Depends what you mean by 'similar'. It's certainly possible to have species who are on average very different from humans, to be sure. But not mystically different - not 'have no interest in survival' different. For a species like that, you need magic, not evolution.
You don't need to be all that 'radical' - you can encounter different gender roles just by getting on an aeroplane, or reading a Victorian novel.Or perhaps (d) they have some radical biological difference from us directly relevant to the psychology and sociology of the species, such as no genders or three genders, which would result in a different conception of gender roles?
You also don't need a strictly 'biological' - as in, physical biology - difference to yield a psychological difference. Consider how varied animals are in their behaviours!
For example, one fertile (no pun intended) area to consider is sex. Some species are monogamous - think how different humans would be if they were monogamous. Others are extremely promiscuous. Some advertise to mates with physical displays (whereas human attractiveness is mostly based on social status). Others advertise by constructing buildings. Some males compete through cunning (secretly sneaking in to the female's home without other males noticing); some, through charm; some build alliances with other males; many engage in ritual combat. Some males control harems of mates; other males are roving loners who survive on the fringes of all-female bands.
There are all sorts of possibilities. One species of mine has uncontrollable rage toward oathbreakers (anger is, after all, an evolutionary strategy); another has a lower value of Dunbar's number (how many distinct individuals you're able to maintain distinct social relationships with). Another has very poor manual dexterity. And so on.