemic 1: 是能了 (bolonda) - was able to be/become
past epistemic 2: 是可了 (bolzotta) - was/were allowed to be/become

modal: 是応 (bolge) - should be [also stem; regular suffixes added]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '有 (oru) - to exist'
non-past: 有 (oru) - is/are~exist(s)
past: 有了 (orda) - was/were~existed
inchoative: 有始 (orulga) - come(s) into existence
terminative: 有住 (orgul) - stopped being~ceased to exist
progressive: 有延 (ordim) - is/are being
habitual: 有仍 (ortaga) - is/are usually
epistemic 1: 有能 (ordu) - can be~might exist
epistemic 2: 有可 (orzā) - is/are allowed to exist

past progressive: 有延了 (ordinda) - was/were being
past habitual: 有仍了 (ortāda) - was/were often
past epistemic 1: 有能了 (orunda) - might have existed
past epistemic 2: 有可了 (ōzotta) - was/were allowed to exist

modal: 有応 (olge) - should exist [also stem; regular suffixes added]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '作 (teke) - to do'
non-past: 作 (teke) - does/do
past: 作了 (tēde) - did
terminative: 作住 (tegil) - stopped doing
progressive: 作延 (tedim) - is/are doing
habitual: 作仍 (tekke) - tend(s) to do
epistemic 1: 作能 (tegen) - is able to do
epistemic 2: 作可 (tēze) - is/are allowed to do

past progressive: 作延了 (tende) - was/were doing
past habitual: 作仍了 (tekkede) - used to do
past epistemic 1: 作能了 (tegende) - was able to do
past epistemic 2: 作可了 (tegezette) - was/were allowed to do

modal: 作応 (telge) - should do [also stem; regular suffixes added]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '造 (meke) - to make'
non-past: 造 (meke) - makes~make
past: 造了 (mēde) - made
terminative: 造住 (megil) - stopped making
progressive: 造延 (medim) - is/are making
habitual: 造仍 (mekke) - tend(s) to make
epistemic 1: 造能 (megen) - is able to make
epistemic 2: 造可 (mēze) - is/are allowed to make

past progressive: 造延了 (mende) - was/were making
past habitual: 造仍了 (mekkede) - used to make
past epistemic 1: 造能了 (megende) - was able to make
past epistemic 2: 造可了 (megezette) - was/were allowed to make

modal: 造応 (melge) - should make [also stem; regular suffixes added]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '有 (i) - to have'
non-past: 有 (i) - has/have
past: 有了 (ide) - had
terminative: 有住 (il) - stopped having
progressive: 有延 (idim) - is/are having
habitual: 有仍 (ida) - tend(s) to have
epistemic 1: 有能 (yen) - is able to have
epistemic 2: 有可 (ize) - is/are allowed to have

past progressive: 有延了 (inde) - was/were having
past habitual: 有仍了 (yettede) - used to have
past epistemic 1: 有能了 (yende) - was able to have
past epistemic 2: 有可了 (izette) - was/were allowed to have

modal: 有応 (ilge) - should have [also stem; regular suffixes added]

IRREGULAR CONJUGATION OF '無 (obu) - to not have'
non-past: 無 (obu) - do(es) not have
past: 無了 (ōde) - did not have
terminative: 無住 (obul) - stopped not having
progressive: 無延 (ōdim) - is/are not having
habitual: 無仍 (ōda) - tend(s) to not have
epistemic 1: 無能 (oben) - is able to not have
epistemic 2: 無可 (ōzo) - is/are allowed to not have

past progressive: 無延了 (obunda) - was/were not having
past habitual: 無仍了 (oppoda) - used to not have
past epistemic 1: 無能了 (obonda) - was able to not have
past epistemic 2: 無可了 (ozotto) - was/were allowed to not have

modal: 無応 (obulga) - should not have [also stem; regular suffixes added]

VOCABULARY

PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS

PRONOUNS [informal]
我 (mo) - I
尔 (to) - you
它 (so) - he, she, it
我乎 (mom) - me
尔乎 (tom) - you
它乎 (som) - him, her, it
我之 (mono) - my
尔之 (tono) - your
它之 (sono) - his, her, its
我向 (monga) - to/for me
尔向 (tonga) - to/for you
它向 (songa) - to/for him, her, it
我与 (mona) - with me
尔与 (tona) - with you
它与 (sona) - with him/her/it
我从 (motto) - from me
尔从 (totto) - from you
它从 (sotto) - from him/her/it
我似 (moda) - like me
尔似 (toda) - like you
它似 (soda) - like him/her/it

我等 (moro) - we
尔等 (toro) - you
它等 (soro) - they
我等乎 (morom) - us
尔等乎 (torom) - you
它等乎 (sorom) - them
我等之 (moron) - our
尔等之 (toron) - your
它等之 (soron) - their
我等向 (morga) - to/for us
尔等向 (torga) - to/for you
它等向 (sorga) - to/for them
我等与 (moran) - with us
尔等与 (toran) - with you
它等与 (soran) - with them
我等从 (moratta) - from us
尔等从 (toratta) - from you
它等从 (soratta) - from them
我等似 (morda) - like us
尔等似 (torda) - like you
它等似 (sorda) - like them

PRONOUNS [formal]
朕 (mon) - I
爾 (ton) - you
厥 (son) - he, she, it
朕乎 (mongo) - me
爾乎 (tongo) - you
厥乎 (songo) - him, her, it
朕之 (monno) - my
爾之 (tonno) - your
厥之 (sonno) - his, her, its
朕向 (monoga) - to/for me
爾向 (tonoga) - to/for you
厥向 (sonoga) - to/for him, her, it
朕与 (monna) - with me
爾与 (tonna) - with you
厥与 (sonna) - with him/her/it
朕从 (monto) - from me
爾从 (tonto) - from you
厥从 (sonto) - from him/her/it
朕似 (monda) - like me
爾似 (tonda) - like you
厥似 (sonda) - like him/her/it

朕達 (mire) - we
爾達 (tire) - you
厥達 (sire) - they
朕達乎 (merum) - us
爾達乎 (terum) - you
厥達乎 (serum) - them
朕達之 (minno) - our
爾達之 (tinno) - your
厥達之 (sinno) - their
朕達向 (mirge) - to/for us
爾達向 (tirge) - to/for you
厥達向 (sirge) - to/for them
朕達与 (minna) - with us
爾達与 (tinna) - with you
厥達与 (sinna) - with them
朕達从 (mirette) - from us
爾達从 (tirette) - from you
厥達从 (sirette) - from them
朕達从 (mirte) - from us [alternative]
爾達从 (tirte) - from you [alternative]
厥達从 (sirte) - from them [alternative]
朕達似 (mirde) - like us
爾達似 (tirde) - like you
厥達似 (sirde) - like them

PRONOUNS [alternative for both formal and informal usage]
私 (ata) - I; my [inalienable]
你 (oto) - you; your [inalienable]
他 (utu) - he, she, it; his, her, its [inalienable]
私乎 (abu) - me
你乎 (obu) - you
他乎 (ubu) - him, her, it
私之 (aga) - my [alienable]
你之 (oga) - your [alienable]
他之 (uga) - his, her, its [alienable]
私向 (azu) - to/for me
你向 (ozu) - to/for you
他向 (uzu) - to/for him, her, it
私与 (azu) - with me
你与 (ozu) - with you
他与 (uzu) - with him/her/it
私从 (agu) - from me
你从 (ogu) - from you
他从 (ugu) - from him/her/it
私似 (akō) - like me
你似 (okō) - like you
他似 (ukō) - like him/her/it

私們 (aban) - we; our [inalienable]
你們 (oban) - you; your [inalienable]
他們 (ubon) - they; their [inalienable]
私們乎 (ambu) - us
你們乎 (ombu) - you
他們乎 (umbu) - them
私們之 (anga) - our [alienable]
你們之 (onga) - your [alienable]
他們之 (unga) - their [alienable]
私們向 (amu) - to/for us
你們向 (omu) - to/for you
他們向 (umu) - to/for them
私們与 (amu) - with us
你們与 (omu) - with you
他們与 (umu) - with them
私們从 (anku) - from us
你們从 (onku) - from you
他們从 (unku) - from them
私們似 (ankō) - like us
你們似 (onkō) - like you
他們似 (unkō) - like them


皆 (yun) - everyone, everybody
皆乎 (yum) - everyone, everybody
皆之 (yuno) - everyone's, everybody's
皆向 (yugo) - to/for everyone, to/for everybody
皆与 (yunna) - with everyone, with everybody
皆从 (yutta) - from everyone, from everybody
皆似 (yunda) - like everyone, like everybody

The alienable/inalienable distinction in one set of pronouns may be an ancient relic or a later innovation. Either way, for some reason it exists.

DETERMINERS
兩 (katta) - both
何 (ma) - what
何 (na) - what [must be followed by a particle]
啥 (mi) - what
啥 (ni) - what [must be followed by a particle]
何物 (nāsa) - what thing [physical]
何事 (nāsa) - what thing [abstract]
何人 (nagoi) - who
此物 (tada) - this thing [close to speaker]
其物 (noda) - that thing [close to listener]
彼物 (kada) - that thing [far from both]
此 (ta) - this, these; this one, these ones [close to speaker]
其 (no) - that, those; that one, those ones [close to listener]
彼 (ka) - that, those; that one, those ones [far from both]
此人 (tagoi) - this person [close to speaker]
其人 (nogoi) - that person [close to listener]
彼人 (kagoi) - that person [far from both]
此所 (tadaga) - this place [close to speaker]
其所 (nodogo) - that place [close to listener]
彼所 (kadaga) - that place [far from both]

NOUNS
地球 (mābōl) - Earth
日 (yala) - sun
日 (pī) - sun [mostly in compounds]
昜 (naya) - sun
月 (kuo) - moon
星 (kutsu) - star
昜光 (naibalga) - sunlight
月光 (kunbalga) - moonlight
星光 (kutsubalga) - starlight
日 (ile) - day; sun
夜 (ei) - night
夜 (yulo) - night
日間 (ilgozo) - daytime
夜間 (eigozo) - night-time
週 (nabigi) - week
月 (kuo) - month
年 (ozo) - year
季節 (kwizette) - season
春 (tuogu) - spring
夏 (suo) - summer
秋 (suesi) - autumn
冬 (telbe) - winter
旭 (higara) - rising sun; emergence [of a positive thing]; up-and-comer [an entertainer, etc.]
旭人 (higartun) - up-and-comer [an entertainer, etc.]; fresh face
曛 (hingala) - sunset; twilight; dusk
瑳 (tsahara) - lustre, glitter, shine [of a gem or something likened to a gem either literally or figuratively]
水月 (utugū) - the moon reflected in water
水朋 (ubissui) - the moon reflected in water; unrequited love [for any reason]; deception [usually romantic and/or sexual]
水朋人 (ubissuidun) - an attractive person who is romantically and/or sexually out of reach [for any reason]; tease; deceiver, con-artist
太陽 (ennai) - sun; eastern or southern side of a mountain
太陰 (ensai) - moon; western or northern side of a mountain
小陽 (chonnai) - sun; eastern or southern side of a hill
小陰 (chossai) - moon; western or northern side of a hill
日月 (ilguo) - sun and moon; certainties of life; life
光 (kwalga) - light; beams or rays of light; gleam, glow
影 (saya) - shadow
火 (pīge) - fire, flame
火 (tulo) - fire, flame; blaze
水 (utu) - water
高準 (ippi) - high water; high tide; high water level
濕 (sizi) - moisture, wetness, dampness
颶 (kuro) - cyclone; typhoon; hurricane
風 (tulo) - wind
風水 (tullūtu) - wind and rain
熏 (kinde) - smoke; fog
霧 (sumo) - mist; vapour; fog
食 (sebika) - food
古人 (onkoi) - the ancients; ancestor
森 (kuru) - forest
森子 (kuruchu) - small forest
木 (puo) - tree
木子 (puochu) - small tree; bush; branch
枝 (oho) - branch; twig
菇 (kombu) - mushroom
人 (koi) - person; human being
人多 (koita) - people; humans; humanity [irregular]
男 (uru) - man; boy [15~20+ years old]
女 (ninge) - woman; girl [15~20+ years old]
男人 (urugoi) - man; men; males
女人 (ninkoi) - woman; women; females
㚻人 (temolgoi) - intersex/non-binary/transgender person; IS/NB/TG people
侽 (unji) - guy; general term for male person
㚢 (ninji) - girl; general term for female person
𠆧 (nunji) - general term for IS/NB/TG person
父 (aba) - father
母 (ana) - mother
爸 (aga) - dad
爸 (baba) - dad
妈 (ama) - mum
妈 (mama) - mum
老爸 (aga) - father; elderly male relative; t.o.a for older man
老母 (aba) - mother; elderly female relative; t.o.a for older woman
父母 (aga) - parent; term of address for older person
父母 (aba) - parent; term of address for older person
父母 (bumu) - father and mother; parents
㽒 (erge) - young man; term of address for younger man
娘 (nize) - young woman; term of address for younger woman
㳇 (aga) - elderly male relative; term of address for older man
姆 (ana) - elderly female relative; term of address for older woman
伯父 (chije) - paternal uncle [older than father]
叔父 (chije) - paternal uncle [younger than father]
伯母 (obo) - paternal aunt [older than father]
叔母 (obo) - paternal aunt [younger than father]
舅父 (chije) - maternal uncle [older than mother]
姨父 (chije) - maternal uncle [younger than mother]
舅母 (obo) - maternal aunt [older than mother]
姨母 (obo) - maternal aunt [younger than mother]
老男 (oguso) - old man; term of address for older man
老女 (ogume) - old woman; term of address for older woman
老娚 (ikatsu) - elder relative
夭娚 (itsuda) - younger relative
弟妹 (itsu) - younger sibling
姊妹 (sazara) - sisters
兄弟 (acchere) - brothers
兄 (akke) - brother [older]
弟 (acche) - brother [younger]
姊 (saza) - sister [older]
妹 (saza) - sister [younger]
夫 (mukuru) - husband
夫 (ukū) - husband
妻 (okobe) - wife
妻 (okō) - wife
丈 (daran) - husband; man
婦 (maba) - wife; woman
娚 (naye) - married couple
婚 (naka) - marriage
族 (sugu) - family; clan; tribe; kin
會 (abā) - meeting, gathering
樂會 (hayabā) - party
鳥 (lundo) - bird
鷹 (koccho) - hawk, falcon, eagle
鴉 (kwara) - crow, raven
鴉子 (kwaruchu) - jackdaw
羽 (tulgo) - wing [of anything, incl. birds, insects, etc.]
羽子 (tulguchu) - feather
翼 (dipu) - wing [of a bird]; fin [of a fish, etc.]
水鳥 (leclege) - water bird
魚 (kala) - fish
島 (sime) - island
島子 (simichi) - small island, islet
嶋 (tō) - hilly or mountainous island
嶋子 (tebichi) - stack [geological formation]
丘 (tsugu) - hill
丘子 (tsuguchu) - small hill, hillock
山 (kwere) - mountain
岳 (korgwere) - tall mountain; high mountain
嶺 (kwerjē) - mountain ridge; mountain range
峯 (taga) - mountaintop; peak; summit
阜 (mette) - mound; heap
冢 (mette) - burial mound
穴 (angar) - hole; opening; cave; pit; lair, den; gateway
孔 (angar) - hole; opening; orifice; gateway
窞 (kwangge) - hole; pit; sinkhole
地穴 (bugumu) - tunnel; burrow; cave
關 (karon) - barrier; frontier pass
砂 (lio) - sand
心 (sizem) - heart; mind; will; courage, strength; emotion
心臟 (sizem) - heart
腹 (hugu) - stomach, belly
顏 (nūro) - face
貌 (bezel) - facial appearance; facial features; looks
陰莖 (imhē) - penis
陰道 (indō) - vagina
硬枝 (charoho) - penis [poetic; lit. hard branch]
濕蛤 (sizijibi) - vagina; vulva [poetic; lit. moist clam]
胸 (kenge) - chest; bosom
奶 (pongo) - breast [of a woman]
乳 (ibe) - breast [of a woman]
乳 (ibesi) - milk [human]
乳 (siti) - milk [animal]
啂 (nodon) - nipple
馬 (luo) - horse
馬 (moru) - horse
黑馬 (kōmoru) - black horse
白馬 (sīmoru) - white horse
駹 (kōzīmoru) - black horse with a white face; black-and-white horse
騢 (pulzīmoru) - horse of mixed red and white colour; red roan; bay roan
騢 (jaroyo) - multicoloured horse
虹騢 (hilumjaroyo) - multicoloured horse; rainbow-coloured horse; "horse that can run to the end of a rainbow"
䮾騢 (morōjaroyo) - multicoloured horse; magnificent horse; massive horse; horse with dragon-like qualities
騩 (kolikkū) - demonic black horse
驪 (olugōmoru) - fine black horse
騜 (oluzīmoru) - fine white horse
䭸媽 (oshugebi) - all horses belonging to one person or family, etc.
驥 (olumoru) - fast horse
美紅馬 (uchūbulumoru) - Przewalski's horse [lit. beautiful red horse]
䭸 (oshu) - stallion
媽 (gebi) - mare
秣物 (urdumo) - horse fodder
羈 (kojo) - bridle
襲闖動 (salbucchoma) - horseback raid; expansion of territory by raids; capture of prisoners/slaves
襲闖動 (lūbucchoma) - horseback raid; expansion of territory by raids; imposition of one's will on others
戰 (shudo) - fight; battle; war
戰爭 (torjē) - war
犯 (manda) - crime; offence
罪 (mondo) - sin
慰 (tebe) - comfort; consolation; calm; contentment
原 (kende) - field, plain; meadow; grassland; steppe; pasture
廓原 (nongu) - grassland; steppe; expanse of flat land
家畜 (kajukku) - livestock
培動 (hurma) - cultivation; nurturing; fostering; maintainance
高 (korgoka) - height; high place
龍 (morō) - dragon
曨 (tagamrō) - rising sun; dragon of the sun
朧 (odamrō) - rising moon; dragon of the moon
彩龍 (saramrō) - multicoloured dragon; colourful dragon; rainbow-coloured dragon; rainbow [poetic]
虹 (hilum) - rainbow
七彩 (tsittsai) - colours of the rainbow; many colours
天 (numa) - sky
畕天 (terunuma) - horizon
美天 (uchūnuma) - beautiful sky
神 (yumo) - spirit, deity [in general]; sky spirit
帝 (tanguru) - sky god
帝地 (tanguru) - abode of the gods
帝言 (tanguru) - an oath before the gods
天命 (tanguru) - will of the gods; Mandate of Heaven
聖地 (bōmā) - sacred place; hallowed ground
信 (ehe) - trust, faith, belief
言 (saba) - word
言言 (sabazaba) - incantation; mantra; slogan
聖言言 (bōzabazaba) - sacred incantation; magical formula; mantra
言 (mono) - speech; word
叫 (muro) - shout, scream, yell
呱 (kwā) - cry, scream [of a baby]
話 (kele) - language
舌 (kele) - tongue
法 (hakaba) - law; rule
手 (kete) - hand
腕 (ketesso) - arm
腋 (konu) - armpit
足 (yalga) - foot
腳 (yalgassa) - leg
股 (poccho) - thigh
俣 (yarma) - crotch, groin
血 (uro) - blood
肉 (sili) - flesh, meat
骨 (luo) - bone
腱 (yerge) - cartilage, gristle; tendon
鱗 (seme) - scales [of a fish]
毛 (appa) - hair, fur
髮 (appa) - hair [on head]
鬒 (iclin) - glossy black hair
貓 (maya) - cat
乕 (hala) - tiger
乕獸 (halahū) - ferocious tiger; tiger; any tiger-like beast
䖘 (kecli) - striped rabbit [orig. Nesolagus sinensis]
兔 (yomol) - hare, rabbit
狼 (beri) - wolf
熊 (orgo) - bear [of any kind]; brown bear
熊 (korom) - bear [of any kind]; brown bear
羆 (hokkorom) - brown bear; grizzly bear; Kodiak bear; Kamchatka brown bear; any unusually large brown bear
大熊 (ho'orgo) - large bear
鹿 (tebe) - deer; elk; any kind of deer-like ungulate
鹿 (monoko) - deer; large horned deer
麕 (kurun) - roe deer; fallow deer; small deer; small horned deer
獐 (charangi) - water deer; small deer; small hornless deer
麂 (gili) - muntjac
貘 (maka) - giant panda
豕 (clika) - pig
野豬 (nōdzika) - wild boar
象 (clanga) - elephant
鮫 (korbu) - shark
蝶 (lebe) - butterfly
蠅 (clomu) - fly
馬蠅 (lūzomu) - horsefly; botfly
馬蠅 (mōzomu) - horsefly; botfly
蠶 (zumu) - silkworm
蚰蜒 (lulon) - house centipede
床 (ozu) - bed
家 (koto) - house; home
村 (palga) - village; hamlet; small rural settlement
鎭 (koto) - town; village
鎭根 (kotobu) - town; small urban settlement
市根 (diyuhu) - city; large urban settlement
城 (kwiba) - fortress; fortified settlement; city; castle
畕 (tere) - edge; boundary; border; peripheral territory
囯 (maga) - country, state
囯 (kukko) - country, state; kingdom
王囯 (hōgukko) - kingdom
帝囯 (tēgukko) - empire
南囯 (namgukko) - southern country, southern countries [can also refer to countries perceived as being "southern" even if they're not in the south]
社會 (jakwai) - society
旗 (baraja) - flag; banner
囯旗 (kukki) - national flag
族旗 (sūbaraja) - family flag
王族旗 (hōzūbaraja) - royal standard
社會主義 (jakwaijuge) - socialism
友 (yordu) - friend
良動 (shengeme) - good deed; act of kindness; being helpful
根 (hulu) - root; foundation; base
中 (incho) - centre, middle, inside
派 (harga) - group, faction [political]
繇 (huso) - reason
恥 (kwacha) - shame
性交 (shenkō) - sexual intercourse
願 (karma) - desire, wish
欲 (karma) - desire; lust
望 (here) - wish, desire; hope; gaze [from afar]
美紅花 (uchūbuluro) - rose [lit. beautiful red flower]
薔花 (rōzuro) - rose flower
菊花 (kuguro) - chrysanthemum flower
莉花 (riluro) - jasmine flower
舞 (igi) - dance
踴 (nura) - joyful dance with singing
舞動 (igime) - dance; dancing
踴動 (nurama) - joyful dance with singing; dancing and singing
饗 (hanga) - feast, banquet, buffet
餼 (takkatsu) - sacrificial offering [anything, but often food]
世界 (shigai) - world
下界 (algende) - netherworld; hell
上界 (nungende) - aetherworld; heaven
歷史 (lecchi) - history
現狀 (henjang) - status quo; as things are
況 (sini) - state, condition
旅 (kulgoma) - trip, journey, travel
鞍 (nerge) - saddle
馬鞍 (emmel) - saddle
輿 (tergo) - palanquin, litter, cacolet
車 (cleya) - chariot
蠟燭 (lōchokko) - candle
錘 (nūja) - hammer
太錘 (ennūja) - large hammer
錘子 (nūjuchu) - small hammer
束 (chugu) - bundle
繩 (sibike) - rope, cord
禮繩 (sidi) - rope used in rituals
禮繩動 (sidime) - ritual bondage
禮繩人 (siditun) - a person in ritual bondage
禮繩所 (siditu) - place for ritual bondage
賢人 (gintun) - sage; a person who is virtuous, wise, dedicated to something, worthy of something, etc.
庶人 (kocchō) - common people; commoner
俗人 (zōnin) - layperson; worldling; vulgar person
瘋人 (dulugoi) - insane or eccentric person; nonconformist; weirdo
靚 (urgubu) - handsomeness; good looks [of a man]
媄 (ningubu) - beauty; good looks [of a woman]
美女 (gūninge) - beautiful woman; beauty
美女 (minebe) - beautiful woman; beauty
美男 (guburu) - handsome man; hunk
美男 (minam) - handsome man; hunk
可愛女 (keoninge) - cute girl
可愛男 (keburu) - cute boy
男演人 (unnubunji) - actor
女演人 (ninubunji) - actress
頭 (penge) - head
目 (silem) - eye
眉 (sorum) - eyebrow
睫 (silmappa) - eyelash
眥 (silmezhure) - corner of the eye
黛 (īzorum) - women's eyebrows; women's black eyebrows and eyelashes
目捉 (silbeyomo) - eye-catchingness; attention-grabbingness
鼻 (nere) - nose
鼻水 (kōmul) - nasal mucus, snot
口 (suo) - mouth
脣 (shulo) - lip
瘡 (kubo) - boil; blister; scab; pimple
疽 (pungu) - ulcer; carbuncle; abscess; gangrene; tumour
毒 (kwishe) - poison; venom; toxin
屎 (hakka) - faeces, excrement
屍 (kalam) - corpse, cadaver, dead body
屍欲 (kalmagarma) - necrophilia; sexual attraction to corpses
屍姦 (kalbamolma) - necrophilia; sex with a corpse
墓 (mul) - grave, tomb
墓場 (mulba) - graveyard, cemetery
壙 (hagasa) - burial ground
紙 (chogu) - paper
紙 (kete) - paper
紗 (sha) - gauze; muslin
紈 (guban) - white silk; light-coloured silk; fine silk [of any colour]
緋 (pulu) - scarlet silk
絳 (kurūzu) - crimson silk
緅 (suru) - purple silk
服 (bugu) - clothes; clothing
衣裳 (uzo) - clothes; clothing
褲 (umi) - pants, trousers
裙 (gulun) - skirt
裳 (dan) - skirt [esp. Chinese-style]
幨 (chobo) - overcoat; coat; jacket
身裙 (hingulun) - dress; gown
全身裙 (zonkingulun) - dress; gown; robe [any garment that covers the entire body]
衵 (kodo) - women's undergarments; undershirt and underskirt
內褲 (injumi) - underwear; briefs; panties
男內褲 (urinjumi) - men's underwear; briefs
女內褲 (ninjumi) - women's underwear; panties
挧熕 (Ulduga) - Ulduga [endonym for conpeople]
挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) - Ulduga language [endonym for the conpeople's language]
挧熕囯 (Uldugamā) - Ulduga country [country of conpeople]
奔餮胡 (Pulduga) - Pulduga [exonym for conpeople; derogatory, lit. "running gluttonous barbarians"]
賁鐵瑚 (Pulduga) - Pulduga [exonym for conpeople; new orthography, lit. "brave iron people of virtue"]
勛仙 (Hunzen) - Hun; Huns [conpeople; folk endonym, lit. "meritious immortal"]
勛戎 (Hunnū) - Hun; Huns [as allies]
勛話 (Hun kele) - Hunnic language [the language of allies]
匈奴 (Honna) - Hun; Huns [as enemies in the northwest]
匈話 (Hon kele) - Hunnic language [the language of northwestern enemies]
碧龍戰士 (shōmrōjenji) - a kind of warrior; raiders who strike during the night [lit. blue-green dragon warrior]
紅龍戰士 (pulumrōjenji) - a kind of warrior; raiders who strike during the day [lit. red dragon warrior]
球 (pugel) - sphere, orb, ball, globe [orig. "circle"; orthographically repurposed to fit the change in meaning]
圓 (kere) - circle; ring
囘 (kere) - circle; ring; round; rotation
〇 (bōl) - circle; sphere [neologism for both senses; originally the suffixed form of 球 (pugel), orthographically repurposed]
珍珠 (chinchu) - pearl
蚌 (boruga) - oyster
竿 (sōga) - pole, rod, stick
畜竿 (kwessōga) - herding stick
他面 (telbe) - other side; opposite side
他面 (tamen) - other side; opposite side
列 (kerde) - order; sequence
可愛 (keo) - cute thing
可愛動 (keoma) - cute behaviour; acting cute; being cute; cuteness
映畫 (yengō) - film, movie
映畫集中 (yengōdogo) - film premiere
王 (honga) - king
皇帝 (gubōtō) - emperor of China
天皇 (tenhō) - emperor of Japan
韓王 (nimgum) - king of Korea
錢 (zen) - money
笄 (pinne) - hairpin
景色 (kenshiki) - landscape; scenery
名 (nimu) - name [irregular]
指 (chibu) - finger
食指 (shōzo) - index finger
中指 (inchū) - middle finger
名無指 (nintonchū) - ring finger
小指 (tsomu) - little finger

ADJECTIVES
大 (ene) - big, large
小 (choro) - small, little
高 (korgo) - high; tall
輕 (kepe) - light [of weight]
廓 (kile) - broad; wide; expansive
厚 (chugu) - thick; voluptuous, curvy [of a woman]; muscular, beefy [of a man]
薄 (kwege) - thin; skinny, lean, slim [of a person]
美 (uchuku) - beautiful
靚的 (urgubuda) - handsome; good-looking [of a man]
媄的 (ningubuda) - beautiful; good-looking [of a woman]
嬛 (sio) - cute, pretty; young and graceful
可愛 (kebe) - cute, adorable, sweet
目捉的 (silbeyomoda) - eye-catching, attention-grabbing
良 (sheng) - good; kind, nice; beneficial
健 (sheng) - healthy
朱 (churu) - dark red; maroon; cinnabar; claret; blood red
紅 (pulu) - red [in general]; medium red; scarlet; crimson; vermillion
赤 (pulu) - red [in general]; medium red; scarlet; crimson; vermillion
纁 (hingal) - light red; orange; pink; amaranth; sky orange
黃 (sirē) - yellow; beige; cream-coloured; pale; blonde
緋 (pulu) - scarlet; blushing; lively, energetic; lewd; shameful
絳 (kurūzu) - crimson; regnal; dignified
紫 (libu) - purple; violet; lavender; amethyst
緅 (suru) - dark purple; very dark red
紺 (kumzu) - dark purple; dark violet; dark blue
靑 (kogōn) - dark blue-green; teal; cerulean; sapphire; jungle green
碧 (shongōn) - blue-green [in general]; medium blue-green; jade; sea green
翠 (shono) - light blue-green; cyan; turquoise; emerald; sky blue
鬒 (iclin) - dark yellow-green; dark forest green; olive; near-black
綠 (usho) - yellow-green [in general]; medium green; forest green
艵 (hiji) - light yellow-green; chartreuse; lime; spring bud
黑 (koru) - black
白 (siri) - white
光 (kwalga) - white; light; bright; shining; gleaming; sparkling
水朋的 (ubissuida) - blue and white/yellow; alluring but elusive; attractive but "fake"; deceptive [usually sexually and/or romantically]
旭的 (higarda) - rising [of the sun]; emerging [of a positive thing]; up-and-coming [of an entertainer, etc.]
聖 (bogo) - sacred, holy
重要 (lumuki) - important
充 (chalga) - full
饒 (kogo) - abundant, plentiful, copious
瑳 (tsahara) - lustrous, shining, brilliant [of a gem or something likened to a gem either literally or figuratively]
饞 (bisebul) - gluttonous, ravenous; overindulgent; insatiable
饞的 (bisebida) - gluttonous, ravenous; overindulgent; hungry
暴 (bō) - violent; cruel; brutal; tyrannical; fierce; extreme
憃 (uko) - stupid, foolish
瘋 (dulu) - insane; eccentric; nonconformist; strange [of a person]
每 (yo) - every, each
每日 (yogile) - every day, all days
充日 (chelgile) - lasting all day, lasting the whole day
停弗 (kulutur) - incessant, ceaseless, pauseless
男 (uru) - male
女 (ninge) - female
㚻 (temol) - intersex; non-binary [of gender]
賢 (gina) - worthy; virtuous; wise [of a person]
充賢 (chelgina) - impeccable; without fault [of a person]
清 (sio) - clean, pure; clear
濕 (sizi) - wet, moist, damp
森森 (kuruguru) - dense, lush, thriving [of forest, trees, etc.]
狼様 (berigete) - wolflike; silent/invisible and devastating
狼像 (berigete) - wolflike; big and hairy; scary-looking
馬様 (morugoto) - horselike; fast and reliable; endurant
馬像 (morugoto) - horselike; elegant with fine hair [fig. of a person]
左派 (kwasabarga) - left-wing
右派 (ogobarga) - right-wing
名無 (nimungtom) - nameless; anonymous
名無 (nintom) - nameless; anonymous [informal]

ADVERBS
前在 (ezene) - in front
後在 (takana) - behind
前時 (bajanne) - early
後時 (nejenne) - late
又 (taka) - again
或成 (arōru) - or else, otherwise; then; or consequently
乃 (o) - then
乃 (kwa) - then [expresses surprise, admiration, shock, etc.]
乃成 (neki) - then; and then; consequently
乃然 (tagan) - so; therefore; thus; as such
今 (nim) - now
既 (niki) - already
何然 (nan) - what; how; such; so
真在 (ūrona) - actually, really, truthfully, truly, in fact
繇从 (husoto) - because; because of
每 (yo/yog-) - every, each [prefix]
每日時 (yogilenne) - daily, every day
充日時 (chelgilenne) - all day, for the whole day
每週時 (yonahīnna) - weekly, every week
每日 (moinitti) - daily, every day
亙 (cluku) - continuous; constant
陡様然 (genketen) - suddenly, unexpectedly, abruptly
暴然 (bōnan) - violently; cruelly; brutally; tyrannically; fiercely; extremely
手以 (keten) - by hand, manually
停弗然 (kulutunnan) - without stopping; incessantly; without pause; without a break
狼様然 (berigeten) - like a wolf; silently/invisibly and devastatingly
馬様然 (morugoton) - like a horse; quickly and reliably; durably
水朋然 (ubissuinan) - like the moon reflected in water; deceptively [usually sexually and/or romantically]
可愛然 (keben) - cutely
更 (lō) - more
至 (meten) - at least; even

CONJUNCTIONS
及 (o) - and
及 (kwa) - and [expresses surprise, eg. "you AND ME!?"]
或 (aru) - or
虽 (hu) - but; although, even though
卻 (uhu) - however, yet, nonetheless; but
若 (gene) - if; assuming; supposing
若非 (genbo) - if not; unless; if there is no; if not for
偌 (ka) - that [following a verb, eg. "I think (that) you ate too much"]

PARTICLES
么 (ka/ke/ke/ko/ko) - interrogative marker [emphatic]
把 (-ppa/ppe/ppe/ppa/ppa) - topic marker ~ focus particle [after vowels]
把 (-appa/eppe/ippe/oppa/uppa) - topic marker ~ focus particle [after consonants]
介 (-ba) - topic marker [more similar to Japanese は in its range than the above]
㸦 (-ya/ye/ye/ya/ya) - agentive particle ~ secondary subject marker [emphatic; after /m ŋ/ and /mV nV ŋgV/; rarely necessary]
㸦 (-ga/ge/ge/ga/ga) - agentive particle ~ secondary subject marker [emphatic; after /n r l/; rarely necessary]
㸦 (-nga/nge/nge/nga/nga) - agentive particle ~ secondary subject marker [emphatic; elsewhere; rarely necessary]
丌 (-ge/gi/gi/ge/gi) - third-person possessive [emphatic]
乍 (-ja) - particle expressing suddenness
哈 (ta) - quotation particle

The difference between the interrogative suffix 吗 and 么 is that the latter emphasises the question; for example:
食吗? (sebumo?) - are you going to eat?
食么? (sebu ko?) - hey, are you going to eat?

While 吗 does not have any notable intonational difference, 么 tends to have a rising or dipping pitch and may be elongated; it nonetheless has a short vowel, and elongating it beyond the length of long vowels with too exaggerated a change in pitch is considered annoying. That's not to say 吗 can't have a rising pitch, too, but it's equally common for it to be accentually consistent.

The third-person emphatic possessive 丌:
友丌 (yordu-gi) - HIS friend

The difference between the agentive case and emphatic agentive particle is as follows:
貓补鳥殺了 (mayan lundo kwezede) - the cat killed the bird
貓㸦鳥殺了 (maya-nga lundo kwezede) - it was the cat that killed the bird

Although the agentive would generally not be marked at all, sometimes it is considered better to do so for clarity, usually in complex sentences. An important thing to note is that it's (usually) only used when there is an action affecting something else (with some possible exceptions especially in formal writing), while the emphatic agentive particle can be used for emphasis in any kind of sentence.

把 puts the focus on whatever comes before it with an implication of importance and may be honorific in some contexts (or informal in others), while 介 is more neutral overall without any inherent implications... but it might get a bit muddy sometimes.

POSTPOSITIONS
前時 (bajanne) - before; earlier than
後時 (nejenne) - after; later than

PREFIXES
無 (a/e/e/e/a) - non-, not
無 (a/e/e/e/a) - non-, not [induces voicing in /p t k/]
無 (an/en/en/en/an) - non-, not [before /n d g z d͡z d͡ʒ/]
無 (an/en/en/en/an) - non-, not [before vowels]

SUFFIXES
歲 (ozē) - -year-old [after a consonant]
歲 (zē) - -year-old [after a vowel]
無 (gtam/gtem/gtem/gtom/gtom) - -less [after /n/] - turns the /n/ into an /ŋ/
無 (attam/ettem/ittem/attom/uttom) - -less [after other consonants; monosyllabic roots]
無 (tam/tem/tem/tom/tom) - -less [after other consonants; polysyllabic roots]
無 (ttam/ttem) - -less [after a vowel]

VERBS
是 (bolo) - to be; become [irregular]
有 (oru) - to exist [irregular]
有 (i) - to have, own, possess [irregular]
無 (obu) to not have, own, possess [irregular]
有始 (orulga) - to come into existence, come to be; form; take form
有始 (ilge) - to acquire, gain; develop
造 (meke) - to make, create; build [irregular]
作 (teke) - to do [irregular]
見 (kwana) - to see; view; look at
集中 (togo) - to focus
話 (yutto) - to say; speak, talk; talk about
生 (ele) - to live; to be alive
死 (kolo) - to die
殺 (kweze) - to kill
埋 (moldu) - to bury
與 (anda) - to give
贈 (katsu) - to give, offer [something precious]
膳 (ulo) - to give food; feed [a person]
培 (huro) - to cultivate; nurture; foster; maintain
讓 (sagatta) - to allow, permit, let
願 (karma) - to desire, wish, want
欲 (karma) - to desire; lust after
望 (here) - to wish, desire; hope; gaze [from afar]
信 (ehe) - to believe
言 (mono) - to say
叫 (muro) - to shout, scream, yell
呱 (kwā) - to cry, scream [of a baby]
食 (sebu) - to eat
饞 (bisebu) - to overeat; be gluttonous
饒 (kogomu) - to be abundant, plentiful, copious
饗 (hanga) - to host a feast, banquet, buffet
秣 (urdu) - to feed [a horse]
餵 (ordo) - to feed [anything]
啂 (imi) - to suck [on a nipple]
吮 (imi) - to suck [on anything]
昇 (nobo) - to rise; ascend
沈 (otsu) - to fall; descend
登 (kao) - to climb
從 (taga) - to follow
恐 (pele) - to be afraid; fear
目捉 (silbeyomo) - to attract attention; draw the eyes
唆 (ile) - to seduce; tempt; entice; charm; attract [not necessarily with negative implications]
眽 (kwana) - to ogle; look at; stare at; spy on
摸 (yomo) - to grope, fondle
觸 (koho) - to touch
打 (chaba) - to hit, punch, beat; chop
複 (takana) - to repeat
停 (kulu) - to stop
完 (kwidu) - to end; to be finished
呱 (kwā) - to cry, wail [of a baby]
讚 (ecchi) - to praise
剝 (kwakka) - to peel; skin; strip
隔 (tselte) - to separate
充 (chalga) - to fill
旅 (kulgo) - to travel
逃 (urgo) - to flee, escape, run away
至 (yaga) - to reach, arrive; come; result in
入 (peri) - to enter; come inside
會 (hanga) - to meet, gather, congregate
闖 (puccho) - to burst in; charge in; break through; to raid a settlement [usually on horseback]
襲闖 (salbuccho) - to raid a settlement [usually on horseback]; expand territory by raids; capture prisoners/slaves
襲闖 (lūbuccho) - to raid a settlement [usually on horseback]; expand territory by raids; impose one's will on others
暴 (bukku) - to expose, reveal, show [something unpleasant]
待 (ojo) - to wait
乘 (puno) - to ride; mount
戰 (shudo) - to fight
緋 (pulu) - to blush
恥 (kwacha) - to be ashamed
緋恥 (pulgwacha) - to be deeply ashamed
輝 (koga) - to shine, sparkle, radiate; be lustrous
濕 (sizi) - to become wet, moist, damp
燒 (deke) - to burn [transitive]
腐 (sei) - to rot; decay; spoil; mould [of flesh, fruits, etc.]
朽 (sei) - to rot; decay [of wood]
產 (umu) - to give birth
產 (umuna) - to give birth; breed; be fertile
孳 (bumuna) - to breed in large numbers; have many children; multiply; be prolific, productive [figuratively]
習 (tebe) - to flap [wings]; flutter; fly [of a bird]
飛 (hile) - to fly [of anything, incl. birds]
舞 (igi) - to dance
踴 (nura) - to dance joyfully while singing
高準 (ippi) - rise [of water]
喵 (maya) - to meow
縛 (sibi) - to tie up; bind; restrain [with rope, etc.]
捆 (siti) - to tie up; bundle together
婚 (nai) - to marry; get married
男婚 (urugani) - to marry a man
女婚 (ningani) - to marry a woman
恥 (kwacha) - to shame, humiliate
破 (molu) - to break; destroy; ruin; destabilise; bring down
姦 (molu) - to violate; abuse; rape
屍姦 (kalbamolu) - to have sex with a corpse
碎 (muro) - to shatter, crumble, break apart, fall apart
碎 (chenke) - to break with _ [an object]
轢 (chenke) - to run over with _ [a vehicle]
拈 (chibu) - to pinch
摘 (tebi) - to pluck, pick [flowers, fruits, leaves, etc.]
機能 (kinē) - to function, work

NUMERALS
零 (lenge) - zero
一 (itti) - one
二 (katta) - two
三 (kolom) - three
四 (nile) - four
五 (udo) - five
六 (kudo) - six
七 (senke) - seven
八 (yala) - eight
九 (kegen) - nine
十 (chobo) - ten
些 (kweshe) - a couple, a few, some

十一 (chōyutti) - eleven
十二 (chōgatta) - twelve
十三 (chōgolom) - thirteen
十四 (chōnile) - fourteen
十五 (chōbudo) - fifteen
十六 (chōgudo) - sixteen
十七 (chōzenke) - seventeen
十八 (chōyala) - eighteen
十九 (chōkken) - nineteen

二十 (kacchobo) - twenty
三十 (kolchobo) - thirty
四十 (nilchobo) - forty
五十 (ucchobo) - fifty
六十 (kucchobo) - sixty
七十 (senchobo) - seventy
八十 (yalchobo) - eighty
九十 (kēchobo) - ninety
些十 (kwecchobo) - a couple dozen, some dozens

二十一 (kacchōyutti) - twenty-one
二十二 (kacchōgatta) - twenty-two
二十三 (kacchōgolom) - twenty-three
二十四 (kacchōnile) - twenty-four
二十五 (kacchōbudo) - twenty-five
二十六 (kacchōgudo) - twenty-six
二十七 (kacchōzenke) - twenty-seven
二十八 (kacchōyala) - twenty-eight
二十九 (kacchōkken) - twenty-nine

百 (nama) - hundred
一百 (innama) - one hundred
二百 (kannama) - two hundred
三百 (konnomo) - three hundred
四百 (ninnama) - four hundred
五百 (unnomo) - five hundred
六百 (kunnomo) - six hundred
七百 (sennama) - seven hundred
八百 (yannama) - eight hundred
九百 (kennama) - nine hundred
些百 (kwennama) - a couple hundred, some hundreds

千 (minga) - thousand; a lot
一千 (imminge) - one thousand
二千 (kamminga) - two thousand
三千 (kolminga) - three thousand
四千 (nilminge) - four thousand
五千 (umminga) - five thousand
六千 (kumminga) - six thousand
七千 (semminge) - seven thousand
八千 (yalminga) - eight thousand
九千 (kēminge) - nine thousand
些千 (kwemminge) - a couple thousand, some thousands

万 (miban) - ten thousand; myriad; a lot
一万 (immōn) - ten thousand
二万 (kammōn) - twenty thousand
三万 (kolmōn) - thirty thousand
四万 (nilmōn) - forty thousand
五万 (ummōn) - fifty thousand
六万 (kummōn) - sixty thousand
七万 (semmōn) - seventy thousand
八万 (yalmōn) - eighty thousand
九万 (kēmōn) - ninety thousand
些万 (kwemmōn) - a couple ten thousand, some ten thousands

百万 (nammōn) - million; a vast amount
一百万 (innammōn) - one million
二百万 (kanammōn) - two million
三百万 (konnommōn) - three million
四百万 (ninnammōn) - four million
五百万 (unnommōn) - five million
六百万 (kunnommōn) - six million
七百万 (sennammōn) - seven million
八百万 (yannammōn) - eight million
九百万 (kēnammōn) - nine million
些百万 (kwennammōn) - a couple million, some millions

千万 (mimmōn) - ten million; a vast amount
一千万 (immimmōn) - ten million
二千万 (kamimmōn) - twenty million
三千万 (kolmimmōn) - thirty million
四千万 (nilmimmōn) - forty million
五千万 (ummimmōn) - fifty million
六千万 (kummimmōn) - sixty million
七千万 (semmimmōn) - seventy million
八千万 (yalmimmōn) - eighty million
九千万 (kēmimmōn) - ninety million
些千万 (kwemmimmōn) - a dozen million, some dozen millions

亿 (yekki) - hundred million; incomprehensibly large amount
一亿 (iyekki) - one hundred million
二亿 (kayekki) - two hundred million
三亿 (koyekki) - three hundred million
四亿 (niyekki) - four hundred million
五亿 (uyekki) - five hundred million
六亿 (kuyekki) - six hundred million
七亿 (seyekki) - seven hundred million
八亿 (yayekki) - eight hundred million
九亿 (kēyekki) - nine hundred million
些亿 (kweyekki) - a couple hundred million, some hundred millions

CLASSIFIERS
呵 (-ga/ge) - general
句 (-go) - words, sentences, etc.
岸 (-n) - general [with hundreds - thousands]
干 (-gan/gen) - general [with tens of thousands - millions]
干 (-n) - general [with hundreds of millions]
回 (-kē) - times, occurrences
回 (-gē) - times, occurrences (preceded by /k tt kk/)
元 (-ba/be) - people
君 (-ba/be) - people
匹 (-bu) - horses and other large animals with tails
頭 (-gu) - cattle and other large animals [after vowels]
頭 (-ū) - cattle and other large animals [after consonants]

EXAMPLE SENTENCES

兩狼及鴉肉乎骨从剝能。
Katta beri o kwara silim luota kwakkanu.
Both wolves and crows can peel flesh from bone.

今厥達黑馬以乘仍、虽白馬以乘延了。
Nim sire kōmorun punotaga, hu sīmorun punodinda.
Now they often ride black horses, but they used to ride white horses.

姊妹二呵神补聖地向入可了。
Sazara kattaga yumon bōmāga perisette.
The sisters were allowed to enter the sacred place by two spirits.

何物一万干象似大匕卻羽子似輕是吗?
Nāsa immōngan clangada enebe uhu tulguchuda kepe bolom?
What's bigger than ten thousand elephants but as light as a feather?

尔把何作延么?
To-ppa ma tedim ke?
What are you doing?

貓九回喵即、食応使咔!
Maya senkegē mayasha, sebulgitokka!
If the cat meows nine times, you have to feed it!

不恥咔!真在讚応匉延!
Nakwachakka! Ūrona ecchilgeledim!
Don't be ashamed! Really, you should be being praised!

我等似不有住。
Morda norgul.
People like us did not cease to exist.

彼人鮫补生然食匉延吗?
Kagoi korbun elen sebuladimam?
Is that person being eaten alive by sharks?

此二元友恐互然舞延。
Ta katta-ba yordu pelenennen igidim.
These two friends are dancing like they're afraid of each other.

每週時老男厚美女向薔花之束與繇从水朋然舞仍。
Yonahīnna oguso chugu gūningene rōzuron chugu anda husoto ubissuinan igitege.
The old man gives the thicc beauty a bouquet of roses every week because she often dances seductively, but with no intention of doing more.

昜之昇及沈繇从日及夜有。
Nayan nobo o otsu husoto ile o ei oru.
There are day and night because the sun rises and sets.

月光時它木子乎錘以碎了。
Kunbalganna so puochum nūjan chenkede.
He broke a small tree with a hammer in the moonlight.

禮繩動時聖言言停弗然複応匉、繇从或成神縛匉了賢人乎不入能、乃成朕達之家畜乎讓合入応。
Sidimenne bōzabazaba kulutunnan takanalgela, husoto arōru yumo sibilede gintunum neperini, neki minno chōgudo kajukkum sagattal perilgi.
During ritual bondage the sacred incantation should be repeated without a break, because otherwise the spirits will not be able to enter the bound sage, and then we'll have to let them enter our livestock.

星介黑最夜時光最輝。
Kutsu-ba korundo yulonna kwalganda koga.
Stars shine the brightest on the blackest nights.

映畫集中時美緅身裙被女演人囯旗乎燒合目捉了。
Yengōdogonna uchukussuru hingulunbo ninubunji kukkim dekel silbeyomoda.
At the premiere, the actress in a beautiful dark purple dress attracted attention by burning the national flag.

尔之前在二頭乕獸戰即乍互始、若非死欲、逃応始咔!
Tono ezene katta-gu halahū shudoshajanamalga, genbo kolosō, urgolgelgakka!
If two ferocious tigers suddenly start fighting in front of you, unless you want to die, you should start running away!

殺匉前時厥之夫叫能了哈「匈奴城乎暴然襲闖延!」
Kwezele bajanna sonno mukuru muronda ta "Honna kwibam bōnan salbucchodim!"
Before being killed, her husband was able to yell "Huns are brutally raiding the fortress!"

畕天向不至能。
Terunumaga nayaganu.
It is impossible to reach the horizon.

地球之他面在蝶羽習即、此所颶有始能在。
Mābōlun telbene lebe tulgo tebeshe, tadagana kuro orulganu.
If a butterfly flaps its wings on the other side of the world, a hurricane may form here.

何然可愛貓!
Nan kebe maya!
What a cute cat!

樂會向至了男介皆㸦話仍靚的二十四歳男演人是。
Hayabāga yagada uru-ba yun-ga yuttodaga urgubuda kacchōnilezē unnubunji bol.
The man who came to the party is the handsome twenty-four-year-old actor that everyone is talking about.

尔之兄介既錢被饒及更有始欲?
Tono akke-ba niki zenbe kogomu kwa lō ilgesō?
Your older brother is already rich and still wants more!?

人多社會至現狀況可愛動無機能能延偌不信能。乃然、可愛動之培動重要。
Koita jakwai meten henjanganna keomatar kinēnidim ka neheni. Tagan, keoman hurma lumuki.
People can't believe that society can continue to function even in the current way without cuteness. As such, the cultivation of cuteness is important.
Last edited by Vlürch on 14 Oct 2020 09:18, edited 7 times in total.
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2711
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by sangi39 »

[:O]

Right now I just want to know how long this took you?

I think I can spot some Uralic and Altaic hints in the vocabulary (the numbers from one to four, for example, seem to be Uralic?), and "moru" for horse stood out pretty quickly.

It does feel Mongolic/Tungusic (vowel harmony, agglutinative), but I can't put my finger on why. I think with the phonology, it just sort of fits in quite well with that region.
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12Right now I just want to know how long this took you?
Well, I started working on it apparently pretty much exactly a year ago (since the first time I mentioned it on this forum was in early October last year) but took breaks that sometimes lasted weeks to focus on other conlangs, and didn't even open the .rtf file for at least two months before today, so... hmm, maybe half a year?
sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12I think I can spot some Uralic and Altaic hints in the vocabulary (the numbers from one to four, for example, seem to be Uralic?), and "moru" for horse stood out pretty quickly.
Yeah, the numerals 1-8 are Uralic while 9 and 10 are Altaic.

Most of the vocabulary is derived from Proto-Uralic or Proto-Altaic with some vowel weirdness and a couple of wacky sound changes (eg. voiceless stops remain voiceless but geminate voiceless stops become voiced; the justification is that voiceless stops became aspirated, geminate stops lost their gemination and became voiced, then the aspirated stops lost their aspiration), sometimes mixing them together if the reconstructed forms were similar enough with similar enough meanings. With some words I also mixed Proto-Yeniseian, Yukaghir and/or Proto-Sino-Tibetan, because why not? My handwave for that, even though it's supposed to be a naturalistic conlang, is that since Proto-Altaic (probably) never existed but the similarities exist, extending the net isn't any worse.

There are a lot of Middle and Old Chinese words meant as borrowings, too, the latter with some sound changes that really stretch plausibility, like breaking up consonants with secondary articulations by adding epenthetic vowels and sometimes inconsistent metathesis for literally no reason, but eh. Aesthetics came first. [:P]
sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12It does feel Mongolic/Tungusic (vowel harmony, agglutinative), but I can't put my finger on why. I think with the phonology, it just sort of fits in quite well with that region.
Thanks! [:D]
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2711
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by sangi39 »

Vlürch wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:02
sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12Right now I just want to know how long this took you?
Well, I started working on it apparently pretty much exactly a year ago (since the first time I mentioned it on this forum was in early October last year) but took breaks that sometimes lasted weeks to focus on other conlangs, and didn't even open the .rtf file for at least two months before today, so... hmm, maybe half a year?
sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12I think I can spot some Uralic and Altaic hints in the vocabulary (the numbers from one to four, for example, seem to be Uralic?), and "moru" for horse stood out pretty quickly.
Yeah, the numerals 1-8 are Uralic while 9 and 10 are Altaic.

Most of the vocabulary is derived from Proto-Uralic or Proto-Altaic with some vowel weirdness and a couple of wacky sound changes (eg. voiceless stops remain voiceless but geminate voiceless stops become voiced; the justification is that voiceless stops became aspirated, geminate stops lost their gemination and became voiced, then the aspirated stops lost their aspiration), sometimes mixing them together if the reconstructed forms were similar enough with similar enough meanings. With some words I also mixed Proto-Yeniseian, Yukaghir and/or Proto-Sino-Tibetan, because why not? My handwave for that, even though it's supposed to be a naturalistic conlang, is that since Proto-Altaic (probably) never existed but the similarities exist, extending the net isn't any worse.

There are a lot of Middle and Old Chinese words meant as borrowings, too, the latter with some sound changes that really stretch plausibility, like breaking up consonants with secondary articulations by adding epenthetic vowels and sometimes inconsistent metathesis for literally no reason, but eh. Aesthetics came first. [:P]
sangi39 wrote: 12 Sep 2020 23:12It does feel Mongolic/Tungusic (vowel harmony, agglutinative), but I can't put my finger on why. I think with the phonology, it just sort of fits in quite well with that region.
Thanks! [:D]
I thought the name looked familiar (then again "kele" turns up quite a bit in the Ural-Altaic conlang realm, so who knows what I was remembering [xD] ). For a year's worth of work, though, I'd still consider this a descent outcome. More than I've managed to cobble together for Proto-Sirdic and that's been my "main conlang" since 2017 [:P]

Upside of an Altaic language (or para-Altaic, or Ural-Altaic) is that the hypothesised proto-language is so... basically not considered to be a "thing", that you've got a ton of room to move around in, so "wacky sound changes" honestly just make perfect sense.

I quite liked the Sinitic loans. It gives it an almost Japanese/Korean feel, but coming at it from a language family that doesn't normally get much attention (compared to, say, IE languages).
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

I edited the first post to add a couple of words I forgot because I only had them in the etymological list, not in the main vocabulary list, at least half of them words related to cuteness that I'd already posted in the "what did you accomplish today?" thread some time back. Now I'd just need to start coming up with more new words... but not actually now because I'm almost falling asleep sitting. Hopefully tomorrow I'll get to it, maybe just more a priori words since so far it has literally only one (or three if two whose etymologies are the most ridiculous mash-ups count).
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34I thought the name looked familiar
Mmh, I posted the name in April when asking if it was too similar to the names of some natlangs haha.
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34For a year's worth of work, though, I'd still consider this a descent outcome.
Thanks again! It's my most fleshed-out conlang so far so I'm proud of it, even if the grammar is simple and objectively pretty "uninteresting", but it wouldn't make sense for it to be polysynthetic or whatever, anyway, considering the region it's set in.
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34More than I've managed to cobble together for Proto-Sirdic and that's been my "main conlang" since 2017 [:P]
I wish... well, I mean, I don't wish you misfortune or anything, but I mean I wish I actually had that much or more in-depth stuff done on this conlang rather than just the "scratched the surface a little and left it there" it is. :mrgreen:
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34I quite liked the Sinitic loans. It gives it an almost Japanese/Korean feel, but coming at it from a language family that doesn't normally get much attention (compared to, say, IE languages).
If I can find the motivation to continue working on this, I'll definitely also add some straight-up Japanese and Korean loanwords as well.
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2711
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by sangi39 »

Vlürch wrote: 13 Sep 2020 01:16
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34I thought the name looked familiar
Mmh, I posted the name in April when asking if it was too similar to the names of some natlangs haha.
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34For a year's worth of work, though, I'd still consider this a descent outcome.
Thanks again! It's my most fleshed-out conlang so far so I'm proud of it, even if the grammar is simple and objectively pretty "uninteresting", but it wouldn't make sense for it to be polysynthetic or whatever, anyway, considering the region it's set in.
Eh, I think as a start, it's pretty good. You know what your background for the language is, and where it's meant to fit in, which should, hopefully give you plenty of inspiration. Plus, like the whole point of conlanging in a vaguely IRL setting is wiggle room.


Vlürch wrote: 13 Sep 2020 01:16
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34More than I've managed to cobble together for Proto-Sirdic and that's been my "main conlang" since 2017 [:P]
I wish... well, I mean, I don't wish you misfortune or anything, but I mean I wish I actually had that much or more in-depth stuff done on this conlang rather than just the "scratched the surface a little and left it there" it is. :mrgreen:
Naaahhh, I think we came at it from different directions. I soooorrrttt of knew what I wanted Proto-Sirdic to have morphologically, and had a phonology, but it's vocab is, what, a couple dozen words. Ulduga Kele has a fair amount of vocab and some starter morphology. If we both keep up the trend, we might have "complete" conlangs by around 2020 (although you might beat me to it, lol).


Vlürch wrote: 13 Sep 2020 01:16
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 00:34I quite liked the Sinitic loans. It gives it an almost Japanese/Korean feel, but coming at it from a language family that doesn't normally get much attention (compared to, say, IE languages).
If I can find the motivation to continue working on this, I'll definitely also add some straight-up Japanese and Korean loanwords as well.
Oh that would be cool. I'd love to see Uldaga Kele to have the following:

1) Native vocab
2) Sinitic vocab
3) Japanese/Korean vocab
4) Sino-Japansese/Korean vocab

Just take Sino-Japanese and add another layer [:D]
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

NOTES ABOUT CONCULTURE, HISTORY, ETC.
The Ulduga live in a small-ish independent state in East Asia, partially in what's Liaoning Province, Jilin Province and Inner Mongolia IRL. Historically, they were nomadic (and some still are) but started establishing permanent settlements at latest in the 8th century (give or take a century or two) and underwent heavy influence from China both linguistically and culturally; they had always had contacts with the Chinese, so there are some ancient loanwords from Old Chinese, but the influence peaked probably around the same time as IRL Chinese influence on Japan. Similarly to the Japanese, the Ulduga also adopted the Chinese script and borrowed tons of vocabulary (much more than the words I've derived and posted, it's just that I can't be arsed with too much vocabulary) and some practices from Chinese society.

In the modern day, the Ulduga country is de facto best described as a liberal socialist democracy, even though de jure it's a single-party communist state; the Uldugan Communist Party generally takes a backseat on most issues and lets people do what they want and usually only really steps in when workers are exploited. Other parties are technically not allowed in government at the national level, but at the local level there are a lot of different parties all over the political spectrum and all it takes for one of their representatives to get into national politics is to officially join the Communist Party. Sometimes politicians get fired if they're too "counter-revolutionary", but it's uncommon.

Traditionally, the Ulduga were horseback warriors and also practised falconry, and the military still has horse units and hawks are valued at least symbolically, but the predominance of a sedentary lifestyle and other societal changes have made those traditions less important than they were in the past. However, historical re-enactment is popular especially in the western part of the country, where a sizeable minority of Huns live; although historically Ulduga and Huns were generally enemies (with some notable exceptions), nowadays they get along just fine and many Ulduga in those western parts of the country feel such a profound connection to Huns that they refer to themselves as Huns as well (but spelled with different Chinese characters). Every year, Ulduga and Huns re-enact historical battles both against one another and ones where they allied against the Chinese. During alliances with the Huns, the Ulduga used a different term to refer to the Huns than when they fought against them (in which case they used a Chinese borrowing to emphasise that they'd rather ally with the Chinese than with the Huns), making it easier for historians to date old texts but also making them think "wtf our history is a massive clusterfuck".

For the official endonym, the characters 挧熕 were chosen because they are not used elsewhere in the language and are considered meaningless; the radicals being "hand" and "wing" and "fire" and "tribute" was deemed fitting due to the tradition of falconry and the importance of fire in ceremonies, while the "tribute" radical's presence was explained by the National Orthographic Reform Committee as referring to both the historical perseverance of the Ulduga in spite of being a tributary state to different empires and the (largely obsolete) inter-tribal tribute system that only remains in the poorest of rural pockets whose populations are still entirely nomadic and hold anti-government sentiments.

The name itself used to begin with /*p/ or a similar sound (but probably not exactly /*p/ because it was inconsistently reduced to /h/ or retained, but never lost entirely), which is why there is a /p/ in the synonym reborrowed from a Chinese derogatory phono-semantic matching of the ethnonym; some Ulduga nationalists have reappropriated it with a new phono-semantic matching, but the very pronunciation of a /p/ at the beginning of the ethnonym is considered offensive by most Ulduga and the socialist state views 賁鐵瑚 as an inherently right-wing historical revisionist term since its usage is often associated with such groups.

In the alternative world, China doesn't extend (far) east past Beijing and Japan has a few colonies in mainland Asia; one of those colonies, located in the Liaoning Peninsula, had a socialist revolution and became an independent Japanese socialist state, with which the Ulduga have extensive trade and cultural exchange. Although there must have also been Korean influence in Ulduga throughout history (and sometimes the languages arguably sounds more like Korean than anything else), the Japanese influence is much more evident; some speculate that the reason there is that they were only briefly under Korean rule, during which the Ulduga nomads allied with the Khitans. Korea probably isn't divided into North and South, either, but that's not really relevant.

When the Ulduga gained full independence recognised by China after winning a war started by Tungusic invaders from the northeast, sometime in the late 17th or early 18th century, a nominal monarchy was established with the head of the traditionally most powerful Ulduga tribe being made emperor. However, the emperors had mostly symbolic and indirect and delegated power from the very beginning since they knew they'd be overthrown in a split second if they came out and said "hey, I think you should stop nomading and worship me lol". Regardless, the monarchy was eventually overthrown in a socialist revolution that burgeoned among Ulduga city-dwellers sometime in the 20th century, the new leadership looking to Maoist China for political inspiration but quickly realising what the monarchs they overthrew had realised and were like "oh shit these nomads keep killing us when we try to build factories and shit on their pastures" so they mostly focused on things like eliminating class, corruption and crime and establishing welfare in urban areas instead. So, in the modern day they have several highly modern cities with millions of inhabitants, immigrants from all over the world, a very high quality of life for everyone and barely any class distinctions for the majority.

In less modernised areas, even some medium-sized towns, ancient folk religious practices remain widespread. Among these is "ritual bondage", in which the priest/priestess of a shrine (originally sacred natural formations, later manmade structures) is bound with sacred rope and at least one person at all times will chant a repetitive spiritual phrase while a drum is beaten to induce a trance-like state. It's believed that any number of spirits enter their body and they can communicate messages from the afterlife until they fall asleep, after which the chanting stops, they're untied and the spirits are believed to leave their body; it's believed that if the chanting stops before all of the spirits have entered them, they'll instead go to livestock and inhabit those animals until they die and making it wrong to kill them for food. This ritual has become performed in cities for bewildered tourists in a semi-sexualised manner, which believers find disrespectful and dangerous.

For a long time, the Ulduga believed that dragons live in "southern countries" and some still do, but in the modern era it's generally only used as an excuse by irredentists seeking to expand territory. It's likely that the dragon obsession was borrowed from China especially since the term for dragon is an Old Chinese borrowing, but it goes back so long that the "dragon culture" has gone in a considerably different direction.

(The above was originally in the OP, but it hit the character limit with the edits and I want to the essential stuff in that post, so it's in this post now. I hope that's fine...)

Some more althistory stuff...

So, I thought more about where the country of the Ulduga should be located (it actually shifted a bit east from where I was imagining it all this time lol) and ended up making a map showing its surroundings in the alternative world it's set in. Posting in this thread even though it's just althistory because I like to keep things concise in one thread, again, hopefully that's fine. Obviously it's not a full map (yet), just the relevant region.
Image

I should note that it's extremely lazy althistory without much regard for cause and effect. So, most of the alternative timeline is the same as real history, except with some differences that mainly affect the region in question. I know it wouldn't be that simple since the butterfly effect is a thing, but whatever. :roll:

So, aside from what I already wrote in the first post about the history of the Ulduga themselves (labelled Uldugama on the map, just an Anglified form of the native name of the country with the long vowel unmarked; the form with the unmarked long vowel is the official English name), the most important differences concern China and Japan. I'll bounce back and forth because it makes sense for reasons you'll know if you can be arsed to read this stuff.

Due to the presence of the Ulduga (whose country was at the time a tributary of China), Tungusic peoples never invaded China. There was one attempt sometime in the late 17th or early 18th century, but the Ulduga were for some reason incredible warriors and their not-yet-independent country acted as a buffer state. This caused two things: an internationally recognised independent Manchuria came into being sooner or later to the east, and the Ming dynasty wasn't the last Han Chinese dynasty. So, when the collapse that happened with the Qing dynasty happened, it happened with some Han Chinese dynasty instead. The communists came into power, etc. and Chinese history went at least more or less like it did... for a moment. I know it wouldn't have happened the same way, but whatever.

In the alternative timeline, Japan established a couple of small-ish colonies in mainland Asia (as well as all of Sakhalin being part of Japan) in the 17th to 18th centuries; I can't be arsed to figure out how much Japanese history prior to that point would have to differ, but obviously it would have to be significantly different... at least they were more unified and/or organised already, doesn't exactly matter how. Those colonies are pink on the map just like Japan itself, but the important exception is the one marked with X; that one was always somewhat more isolated from the rest of Japan, becoming cut off almost completely when it had a socialist revolution in the 1940s and became independent as the People's Republic of Ryōtō (I didn't even bother with that name... :mrred: I'll also drop the macrons from now on because English).

After Ryoto gained independence, the effect it had on Uldugama was pretty notable: there had been Japanese influence in Ulduga society for centuries, but the newly independent country was afraid of being annexed by Korea so they allied very closely with Uldugama and China (which was still one country) and that brought in more Japanese influence. On the other hand, because it had been heavily influenced by Korea (which is part of why they were afraid of being annexed by Korea), it brought in second-hand Korean influence as well.

Going back a bit, WW2 happened more or less like it did. The notable difference is that Uldugama existed as a neutral buffer state with historically good relations with Japan, Manchuria was independent and the newly independent Ryoto was out of their control, so the Japanese never founded the puppet state of Manchukuo, etc. and Korea was also more prosperous and stable in the alternative timeline so it never became colonised; Jeju had always had more Japanese influence than IRL, but it was probably not fully colonised either. So, Japan probably fully colonised at least Hawaii instead or something, but in any case it didn't last since they lost their gained territories when the war ended, just like IRL.

The Ryukyu Kingdom never lost its independence, becoming Ryukyu Republic at some point. Not sure why, I just think it's more interesting for it to be independent.

The differences that really impact the map start with Mao's death in 1976 plunging China into a civil war, which resulted in the coexistence of three different Chinas: one that underwent monarchy restoration (China 1), one that remained communist (China 2) and one that's more or less like the real-life Republic of China (China 3), in addition to Tibetan independence and the expansion of Mongolia. The Ulduga continue to have the best relations with China 2, but they've begun shifting towards China 3.

As for why Korea is unified... well, it just is. Not sure yet what its government and society are like in this alternative timeline, but I'll figure that out as I figure out how much Korean influence there should be in the Ulduga language and whatnot.

Why did I waste over two hours on this post, when I could've instead worked out some interesting grammatical details? [>_<] Well, I don't think it's a waste of time, just time I could've spent better.
sangi39 wrote: 13 Sep 2020 02:024) Sino-Japansese/Korean vocab
Maybe, but it has its own Sino-Xenic pronunciation (in addition to messy Old Chinese derivations) so that could make it too ridiculous. Probably with common words that would've been borrowed "on the ground", though, that'd actually make sense.🤔
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

Apparently the first post hit the character limit with all those edits, so I deleted the edit notes from it and moved the conculture/althistory bit from it into the conculture/althistory-focused post. I want to keep the essential stuff in the first post since it's the first post, you know? Maybe I shouldn't care about keeping things organised, but... [:$]

Anyway, I added another topic marker that's a more convenient and general-purpose one, like what Japanese has, and changed the old topic marker into an even more explicit focus particle and changed its sound a little. Obviously they're both derived from the Proto-Japonic topic marker, which in terms of borrowing may not be naturalistic and in terms of "it's just a coincidence" would be too similar, but who cares? Just because this is meant to be a naturalistic conlang, that doesn't mean it can't be a mess.

Some more details about phonology, too, and a handful of new words, including a couple of (Middle) Korean loanwords. I figured Middle Korean is more realistic as a source of loanwords than straight-up modern Korean, even if I end up adding some modern Korean loanwords as well, and maybe some Old Korean ones (the verbs "to have" and "to not have" are derived from Old Korean, but they're not meant to be borrowings; they're just supposed to hit that "inexplicable similarities" vibe).

I also added one more example sentence to figure out how constructions like that should work, which will probably end up confusing me like "wait, what was I thinking?" when I read that sentence later. I think it makes sense now, at least, though... maybe it's not weird at all and it's just me being tired, but I have the feeling "this construction is so much like Japanese with a little hint of Finnish, and I know it doesn't work even though subjectively I think it works".🤔
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 327
Joined: 09 Mar 2016 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: 挧熕話 (Ulduga kele) — Ural-Altaic conlang in East Asia

Post by Vlürch »

I added some more stuff to the first post, and also fixed some weird mistakes I had on it that I'd somehow missed, like the mess the pronouns were since I'd apparently forgotten some of them and instead had some repeating several times (because I'd copy-pasted them to make sure I wouldn't miss any cases for any persons, and of course that's exactly what happened because I did that... that's literally ironic by the actual definition Image).

Oh, and there's a new set of pronouns because if I'm going for that "this language is meant to have similarities with Japanese" vibe, it's going to need more pronouns. That set of pronouns is a weird simplified blend of Yeniseian and Sino-Tibetan pronouns, or at least started out that way, but I guess they turned out practically a priori since the sound changes are irregular and the cases for them are made from nouns used as suffixes in an at least borderline unrealistic way.

Also, there's now an essive case (or something similar to an essive case that I'm calling essive, since I don't know what would be a more appropriate term for it even if it could be that it's technically not essive?) because I figured it's necessary to keep things tidy... or to make them messier, I'm not really sure which tbh. [:P]

Some new words, too, and a sentence to figure out how the essive(-ish) case and sentences with two verbs with different referents should work in practice... and of course it ended up being literally the simplest possible way, identical to English except with a different word order. Oh well.
Post Reply