The Sixth Conversation Thread

What can I say? It doesn't fit above, put it here. Also the location of board rules/info.
User avatar
elemtilas
runic
runic
Posts: 2994
Joined: 22 Nov 2014 04:48

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by elemtilas »

I'm okay with US states and Canadian provinces and even most Australian states. English counties, I know quite a few names, but am a little fuzzier on location. I can pinpoint Cornwall and Devon, Kent and Norfolk. The last on account of the nine days wonder. I also know they manked around with the county borders in 1974.

For elsewhere, country level names I could get the vast majority right, though central Asia is a little fuzzy. Coastlines, landmass shapes, major rivers & mountains are all no problem. Many tectonic boundaries and glacial maximums as well.
Khemehekis
runic
runic
Posts: 3013
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Khemehekis »

Salmoneus wrote: 18 May 2021 13:46 So "Cleveland", "Arkansas", "Austin" and "North Dakota" are among the most commonly used words in English (NB why is 'north dakota' even considered a word here?), and yet "Edinburgh" (a massive deal in the UK not only because it's a big and old city, but because it's a synecdoche for Scotland), "Lagos" (one of the world's biggest cxties and cultural capital of English-speaking west africa - Nigeria alone has over 200 million inhabitants, half of whom speak English!) and even "Delhi" (again, more than 100m English speakers, not to mention capital of one of the world's most important countries) aren't?

Hell, the list doesn't include "Westminster". So it's pretty automatically invalid! Sure, the UK is smaller than the US, but "Westminster" is a constant feature of all political coverage here - being both a physical place where lots of important things happen and famous things are located, and a metonymy for England, the government, and the political process and culture. I can promise you, it's mentioned in UK media way more than six times more than US media mentions Arkansas...
I'll ask my friend about the US-centrism of the list.

Looking over the latest version of the full 30,000-word list (the one when the corpus size reached 175m words), "London" is #1,360, "Oxford" is #4,361, "Cambridge" is #5,111, "Devon" is #7,585, "Edinburgh" is #8,959, "Manchester" is #6,122, "Liverpool" is #8,341, "Newcastle" is #8,848, "Newport" is #9,821, and "Wimbledon" is #11,582. There may be some other British cities in the top 10,000 that I've forgotten about or neglected to look for.

And as for "Arkansas", I mainly hear it mentioned as the home of former president Bill Clinton. I don't talk about it much myself! The only other Arkansan thing I can think of Wal-mart, which is headquartered in Bentonville, AR.

One interesting thing is that "Hamas", "Hezbollah", and "Benghazi" all make the top 10,000 words, despite not being Anglophone. Although American conservatives have a conspiracy theory that "Hitlery" Clinton had a journalist murdered in Benghazi, which to this day they won't stop harping on, so maybe it's not so surprising that a heavily-American corpus would have that word in the top 10,000. The 30,000-word list is full of Middle Eastern place names like "Misrata" and "Raqqa".

"Seoul" is #6,416 and "Pyongyang" is #7,847, while "Xinjiang" comes in at #17,097 and "Xinhua" at #20,939.
Even leaving geography aside, there's some weird inclusions and omissions. You have "funk" and "punk", and, somehow, "span", and yet you don't have, say, "pun", or "punt"/"punter"? How often do Americans discuss spans!?
Looking at COCA (an exclusively American corpus of 1 billion words of text), "span" (noun) is word #5,823 and "span" (verb) is #6,446. (COCA separates the parts of speech of its words, get used to it.) A look at the search for "span" at https://www.english-corpora.org/coca/ shows that people talk about life spans, time spans, wing spans, and attention spans, so it's not really surprising that the word comes up that high.

A check with COCA shows that "punk" is word #5,876, while "pun" (noun) is #11,143, "pun" is #32,467, "punt" (noun) is #10,955, "punt" (verb) is #18,269, and "punter" is #19,191.

In the 175m list for my friend's corpus, by comparison, "pun" is #6,766.

An interesting check would be the words for religions. "Christian", "Catholic", "Jewish", "Jew", "Muslim", "Islamic", "Islam", "cult", and "atheist" make the top 5,000, while "Protestant", "Anglican", "Episcopalian", "Orthodox", "Mormon", "Buddhist", "Hindu", "Sikh", "Baha'i", "Scientologist", "Pagan", "Wiccan", "Rastafarian", "Satanist", "deist", and "agnostic" do not.
There are also some 'words' that are just grammatical forms of other words - "rang", for instance. If you're going to do that, where are all the -ed and -s words.
The impression I got from reading the whole list was that anything that would be a separate dictionary entry was counted as a word, so "stole" and "stolen" are separate entries, for instance, while "steal", "steals", and "stealing" are lumped together. Also notice how the list has contractions like "don't" and "it's". Also "color" and "colour", "analyze" and "analyse", etc. appear to be lumped together, while on the other hand "railroad" (#4,697) and "railway" (#7,341) are separate.
Last edited by Khemehekis on 19 May 2021 07:46, edited 1 time in total.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 77,000 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
Khemehekis
runic
runic
Posts: 3013
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Khemehekis »

elemtilas wrote: 18 May 2021 16:58
Khemehekis wrote: 18 May 2021 05:24 And *I* use "California" a lot in my speech! Certainly it's among the top 5,000 words!
hA! Landaucentrism -- it's the gerrymandering of the 21st century!
[:D]

Also, I just noticed that "curry", a food Brits and Indians eat more than Americans, made the top 5,000, while the North American "taco" did not. (Checking the 30,000-word list, "taco" just misses the top 5,000, coming in at #5,131.) And the all-American "cheeseburger" doesn't even show up until word #9,738!

EDIT: Looking up "North Dakota" in my copy of the 175m list, it only comes in at #7,357 -- one spot below "tractor". I'm not sure how it suddenly climbed into the top 5,000.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 77,000 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
Khemehekis
runic
runic
Posts: 3013
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Khemehekis »

Today I got a response from my friend with the corpus in my email box. Sharing it with all of you.
James,

Thanks for writing me about my corpus-in-progress. Yes, there is an admitted American bias. CNN and NPR, the two media outlets from which I have millions of words of transcripts, are both American, although the latter has less of an American bias than the former. I have over 11m words of blogs in my corpus, including some political blogs, but all of the political blogs focus on American politics, from the Bush-43 years to the Biden years. Do you or the people at the CBB have any recommendations for good blogs on British politics - blogs where 'Westminster' would pop up a lot? The blog subcorpus still has a lot of growing to do. Likewise, the TV transcripts I could find were mostly for American shows (although I do have some Canadian shows like Degrassi: The Next Generation and Kids in the Hall). If anyone knows where I can find online transcripts of Yes, Prime Minister, let me know!

The news subcorpus has some Australian, New Zealand and Indian news sites sampled; as for British news, I have copied a few Guardian articles, but I have a whole slew of articles from the Daily Mail (!), which talks about Buckingham Palace and Queen Elizabeth and Harry more than May, Johnson and Corbyn, and has a heavy focus on celebs, British and not, so it's understandable that 'Westminster' would not be among the top 5000 words on my list.

The lyrics subcorpus includes many British artists, like the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Dave Clark Five, the Who, the Sex Pistols, Sir Elton John, Rod Stewart, Depeche Mode, the Eurhythmics, Modern English, the Human League and the Sundays. I'm currently doing '90s music, so expect lots of Britpop to be added to IGCE soon! And of course, artists like Coldplay, Muse, James Blunt, Adele, Ed Sheeran, James Bay, Duffy, Calvin Harris and George Ezra will be added in the future - once I get to artists who made it big in the new millennium! Ofc these artists don't sing all that much about U.K. politics, even if some British punk bands (like the Pistols) were known for bashing the monarchy and/or Margaret Thatcher and John Major!

As for 'Austin', when I ran a Concordance on it, I discovered something interesting. Randomly reducing my concordance to a 200-line sample, only 112 out of 200 (56%) of tokens for 'Austin' referred to the city in Texas. The rest were names, such as 'Austin Powers' or 'Steve Austin'. If only 56% of the 2806 tokens for 'Austin' are the place name, that would be ~1570 tokens that are "words" rather than "proper names", which would take it out of the running for the top 5000. (The cut-off for top 5000, at 181m words, is the word 'modest', which occurs 2060 times.) With 'Cleveland' this is less pronounced than 'Austin', but still there (lots of Family Guy transcripts in IGCE). I'll just have to be sure to edit these when I make my 190m list. If it weren't for editing words that appeared as proper names a lot, 'trump' would no doubt be in the top 5000!

'Railroad' occurs 2236 times at 181m tokens. A quick concordance check shows that almost a quarter of these are from song lyrics. Yes, people in the 19th and early 20th century really did sing about trains a lot. With 'funk', this is even more pronounced, with just over half of the tokens coming from song lyrics. Seeing as I'm done with adding '70s songs, the rank of 'funk' on my list should gradually decline between now and the time I'm finished.

You are correct that 'rang' and 'stole' are listed separately from 'ring' and 'steal', or that contractions are listed as their own entries. This has always been the practice of IGCE. It was originally conceived as a list for teaching reading and spelling to English-speakers, and as such 'be', 'is', 'am', 'are', 'was', 'were' and 'been' are separate words, while 'walk', 'walks', 'walked' and 'walking' are not. In this way it was modeled after the Thorndike list. Thorndike was a groundbreaking experiment in corpus linguistics in its own time, although 18m words is too small to ensure accuracy at the lower frequency levels (some less-common words get in by chance, while some fairly common words get left out), and ofc Thorndike by now is way outdated.


All the best,
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 77,000 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2814
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by sangi39 »

Found out today that the University of Sheffield might move to close their archaeology department once the current load of students graduate. Obviously me thinking that sucks does come from a very personal place, but I do think it would be a shame in general. It's ranked pretty highly as a department both in the UK and in the world, its staff are pretty great (some of my favourite lecturers are still there, both teaching and doing research, and cover a fairly wide range of topics across time and space), and its staff and students form, and have formed, a part of some internationally known projects (like the Stonehenge Riverside Project, with Mike Parker-Pearson as one director) and smaller, local projects (like Heeley City Farm's reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, and work with Creswell Museum & Heritage Centre in Derbyshire), and a host of projects and digs in between, which have helped in understanding our past, and to bring what has been learned to the wider public.

There's a petition going round at the moment, and almost everyone I'm still in touch with from my time studying at the department is writing directly to the university. We're not sure anyone there will listen, or whether it will make a difference, but it's worth a shot.
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
Salmoneus
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2462
Joined: 19 Sep 2011 19:37

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Salmoneus »

Have you heard what's happening at the University of Leicester?

Earlier this year, they announced that they needed to sack 145 academics in order to "decolonise" the curriculum - including entirely shutting down its mediaeval and early modern literature courses (which typically studies non-black authors), as well as its English language and linguistics courses (not sure what the reasoning there is). More recently, they've moved on to the business school. One academic was told their research "displays the profund questioning of the authority and relevance of mainstream management thinking" - and that therefore they were no longer welcome. Other rationales for sacking included that someone had undertaken research that "discusses radical alternatives", that they had researched "alternative organisations and the social economy", or that they had conducted research "from a sociological perspective". In theory these are redundancies, but even before the staff are out the door the university is advertising for replacements, doing the same jobs, but without teaching qualifications or PhDs.

[their real PR mistake: pissing off both left (sacking management scholars for questioning management dogmas) and right (sacking mediaevalists because they don't talk enough about race and sexuality) at the same time...]

Ultimately, universities are more and more being pressured to act as for-profit businesses. But the university structure is fundamentally unprofitable. So they increasingly turn to hiring cheaper and less experienced staff, to removing subjects that don't attract enough pupils, and to reorienting the surviving courses toward market demands. Leicester had a famously left-wing business school, and so was valued by academics of all persuasions, because somebody has to do that 'critical management studies' research; but the sort of people who want to study business - and in particularly the Chinese, Russian and Arab students the university needs to attract for their money - don't want critical thinking, they want a mainstream, easily-marketable degree.

Similarly, Birmingham's apparently introducing an up-or-out system: any academic who doesn't get promoted within a set time span - on the basis of getting enough citations - will automatically be fired. In theory this is to prune the academic deadwood and promote the most talented - but in practice, it will be used to shutter entire departments that are considered too niche to be profitable.

In many cases, this is happening now with second-tier universities - Leicester, Birmingham, Sheffield - because they "invested" heavily in the good times in order to become attractive to foreign students. Advertising = foreign students = money = advertising. Or in other words: they ran up a fuckton of debt and now they need to find a way to pay it back. So the parts of the university that don't directly produce profit (at Leicester apparently they're also gutting their library staff, for instance, because nobody goes to a university on the basis of hearing that their libraries are efficiently managed...) are slashed back.
Khemehekis
runic
runic
Posts: 3013
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Khemehekis »

sangi39 wrote: 20 May 2021 21:06 Found out today that the University of Sheffield might move to close their archaeology department once the current load of students graduate. Obviously me thinking that sucks does come from a very personal place, but I do think it would be a shame in general. It's ranked pretty highly as a department both in the UK and in the world, its staff are pretty great (some of my favourite lecturers are still there, both teaching and doing research, and cover a fairly wide range of topics across time and space), and its staff and students form, and have formed, a part of some internationally known projects (like the Stonehenge Riverside Project, with Mike Parker-Pearson as one director) and smaller, local projects (like Heeley City Farm's reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, and work with Creswell Museum & Heritage Centre in Derbyshire), and a host of projects and digs in between, which have helped in understanding our past, and to bring what has been learned to the wider public.

There's a petition going round at the moment, and almost everyone I'm still in touch with from my time studying at the department is writing directly to the university. We're not sure anyone there will listen, or whether it will make a difference, but it's worth a shot.
Wow, I'm sorry to hear that, Sangi. I know your original dream was degree in archaeology + job as an archaeologist (and you've discussed how things didn't turn out that way). So now they want to close down archaeology altogether? [:'(]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As for what Salmoneus said about business major types wanting mainstream marketable degrees and all that, we discuss this a lot on the NYRA (National Youth Rights Association) Facebook group. "College is the new high school." University is not for everyone. Once attending college (using the American sense of the word, i.e. university) became the norm for Americans, the preppies -- as Americans call clean-cut kids who follow society's script -- started all going to college, the middle-class-and-lower ones taking out student loans, not so they could learn critical thinking and the arts, but so they could get a post-tertiary job that would allow them to live in houses with white picket fences with their (obligatorily opposite-gender) spouses and 2.5 kids. College just became a way of keeping up with the Joneses, and we're now stuck with a problem of degree deflation.

As for American youth who aren't preppies? The jocks attend to play college football and join fraternities. The nerds attend to pursue study and career in their academic interests. And what I call "Youth Culturalists" -- the hippies, goths, skaters, slackers, hip-hoppers, VSCO girls, emo kids, and a dozen other subcultures -- mostly attended college too, at least in the U.S., so we could follow our Twengean passions in life such as the performing arts, the visual arts, or cannabiculture and be "special", and/or so we could partake in student activism for a plethora of left-wing political causes, and/or so we could party. Many of us, especially during the Boomer collegian years, also attend(ed) college to "find ourselves".

And of course, whatever subculture they are, many American Millennial kids just want to get rich!

Sorry this turned out so long and screedy.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 77,000 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
User avatar
elemtilas
runic
runic
Posts: 2994
Joined: 22 Nov 2014 04:48

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by elemtilas »

Have you heard what's happening at the University of Leicester?
Wow. That's scary. But not unexpected. There is some very serious damage being done to Western Culture these last several decades. Are we all ready for a proper dark age? Not a slide into barbarism, but the choice to devolve, to regress willingly made?
User avatar
elemtilas
runic
runic
Posts: 2994
Joined: 22 Nov 2014 04:48

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by elemtilas »

Khemehekis wrote: 21 May 2021 01:17 "College is the new high school." University is not for everyone.
Too true. Most especially for the public system. Too much focus on standardised tests; too much focus on socially correct issues that children don't actually need to learn about in school; less focus on knowledge, academic skills and how to apply them. The result is middle schoolers (I think that's what they're called in the public system) who aren't really ready for high school get passed along, and then they have to try and catch up. By the time they've caught up what they should have learned in middle school, they're passed through and along to the college where again they lag. One of our local community colleges literally has a program to teach all these uneducated public school graduates how to write in English, how to do maths, basics of science, basics of research. H.S. is supposed to end at grade 12, but these are literally grade 13 high schoolers.

And this is nothing new. If you look at text books and exam papers from the late 19th century, they covered the basic topics: English language, grammar, literature, rhetoric, Latin, geogrpahy, mathematics, algebra, geometry, history, sometimes theology and even philosophy pretty deeply and pretty broadly. I dare say no modern adult with a "marketable degree" could pass those exams!
Once attending college (using the American sense of the word, i.e. university) became the norm for Americans, the preppies -- as Americans call clean-cut kids who follow society's script -- started all going to college, the middle-class-and-lower ones taking out student loans, not so they could learn critical thinking and the arts, but so they could get a post-tertiary job that would allow them to live in houses with white picket fences with their (obligatorily opposite-gender) spouses and 2.5 kids. College just became a way of keeping up with the Joneses, and we're now stuck with a problem of degree deflation.
I.e., so that they didn't have to be dirt poor farmers or labourers or miners or steel mill workers like their dads and granddads, so that their kids didn't have to go to school barefoot with nothing to eat for lunch, so that they could grow up not in a poor company town or an industrial slum. And of course the spouse was obligatorily opposite gender. That's how the overwhelmingly vast majority of humans do it. Go to college, meet a guy, get married, fuck him senseless and make some children. That's life! And work your collective butts off so that they have a chance at a little better, little more comfortable life than you or your parents had.

Quite a lot of those college bound were GI Bill from the 1940s through the 1960s and into the 70s. With the technological explosion of the mid to late 20th century, many of those grads did very well. Probably not many "preppies" among them, if I understand the term correctly.
As for American youth who aren't preppies? The jocks attend to play college football and join fraternities. The nerds attend to pursue study and career in their academic interests. And what I call "Youth Culturalists" -- the hippies, goths, skaters, slackers, hip-hoppers, VSCO girls, emo kids, and a dozen other subcultures -- mostly attended college too, at least in the U.S., so we could follow our Twengean passions in life such as the performing arts, the visual arts, or cannabiculture and be "special", and/or so we could partake in student activism for a plethora of left-wing political causes, and/or so we could party. Many of us, especially during the Boomer collegian years, also attend(ed) college to "find ourselves".
I always found myself in the library!

Sometimes in the practical geometry lab.
User avatar
KaiTheHomoSapien
greek
greek
Posts: 572
Joined: 15 Feb 2016 06:10
Location: Northern California

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by KaiTheHomoSapien »

elemtilas wrote: 21 May 2021 05:24 And this is nothing new. If you look at text books and exam papers from the late 19th century, they covered the basic topics: English language, grammar, literature, rhetoric, Latin, geogrpahy, mathematics, algebra, geometry, history, sometimes theology and even philosophy pretty deeply and pretty broadly. I dare say no modern adult with a "marketable degree" could pass those exams!
Definitely. The attitude around here is if it's not STEM, it's completely worthless. I with my linguistics major and Latin minor am being quite defiant. [:D]
User avatar
elemtilas
runic
runic
Posts: 2994
Joined: 22 Nov 2014 04:48

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by elemtilas »

KaiTheHomoSapien wrote: 21 May 2021 05:42
elemtilas wrote: 21 May 2021 05:24 And this is nothing new. If you look at text books and exam papers from the late 19th century, they covered the basic topics: English language, grammar, literature, rhetoric, Latin, geogrpahy, mathematics, algebra, geometry, history, sometimes theology and even philosophy pretty deeply and pretty broadly. I dare say no modern adult with a "marketable degree" could pass those exams!
Definitely. The attitude around here is if it's not STEM, it's completely worthless. I with my linguistics major and Latin minor am being quite defiant. [:D]
Go defiantly into that dark and stemy night!
User avatar
Creyeditor
MVP
MVP
Posts: 4397
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 19:32

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Creyeditor »

Salmoneus wrote: 21 May 2021 00:42 Similarly, Birmingham's apparently introducing an up-or-out system: any academic who doesn't get promoted within a set time span - on the basis of getting enough citations - will automatically be fired. In theory this is to prune the academic deadwood and promote the most talented - but in practice, it will be used to shutter entire departments that are considered too niche to be profitable.
I think this is starting to become the norm in some disciplines. Being fired (in practice a contract is often just not extended) is often considered a good thing in politics because it is supposed to allow academic mobility and transfer of knowledge. In practice it just means that - unless you are a professor - you have cannot be sure about your financial situation in six years.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
Salmoneus
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2462
Joined: 19 Sep 2011 19:37

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Salmoneus »

There's obviously some truth to that excuse: academia does have a problem with budgets being hogged by ancient professors and emeritus professors who have hung around the place for decades, picking up friends and reputation on the basis of that one book they wrote forty years ago, blocking younger and more innovative voices from being heard (or paid). Certainly nobody would want things to go as far as in America, with its "tenure" that seems to be tantamount to union-negotiated immunity from accountability. There has to be a way to get rid of older academics, and there has to be some sort of reward for (or punishment for avoiding) continued relevant research*.

However, it has to be done with some finesse and understanding. It has to understand three things:
a) the academic environment requires a lot of niches, and some of them, no matter how great the academic in them, are never going to be 'star' disciplines;
b) even in disciplines where there are stars, those stars benefit immeasurably from having non-star academics around them. Whether that's people to do the unsexy research legwork that provides the data and tools for the brilliant new idea, or people to hang around the cafeteria and never have their own idea but help improve everyone else's ideas by poking holes in them, or just people to actually waste time teaching all those annoying students, a faculty that consists only of the best and brightest will not be the best or brightest faculty...;
c) whether your work is being cited by other people a lot is a metric that captures part of what it is to be a succesful academic; but it's only a small part. Like all operationalised metrics, it allows a lot of value to slip through the mesh, and like all operationalised metrics it can be and will be gamed.


The underlying problem of academia, however, is that there's a fundamental market incentive mismatch: what we're paying for isn't want we say we want.

In fact, there's two paradoxes:
a) academics, and much of the public, believes universities are there to pursue wisdom and knowledge; the government believes they are there to "prepare young people for the real world of work". Academics therefore want to focus on research on valuable and interesting problems; but incentives are set up to force a focus on teaching, and in particular on teaching 'useful' subjects.
b) the government wants universities to produce a certain workforce. But their free market convictions mean that the actual incentives are driven by what the prospective students want, not the government, and what the students want often isn't what the government wants (OR what academics want...)



*I'm reminded of Derek Parfit. As legend has it, after the publication of his seminal work (Reasons and Persons), he persuaded the university authorities to give him a special chair, making him immune from both teaching and publication requirements, so that he could concentrate fully on writing the eagerly-awaited sequel. Then he spent the next 30 years arguing that jobs like his were a terrible mistake, and campaigning to prevent any similar post ever being awarded again. And also wandering around the town photographing things. I remember being amused that the Philosophy Faculty was unable to get him to actually write his damn book (excerpts of it were handed around as a trade secret in my time as a student - we were to be enlightened by it but forbidden from referencing it directly - but not published until years later, and the final volume was posthumous), but HAD managed to get him to contribute most of the photos on the Faculty website...
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2814
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by sangi39 »

Salmoneus wrote: 21 May 2021 00:42 Have you heard what's happening at the University of Leicester?

Earlier this year, they announced that they needed to sack 145 academics in order to "decolonise" the curriculum - including entirely shutting down its mediaeval and early modern literature courses (which typically studies non-black authors), as well as its English language and linguistics courses (not sure what the reasoning there is). More recently, they've moved on to the business school. One academic was told their research "displays the profund questioning of the authority and relevance of mainstream management thinking" - and that therefore they were no longer welcome. Other rationales for sacking included that someone had undertaken research that "discusses radical alternatives", that they had researched "alternative organisations and the social economy", or that they had conducted research "from a sociological perspective". In theory these are redundancies, but even before the staff are out the door the university is advertising for replacements, doing the same jobs, but without teaching qualifications or PhDs.

[their real PR mistake: pissing off both left (sacking management scholars for questioning management dogmas) and right (sacking mediaevalists because they don't talk enough about race and sexuality) at the same time...]

Ultimately, universities are more and more being pressured to act as for-profit businesses. But the university structure is fundamentally unprofitable. So they increasingly turn to hiring cheaper and less experienced staff, to removing subjects that don't attract enough pupils, and to reorienting the surviving courses toward market demands. Leicester had a famously left-wing business school, and so was valued by academics of all persuasions, because somebody has to do that 'critical management studies' research; but the sort of people who want to study business - and in particularly the Chinese, Russian and Arab students the university needs to attract for their money - don't want critical thinking, they want a mainstream, easily-marketable degree.

Similarly, Birmingham's apparently introducing an up-or-out system: any academic who doesn't get promoted within a set time span - on the basis of getting enough citations - will automatically be fired. In theory this is to prune the academic deadwood and promote the most talented - but in practice, it will be used to shutter entire departments that are considered too niche to be profitable.

In many cases, this is happening now with second-tier universities - Leicester, Birmingham, Sheffield - because they "invested" heavily in the good times in order to become attractive to foreign students. Advertising = foreign students = money = advertising. Or in other words: they ran up a fuckton of debt and now they need to find a way to pay it back. So the parts of the university that don't directly produce profit (at Leicester apparently they're also gutting their library staff, for instance, because nobody goes to a university on the basis of hearing that their libraries are efficiently managed...) are slashed back.
I actually hadn't heard about Leicester at all, or Birmingham, so that's pretty much news to me. I was aware of, for example, moves towards universities having a broader scope within the arts and "soft sciences" in terms of diversity of backgrounds, but I wasn't aware of entire departments shut down and numbers of staff being replaced on that basis. I mean, I can see the reasoning for it, and the intended result, but I can't say I agree with the approach. And if it means lecturers and researchers who actively challenge accepted schools of thought, well, isn't that at least part of the point of universities? To introduce people to a variety of differing interpretations of the world, that students can poke and prod, and build upon to better understand the subject?

One of my engineering friends from Sheffield (currently working under the University of Calgary), has mentioned universities becoming more and more business-like, especially in the business- and engineering-related subjects, with a move towards providing people with stable job prospects based on "accepted wisdom" (basically something that won't push too many red buttons for future employers) rather than on doing anything overly "out there" or "novel". His thinking is that this is mainly coming from above, especially in regards to funding, where a given university is expected to roll out "workers" in a given field, who will go on to more directly affect the economy, rather than funding science that has no immediate value (the whole "I don't know what it could do, but I know you'll tax it one day" line of thinking doesn't seem to fly any more).

I can't say I know much about the situation with foreign students, but at least at Sheffield they did seem to be more heavily involved in things like hard sciences and business, which I guess is the sort of thing you travel thousands of miles for over, and if that's where the money is, while arts and "soft sciences" get little to nothing in the way of income, then, treating universities like a business, it would make sense to cut them. Again, I don't agree with it, but if that's the sort of thing heads of universities are dealing with, I can see why they'd do it.


To go on to what Khemehekis said about universities becoming a place for people to go to "earn more money" in the USA, I think the same thing has been happening here in the UK. When I was in college, so much emphasis was placed on applying to university (everyone in my year had to at least apply), because it could raise your income by some percentage, because degrees meant you were more highly valued (I assume as well that university acceptance rates might have affected funding for the college - the more students go off to university, the more money they'd get, which would allow them to pay for better teaching and equipment). I think at the time they were still relatively rare, so it sort of made sense. A few years ago, though, we hit 50% of college students being accepted to a university, and then education (in some form or another) to 18, as opposed to 16, became compulsory. So basically everyone aged 18 now has A-Levels (or some equivalent qualification), and half of them have degrees? What does a degree even mean any more at that point? I mean, I suppose it's fine if you're going into a niche field (assuming it's receiving funding any more), but I had to compete with people to get a retail job and had to actively argue why my degree didn't matter.


It does seem like universities are being... "targeted" might be the wrong choice of words... from both ends. Responding to pressure from above, they need to act more like businesses, so cut funding to unprofitable departments. Then responding to pressure from the side and below, from popular movements and societal trends, they're cutting funding to disagreeable(?) staff and departments. The arts suffer, subjects like sociology, psychology, archaeology, anthropology, etc. can't grow, and the hard sciences and economics departments just become factories for a labour force.
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2814
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by sangi39 »

Khemehekis wrote: 21 May 2021 01:17
sangi39 wrote: 20 May 2021 21:06 Found out today that the University of Sheffield might move to close their archaeology department once the current load of students graduate. Obviously me thinking that sucks does come from a very personal place, but I do think it would be a shame in general. It's ranked pretty highly as a department both in the UK and in the world, its staff are pretty great (some of my favourite lecturers are still there, both teaching and doing research, and cover a fairly wide range of topics across time and space), and its staff and students form, and have formed, a part of some internationally known projects (like the Stonehenge Riverside Project, with Mike Parker-Pearson as one director) and smaller, local projects (like Heeley City Farm's reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, and work with Creswell Museum & Heritage Centre in Derbyshire), and a host of projects and digs in between, which have helped in understanding our past, and to bring what has been learned to the wider public.

There's a petition going round at the moment, and almost everyone I'm still in touch with from my time studying at the department is writing directly to the university. We're not sure anyone there will listen, or whether it will make a difference, but it's worth a shot.
Wow, I'm sorry to hear that, Sangi. I know your original dream was degree in archaeology + job as an archaeologist (and you've discussed how things didn't turn out that way). So now they want to close down archaeology altogether? [:'(]
There are, at the moment, three options being considered, 1) to keep the department going as is, 2) remove archaeology as a distinct subject and merge it into other subjects (so, say, linguistics, history, modules on gender studies, etc.), or 3) dissolve the department entirely and make all current staff redundant as the current run of students graduate.

I don't know how, say, Doonan's work on metallurgy would fit in to option 2 (let alone his outreach work), for example. Or where any sort of geophys work might fit in either, so presumably option 2 still leads to redundancies and a loss of resources. There are still finds from Stonehenge from 2009 being studied. What happens to them? Does Kuykendall get thrown in with the biology departments because of his work on human evolution, or does he get sidelined completely? Does John Bennet (if I ever spell that with two Ts he'd kill me) get to keep doing his research on the ancient Aegean, or does he have to head off permanently to the British School of Athens, and what happens if that loses funding? John Barrett was one of the first people to tell us that while a well-read conclusion is essential, the idea of "balance" as taught in colleges is the wrong approach (he didn't care if you disagreed with him, he cared that you made a point, and made it well). Does he get thrown into Biblical Studies? Does that even get to stay open? Susan Sherratt is out, because she probably doesn't even qualify to work for Art History studies. Bob Johnston is gone unless he can fit into geography. Even Marek Zvelebil, were he still alive, would probably be made redundant (loved that bouncing Czech).

I swear, the only thing that probably could keep it going would be Mike Parker-Pearson, and he's off down south now. He was quoted in the Guardian, though, saying what a loss it would be for the department to close or be shuffled into other disciplines. We'll see.
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2814
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by sangi39 »

Salmoneus wrote: 22 May 2021 00:04 There's obviously some truth to that excuse: academia does have a problem with budgets being hogged by ancient professors and emeritus professors who have hung around the place for decades, picking up friends and reputation on the basis of that one book they wrote forty years ago, blocking younger and more innovative voices from being heard (or paid). Certainly nobody would want things to go as far as in America, with its "tenure" that seems to be tantamount to union-negotiated immunity from accountability. There has to be a way to get rid of older academics, and there has to be some sort of reward for (or punishment for avoiding) continued relevant research*.

However, it has to be done with some finesse and understanding. It has to understand three things:
a) the academic environment requires a lot of niches, and some of them, no matter how great the academic in them, are never going to be 'star' disciplines;
b) even in disciplines where there are stars, those stars benefit immeasurably from having non-star academics around them. Whether that's people to do the unsexy research legwork that provides the data and tools for the brilliant new idea, or people to hang around the cafeteria and never have their own idea but help improve everyone else's ideas by poking holes in them, or just people to actually waste time teaching all those annoying students, a faculty that consists only of the best and brightest will not be the best or brightest faculty...;
c) whether your work is being cited by other people a lot is a metric that captures part of what it is to be a succesful academic; but it's only a small part. Like all operationalised metrics, it allows a lot of value to slip through the mesh, and like all operationalised metrics it can be and will be gamed.


The underlying problem of academia, however, is that there's a fundamental market incentive mismatch: what we're paying for isn't want we say we want.

In fact, there's two paradoxes:
a) academics, and much of the public, believes universities are there to pursue wisdom and knowledge; the government believes they are there to "prepare young people for the real world of work". Academics therefore want to focus on research on valuable and interesting problems; but incentives are set up to force a focus on teaching, and in particular on teaching 'useful' subjects.
b) the government wants universities to produce a certain workforce. But their free market convictions mean that the actual incentives are driven by what the prospective students want, not the government, and what the students want often isn't what the government wants (OR what academics want...)



*I'm reminded of Derek Parfit. As legend has it, after the publication of his seminal work (Reasons and Persons), he persuaded the university authorities to give him a special chair, making him immune from both teaching and publication requirements, so that he could concentrate fully on writing the eagerly-awaited sequel. Then he spent the next 30 years arguing that jobs like his were a terrible mistake, and campaigning to prevent any similar post ever being awarded again. And also wandering around the town photographing things. I remember being amused that the Philosophy Faculty was unable to get him to actually write his damn book (excerpts of it were handed around as a trade secret in my time as a student - we were to be enlightened by it but forbidden from referencing it directly - but not published until years later, and the final volume was posthumous), but HAD managed to get him to contribute most of the photos on the Faculty website...
I can't say there's a single part of this that I disagree with (as far as I'm reading it). Universities are such a weird place. Part way between "knowledge for knowledge's sake" and "here's your educated workforce"
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
KaiTheHomoSapien
greek
greek
Posts: 572
Joined: 15 Feb 2016 06:10
Location: Northern California

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by KaiTheHomoSapien »

Meh. I'm on the side of "knowledge for knowledge's sake" if I'm to be on any side (only because I see this justification declining in favor of the other). There's a part of me that wishes we could go back to the days of a college degree not being seen as a necessary base requirement for any job above "burger flipper". There's value in education for education's sake and not simply a means to churn out workers and teach the "useful" subjects. I never want to see the humanities die in favor of STEM.

Of course I have a bias being a linguistics major and being the son of a university professor who teaches classics. [>_<]
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2814
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by sangi39 »

Well the petition ended up getting 34000 signatures in the end, which is pretty cool

The University Executive Board, though, voted in favour of a proposal for closing the department, but has suggested merging human osteology and cultural heritage into other departments (which ones, I don't know yet). The proposal will be discussing by the University Senate on the 23rd of June, and the final decision on the proposal will be made by the University Council on the 12th of July, so there's still time, I guess.

There's obviously a fair amount of people who are tad peeved with the vote, but at least it's not final yet. On the other hand, someone at the university said "[t]he university is committed to retaining areas of strength in archaeology teaching and research at Sheffield" and "we will continue to play a role in our local communities and honour our commitment to all current students who will receive high-quality teaching and support", which doesn't fill me with hope. If that's what being said after choosing to close (most of) an already "strong" department, well...
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
elemtilas
runic
runic
Posts: 2994
Joined: 22 Nov 2014 04:48

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by elemtilas »

sangi39 wrote: 26 May 2021 19:47 "[t]he university is committed to retaining areas of strength in archaeology teaching and research at Sheffield"

"we will continue to play a role in our local communities and honour our commitment to all current students who will receive high-quality teaching and support"
Corporate speak.

It never ends well.

Those sentences should probably go into the translation challenge, because while the words appear to be English, they actually aren't.

the university is committed --- no it's not, this actually means "we're throwing you under the bus"

retaining --- disposing of

areas of strength --- departments we've already determined are either weak or we in the Senate a/o Council have no interest in

teaching and research --- useless to developing our financial strength

we will continue to play a role in our local communities --- we will continue to seek more avenues of funding within the community

honour our commitment --- and develop stronger & more utilitarian programmes

all current students --- our beloved ca$h cows, now and for decades to come through tuition, alumni support scams and benevolent societies

high-quality teaching and support --- except for those berks that chose, ahem, archaeology over IT, Cyber, AI or any of our far more lucrative STEM offerings
Khemehekis
runic
runic
Posts: 3013
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: The Sixth Conversation Thread

Post by Khemehekis »

So my friend who has the corpus had said he'd complete an updated list of the 30,000 most common words once his corpus reached 190 million running words, or "tokens". It turned out one of the subcorpora got so unexpectedly large that he's now going to call the corpus finished once it reaches 210 million words, instead of 200 million as was originally planned. He says he's reached 190 million words now, but this means no updated 30,000-word list until he reaches 200 million running words (and then one more when the corpus is complete).

He has, however, sent me an alphabetical list of roughly the top 11,000 words in English . . . most of which I already have in my Kankonian dictionary.

A freely distributable list: a-learner
Spoiler:
a
aback
abandon
abbey
abdomen
abdominal
abduct
abduction
abide
ability
able
abnormal
abnormality
aboard
abolish
aboriginal
abort
abortion
abound
about
above
abroad
abrupt
abruptly
abs
absence
absent
absolute
absolutely
absorb
absorption
abstract
absurd
abundance
abundant
abuse
abusive
abyss
AC
academia
academic
academy
accelerate
acceleration
accent
accept
acceptable
acceptance
access
accessible
accessory
accident
accidental
accidentally
acclaim
accommodate
accommodation
accompany
accomplish
accomplishment
accordance
according
accordingly
account
accountability
accountable
accountant
accumulate
accumulation
accuracy
accurate
accurately
accusation
accusative
accuse
accustomed
ace
ache
achieve
achievement
Achilles
acid
acidic
acknowledge
acknowledgment
acne
acorn
acoustic
acquaint
acquaintance
acquire
acquisition
acquit
acre
across
acrylic
act
action
activate
active
actively
activism
activist
activity
actor
actress
actual
actually
acupuncture
acute
ad/AD
adapt
adaptation
add
addict
addiction
addictive
addition
additional
additionally
additive
address
adequate
adequately
ADHD
adhere
adjacent
adjective
adjust
adjustment
admin
administer
administration
administrative
administrator
admiral
admiration
admire
admirer
admission
admit
admittedly
adolescence
adolescent
adopt
adoption
adorable
adore
adorn
adrenaline
adult
adulthood
advance
advancement
advantage
advent
adventure
adventurous
adverb
adversary
adverse
advertise
advertisement
advertiser
advice
advise
adviser
advisory
advocacy
advocate
aerial
aerospace
aesthetic
afar
affair
affect
affection
affiliate
affiliation
affinity
affirm
affirmative
afflict
affluent
afford
affordable
Afghan
Afghanistan
afloat
aforementioned
afraid
Africa
African
afro
after
afterlife
aftermath
afternoon
afterward
again
against
agave
age
agency
agenda
agent
aggravate
aggregate
aggression
aggressive
aggressively
agitate
ago
agonize
agony
agree
agreement
agricultural
agriculture
ah
aha
ahead
ahem
AI
aid
aide
AIDS
ail
ailment
aim
ain't
air
airborne
aircraft
airline
airman
airplane
airport
airstrike
airway
aisle
aka
akin
Alabama
alarm
alas
Alaska
albatross
albeit
Alberta
album
Albuquerque
alcohol
alcoholic
alcoholism
ale
Aleppo
alert
Alexandria
algae
algebra
algorithm
alibi
alien
alienate
alienation
align
alignment
alike
alive
all
Allah
allegation
allege
allegedly
allegiance
allergen
allergic
allergy
alleviate
alley
alliance
alligator
allocate
allow
allowance
allure
ally
almighty
almond
almost
alone
along
alongside
aloud
alpha
alphabet
alpine
already
alright
also
altar
alter
alternate
alternative
alternatively
although
altitude
alto
altogether
aluminum
alumnus
always
Alzheimer's
am
amass
amateur
amaze
amazement
amazingly
Amazon
ambassador
amber
ambiguity
ambiguous
ambition
ambitious
ambulance
ambush
amen
amend
amendment
amenity
America
American
amid
amidst
amigo
amino
Amish
ammonia
ammunition
amnesia
amnesty
among
amongst
amount
amp
amphibian
ample
amplifier
amplify
Amsterdam
amuse
amusement
an
anaesthesia
anaesthetic
anal
analogue
analogy
analysis
analyst
analytic
analytical
analyze
anarchist
anarchy
anatomy
ancestor
ancestral
ancestry
anchor
ancient
and
android
anecdote
anemia
anew
angel
anger
angle
Anglo
angrily
angry
anguish
animal
animate
animation
anime
anise
ankle
anniversary
announce
announcement
announcer
annoy
annoyance
annual
annually
anomaly
anonymity
anonymous
another
answer
ant
Antarctic
Antarctica
antelope
antenna
anthem
anthology
anthropologist
anthropology
antibiotic
antibody
antic
anticipate
anticipation
antidepressant
antidote
antioxidant
antique
antiquity
antisemitism
antler
anus
anxiety
anxious
anxiously
any
anybody
anyhow
anymore
anyone
anything
anytime
anyway
anywhere
Apache
apart
apartheid
apartment
ape
apex
apocalypse
apocalyptic
apologize
apology
app
appall
apparatus
apparel
apparent
apparently
appeal
appear
appearance
appendix
appetite
appetizer
applaud
applause
apple
appliance
applicable
applicant
application
apply
appoint
appointment
appreciate
appreciation
apprehend
apprentice
approach
appropriate
appropriately
appropriation
approval
approve
approximate
approximately
apricot
April
apron
apt
aquarium
Aquarius
aquatic
Arab
Arabia
Arabian
Arabic
arbitrary
arbor
arc
arcade
arch
archaeological
archaeologist
archaeology
archbishop
archer
architect
architectural
architecture
archive
Arctic
are
area
arena
aren't
Argentina
arguably
argue
argument
Aries
arise
Arizona
ark
Arkansas
Arlington
arm
armchair
armor
armpit
army
aroma
arose
around
arouse
arrange
arrangement
array
arrest
arrival
arrive
arrogance
arrogant
arrow
arse
arsenal
arsenic
art
artery
arthritis
artichoke
article
articulate
artifact
artificial
artillery
artist
artistic
artwork
as
ascend
ash
ashamed
ashore
Asia
Asian
aside
ask
asleep
asparagus
aspect
aspen
Asperger's
asphalt
aspiration
aspire
aspirin
ass
assassin
assassinate
assassination
assault
assemble
assembly
assert
assertion
assess
assessment
asset
asshole
assign
assignment
assist
assistance
assistant
associate
association
assorted
assortment
assume
assumption
assurance
assure
asteroid
asthma
astonish
astound
astray
astrology
astronaut
astronomer
astronomical
astronomy
asylum
at
ate
atheism
atheist
Athens
athlete
athletic
Atlanta
Atlantic
atlas
ATM
atmosphere
atmospheric
atom
atomic
atop
atrocity
attach
attachment
attack
attacker
attain
attempt
attend
attendance
attendant
attendee
attention
attest
attic
attire
attitude
attorney
attract
attraction
attractive
attribute
auburn
auction
audible
audience
audio
audit
audition
auditorium
augment
August
aunt
aura
aurora
Austin
Australia
Australian
Austria
Austrian
authentic
authenticity
author
authoritarian
authority
authorization
authorize
autism
autistic
auto
autobiography
autograph
automate
automatic
automatically
automobile
autonomous
autonomy
autopsy
autumn
auxiliary
avail
availability
available
avalanche
avatar
avenger
avenue
average
avert
aviation
avid
avocado
avoid
aw
await
awake
awaken
award
aware
awareness
away
awe
awesome
awful
awfully
awhile
awkward
awkwardly
awoke
axe
axis
aye
Aztec
babble
babe
baboon
baby
Babylon
babysit
babysitter
bachelor
back
backbone
backdrop
backfire
background
backlash
backpack
backseat
backside
backstage
backup
backward
backyard
bacon
bacteria
bacterial
bad
badass
badge
badger
badly
bae
baffle
bag
bagel
baggage
baggy
Baghdad
bah
Bahamas
bail
bailout
bait
bake
baker
bakery
balance
balcony
bald
bale
Bali
ball
ballad
ballerina
ballet
ballistic
balloon
ballot
ballroom
balm
Baltimore
bam
bamboo
ban
banana
band
bandage
bandanna
bandit
bang
Bangkok
Bangladesh
banish
banjo
bank
banker
bankrupt
bankruptcy
banner
banquet
banzai
Baptist
baptize
bar
barb
barbarian
barbecue
barber
Barcelona
bare
barefoot
barely
barf
bargain
barge
bark
barley
barn
baron
barracks
barrel
barren
barricade
barrier
bartender
base
baseball
baseline
basement
bash
basic
basically
basil
basin
basis
bask
basket
basketball
bass
bassist
bastard
bat
batch
bath
bathe
bathroom
bathtub
baton
battalion
batter
battery
battle
battlefield
battleground
bay
BB
BC
be
beach
beacon
bead
beak
beam
bean
beanie
bear
beard
bearer
beast
beat
beaten
beau
beautiful
beautifully
beauty
beaver
became
because
beckon
become
bed
bedbug
bedroom
bedside
bedtime
bee
beef
been
beep
beer
beet
beetle
before
beforehand
befriend
beg
began
beggar
begin
beginner
begun
behalf
behave
behavior
behavioral
behead
behind
behold
beige
Beijing
Beirut
Belfast
Belgian
Belgium
belief
believable
believe
believer
bell
belle
bellow
belly
belong
beloved
below
belt
bench
benchmark
bend
beneath
beneficial
beneficiary
benefit
Bengal
Benghazi
benign
bent
beret
Berkeley
Berlin
berry
beside
besides
best
bestow
bet
beta
betray
betrayal
better
between
beverage
beware
bewilder
beyond
bi
bias
Bible
biblical
bicycle
bid
big
bigot
bigotry
bxker
bikini
bilateral
bill
billboard
billion
billionaire
bin
binary
bind
binder
binge
bingo
binocular
bio
biodiversity
biography
biological
biologist
biology
biopsy
bipartisan
bipolar
birch
bird
birdie
Birmingham
birth
birthday
birthplace
biscuit
bisexual
bishop
bison
bit
bitch
Bitcoin
bite
bitten
bitter
bitterly
bitterness
bittersweet
biz
bizarre
black
blackberry
blacken
blackmail
blackness
blackout
bladder
blade
blah
blame
bland
blank
blanket
blare
blast
blatant
blaze
blazer
bleach
bleachers
bleak
bled
bleed
bleep
blend
blender
bless
blew
blight
blind
blindfold
blindly
blindness
blink
bliss
blister
blitz
blizzard
bloat
blob
bloc
block
blockade
blockbuster
blog
blogger
bloke
blonde
blood
bloodstream
bloody
bloom
blossom
blot
blouse
blow
blown
blowout
blue
blueberry
bluebird
blueprint
bluetooth
bluff
blunt
blur
Blu-ray
blurry
blurt
blush
BMI
boar
board
boast
boat
bodily
body
bodyguard
bog
bogus
boil
bold
Bolivia
bolster
bolt
bomb
bomber
bombshell
bond
bone
bong
bonnet
bonobo
bonus
boo
boob
boogie
book
bookshelf
bookstore
boom
Boomer
boomerang
boost
booster
boot
booth
booty
booze
bop
border
borderline
bore
boredom
born
borne
borough
borrow
borrower
bosom
boss
Boston
bot
botanical
both
bother
bottle
bottom
bought
boulder
boulevard
bounce
bound
boundary
bounty
bouquet
bourbon
bourgeois
bout
boutique
bow
bowel
bowl
box
boxer
boy
boycott
boyfriend
bra
brace
bracelet
bracket
brag
braid
brain
brainiac
brainstorm
brainwash
brake
branch
brand
brandy
brass
brat
brave
bravery
bravo
brawl
Brazil
Brazilian
breach
bread
breadcrumb
break
breakdown
breaker
breakfast
breakout
breakthrough
breakup
breast
breastfeed
breath
breathe
breathless
breathtaking
bred
breed
breeder
breeze
brew
brewer
brewery
Brexit
bribe
brick
bridal
bride
bridesmaid
bridge
brief
briefcase
briefly
brigade
bright
brighten
brightly
brightness
brilliance
brilliant
brilliantly
brim
brine
bring
brink
bristle
Bristol
Brit
Britain
British
brittle
bro
broad
broadcast
broaden
broadly
broadway
broccoli
brochure
broke
broken
broker
bronco
Bronx
bronze
brood
brook
Brooklyn
broom
broth
brother
brotherhood
brought
brow
brown
brownie
browse
browser
bruise
brunch
brunette
brush
Brussels
brutal
brutality
brutally
brute
BS
bubble
bubbly
buck
bucket
buckle
bud
buddha
Buddhism
Buddhist
buddy
budge
budget
buff
buffalo
buffer
buffet
bug
bugger
buggy
build
builder
buildup
built
bulb
bulge
bulk
bull
bulldog
bullet
bulletin
bullshit
bully
bum
bumble
bump
bumper
bumpy
bun
bunch
bundle
bunk
bunker
bunny
burden
bureau
bureaucracy
bureaucrat
bureaucratic
burglar
burglary
burgundy
burial
burn
burner
burnt
burp
burrito
burrow
burst
bury
bus
bush
business
businessman
bust
buster
bustle
busy
but
butcher
butler
butt
butter
butterfly
buttermilk
buttock
button
buy
buyer
buzz
buzzer
by
bypass
bystander
cab
cabbage
cabin
cabinet
cable
cacao
cache
cackle
cactus
caddie
cadet
Caesar
café
cafeteria
caffeine
cage
Cairo
cake
calcium
calculate
calculation
calculator
calculus
calendar
calf
calibre
California
Californian
call
caller
calm
calmly
calorie
Cambodia
Cambridge
came
camel
cameo
camera
camouflage
camp
campaign
camper
campfire
campground
campus
can
Canada
Canadian
canal
canary
cancel
cancellation
cancer/Cancer
candid
candidacy
candidate
candle
candlelight
candy
cane
canine
cannabis
cannibal
cannon
cannot
canoe
canola
canon
canopy
can't
canvas
canyon
cap
capability
capable
capacity
cape
caper
capital
capitalism
capitalist
capitalize
Capitol
Capricorn
capsule
Capt.
captain
caption
captivate
captive
captivity
capture
car
caramel
caravan
carb
carbohydrate
carbon
carcass
card
cardboard
cardiac
cardigan
cardinal
cardiovascular
care
career
carefree
careful
carefully
caregiver
careless
caress
caretaker
cargo
Caribbean
carnival
carnivore
carousel
carp
carpenter
carpet
carriage
carrier
carrot
carry
cart
cartel
carton
cartoon
cartridge
carve
cascade
case
cash
cashew
cashier
cashmere
casino
casket
casserole
cassette
cast
caste
castle
casual
casually
casualty
cat
catalogue
catalyst
catastrophe
catastrophic
catch
catcher
catchy
categorize
category
cater
caterpillar
catfish
cathedral
Catholic
cattle
Caucasian
caucus
caught
cauldron
cauliflower
cause
caution
cautious
cautiously
cavalier
cavalry
cave
cavern
caviar
cavity
cayenne
CD
cease
cedar
ceiling
celebrate
celebration
celebrity
celery
celestial
cell
cellar
cellphone
cellular
Celsius
Celtic
cement
cemetery
censor
censorship
census
cent
center
centerpiece
centimeter
central
centralize
century
CEO
ceramic
cereal
cerebral
ceremonial
ceremony
certain
certainly
certainty
certificate
certification
certify
cervical
chain
chair
chairman
chalk
challenge
challenger
chamber
chameleon
champ
champagne
champion
championship
chance
chancellor
chandelier
change
changer
channel
chant
chaos
chaotic
chap
chapel
chapter
char
character
characteristic
characterize
charcoal
charge
charger
chariot
charismatic
charitable
charity
Charleston
charm
chart
charter
chase
chat
chatter
chauffeur
cheap
cheat
check
checker
checkout
checkpoint
cheddar
cheek
cheeky
cheer
cheerful
cheerfully
cheerio
cheerleader
cheese
cheeseburger
cheesecake
cheesy
cheetah
chef
chemical
chemist
chemistry
chemotherapy
cherish
Cherokee
cherry
chess
chest
chestnut
chew
chi
chia
chic
Chicago
chick
chicken
chickpea
chief
child
childbirth
childhood
childish
children
Chile
chili
chill
chilly
chime
chimney
chimpanzee
chin
China
Chinatown
Chinese
chip
chipmunk
chipotle
chirp
chlorine
chocolate
choice
choir
choke
cholesterol
choose
chop
chopper
chord
chore
chorus
chose
chosen
chow
Christian
Christianity
Christmas
chrome
chromosome
chronic
chronicle
chxbby
chuckle
chxg
chump
chunk
chunky
church
churn
cider
cigar
cigarette
cilantro
Cincinnati
cinema
cinematic
cinnamon
circa
circle
circuit
circular
circulate
circulation
circumstance
circus
citation
cite
citizen
citizenship
citrus
city
civic
civil
civilian
civilization
civilize
clad
claim
clam
clamor
clamp
clan
clang
clap
clarify
clarity
clash
clasp
class
classic
classical
classification
classify
classmate
classroom
classy
clatter
clause
claw
clay
clean
cleaner
cleanse
cleanser
cleanup
clear
clearance
clearly
clench
clerk
Cleveland
clever
cliché
click
client
cliff
climate
climax
climb
climber
cling
clinic
clinical
clink
clip
clipboard
clipper
clique
cloak
clock
clog
clone
close
closely
closet
closure
clot
cloth
clothe
clothes
clothing
cloud
cloudy
clove
clover
clown
club
clue
clueless
clump
clumsy
clung
cluster
clutch
clutter
c'mon
coach
coal
coalition
coarse
coast
coastal
coaster
coastline
coat
coax
cobra
coca
cocaine
cock
cockpit
cockroach
cocktail
cocky
cocoa
coconut
cocoon
cod
code
coffee
coffin
cognitive
coherent
cohort
coil
coin
coincide
coincidence
coke
Col.
cola
cold
collaborate
collaboration
collaborative
collaborator
collage
collagen
collapse
collar
collateral
colleague
collect
collection
collective
collectively
collector
college
collide
collision
cologne
Colombia
Colombian
colon
colonel
colonial
colonist
colonize
colony
color
Colorado
colorful
colossal
colt
Columbia
Columbus
column
columnist
coma
comb
combat
combination
combine
combo
come
comeback
comedian
comedy
comet
comfort
comfortable
comfortably
comfy
comic
comma
command
commander
commandment
commemorate
commence
comment
commentary
commentator
commerce
commercial
commercially
commission
commissioner
commit
commitment
committee
commodity
common
commonly
commonplace
commonwealth
commotion
communal
communicate
communication
communism
communist
community
commute
commuter
compact
companion
company
comparable
compare
comparison
compartment
compass
compassion
compassionate
compatibility
compatible
compel
compensate
compensation
compete
competence
competent
competition
competitive
competitor
compile
complain
complaint
complement
complete
completely
completion
complex
complexion
complexity
compliance
complicated
complication
compliment
comply
component
compose
composer
composite
composition
compost
compound
comprehend
comprehension
comprehensive
compress
compression
comprise
compromise
Compton
compulsive
compute
computer
comrade
con
conceal
concede
conceive
concentrate
concentration
concept
conception
concern
concert
concession
conclude
conclusion
concrete
concussion
condemn
condense
condition
conditioner
condolence
condom
condominium
conduct
conductor
cone
confederate
confer
conference
confess
confession
confide
confidence
confident
confidential
confidently
configuration
confine
confinement
confirm
confirmation
confiscate
conflict
conform
confound
confront
confrontation
confuse
confusion
congestion
congo
congratulate
congratulations
congregation
congress
congressional
congressman
conjugate
conjugation
conjunction
conjure
connect
Connecticut
connection
connectivity
conquer
conquest
conscience
conscious
consciously
consciousness
consecutive
consensus
consent
consequence
consequently
conservation
conservationist
conservatism
conservative
conserve
consider
considerable
considerably
consideration
consist
consistency
consistent
consistently
consolation
console
consolidate
consonant
conspiracy
conspire
constant
constantly
constellation
constipation
constituency
constituent
constitute
constitution
constitutional
constrain
constraint
construct
construction
constructive
consulate
consult
consultant
consultation
consume
consumer
consumption
contact
contagious
contain
container
contaminate
contamination
contemplate
contemporary
contempt
contend
contender
content
contentious
contest
contestant
context
continent
continental
contingent
continually
continue
continuity
continuous
continuously
contour
contraception
contract
contraction
contractor
contradict
contradiction
contradictory
contrary
contrast
contribute
contribution
contributor
control
controller
controversial
controversy
convene
convenience
convenient
conveniently
convention
conventional
converge
conversation
converse
conversion
convert
convertible
convey
convict
conviction
convince
convoy
coo
cook
cookbook
cooker
cookie
cool
cooler
coon
coop
cooperate
cooperation
cooperative
coordinate
coordination
coordinator
cop
cope
copper
copy
copyright
coral
cord
core
coriander
cork
corn
corner
coronavirus
coroner
corp
corporal
corporate
corporation
corps
corpse
correct
correction
correctly
correlate
correlation
correspond
correspondence
correspondent
corridor
corrupt
corruption
cortex
cosmetic
cosmic
cosmopolitan
cosmos
cost
costly
costume
cot
cottage
cotton
couch
cougar
cough
could
couldn't
could've
council
counsel
counselor
count
countdown
counter
counterfeit
counterpart
countess
countless
country
countryside
county
coup
couple
coupon
courage
courageous
courier
course
court
courtesy
courthouse
courtroom
courtyard
cousin
cove
cover
coverage
covert
covet
COVID
cow
coward
cowboy
coworker
coyote
cozy
CPR
CPU
crab
crack
crackdown
cracker
crackle
cradle
craft
cram
cramp
cranberry
crane
crank
crap
crappy
crash
crate
crater
crave
crawl
crayon
craze
crazy
creak
cream
creamy
crease
create
creation
creative
creativity
creator
creature
credential
credibility
credible
credit
creed
creek
creep
creepy
crème
crêpe
crept
crescent
crest
crew
crib
cricket
crime
criminal
crimson
cringe
cripple
crisis
crisp
crispy
criterion
critic
critical
critically
criticism
criticize
critique
critter
croak
crocodile
crook
crop
cross
crossfire
crossover
crossroads
crossword
crotch
crouch
crow
crowd
crown
crucial
crucify
crude
cruel
cruelty
cruise
cruiser
crumb
crumble
crumple
crunch
crunchy
crusade
crush
crust
crutch
cry
crystal
cub
Cuba
Cuban
cube
cubic
cuckoo
cucumber
cuddle
cue
cuff
cuisine
culinary
culminate
culprit
cult
cultivate
cultivation
cultural
culturally
culture
cum
cumin
cumulative
cunning
cunt
cup
cupboard
cupcake
curate
curator
curb
cure
curfew
curiosity
curious
curiously
curl
curly
currency
current
currently
curriculum
curry
curse
curtain
curve
cushion
cuss
custody
custom
customer
customize
cut
cute
cutxe
cutter
cyber
cybersecurity
cyberspace
cycle
cyclist
cyclone
cylinder
cynical
cypress
czar
Czech
dab
dad
daddy
Dade
dagger
daily
dairy
daisy
Dallas
dam
damage
Damascus
dame
dammit
damn
damp
dance
dancer
dandy
Dane
dang
danger
dangerous
dangerously
dangle
Danish
dare
dark
darken
darkness
darling
darn
dart
dash
dashboard
data
database
date
daughter
daunt
dawn
day
daydream
daylight
daytime
daze
dazzle
DC
de facto
deacon
dead
deadline
deadly
deaf
deal
dealer
dealt
dean
dear
dearly
death
debate
debris
debt
debunk
debut
decade
decay
deceased
deceive
December
decency
decent
deception
decide
decidedly
decipher
decision
decisive
deck
declaration
declare
decline
décor
decorate
decoration
decorative
decrease
decree
dedicate
dedication
deduction
deed
deem
deep
deepen
deeply
deer
def
default
defeat
defect
defend
defendant
defender
defense
defensive
defer
defiance
defiant
deficiency
deficit
define
definite
definitely
definition
definitive
deflate
deflect
deforestation
defy
degrade
degree
dehydrate
dehydration
deity
déjà vu
Delaware
delay
delegate
delegation
delete
deletion
Delhi
deli
deliberate
deliberately
delicacy
delicate
delicious
delight
delightful
deliver
delivery
dell
delta
delusion
delusional
deluxe
delve
demand
demeanor
dementia
demise
demo
democracy
Democrat
democratic
demographic
demolish
demolition
demon
demonic
demonstrate
demonstration
demonstrator
den
denial
denim
Denmark
denomination
denote
denounce
dense
density
dent
dental
dentist
Denver
deny
deodorant
depart
department
departure
depend
dependence
dependent
depict
depiction
deplete
deploy
deployment
deport
deportation
deposit
deposition
depot
depress
depression
deprivation
deprive
depth
deputy
derail
derby
derivative
derive
dermatologist
descend
descendant
descent
describe
description
desert
deserve
design
designate
designation
designer
desirable
desire
desk
desktop
despair
desperate
desperately
desperation
despise
despite
dessert
destination
destined
destiny
destroy
destroyer
destruction
destructive
detach
detail
detain
detainee
detect
detection
detective
detector
detention
deter
detergent
deteriorate
determination
determine
detonate
detour
Detroit
deuce
devastate
devastation
develop
developer
development
developmental
deviation
device
devil
devise
Devon
devote
devotion
devour
dew
diabetes
diabetic
diagnose
diagnosis
diagnostic
diagram
dial
dialect
dialogue
diameter
diamond
diaper
diarrhea
diary
dice
dick
dictate
dictator
dictatorship
dictionary
did
didn't
die
diesel
diet
dietary
differ
difference
different
differential
differentiate
differently
difficult
difficulty
diffuse
dig
digest
digestion
digestive
digger
digit
digital
dignity
dilemma
dill
dilute
dim
dime
dimension
dimensional
diminish
din
dine
diner
ding
dinner
dinosaur
dioxide
dip
diploma
diplomacy
diplomat
diplomatic
dire
direct
direction
directive
directly
director
directory
dirt
dirty
dis
disability
disabled
disadvantage
disagree
disagreement
disappear
disappearance
disappoint
disappointment
disapprove
disarm
disaster
disastrous
disbelief
disc
discard
discern
discharge
disciple
disciplinary
discipline
disclose
disclosure
disco
discomfort
disconnect
discontent
discount
discourage
discourse
discover
discovery
discredit
discreet
discretion
discriminate
discrimination
discuss
discussion
disdain
disease
disgrace
disguise
disgust
dish
dishonest
dishwasher
disintegrate
disk
dislike
dismantle
dismay
dismiss
disobey
disorder
disorient
disparity
dispatch
dispense
disperse
displace
display
disposable
disposal
dispose
disposition
disproportionately
dispute
disqualify
disregard
disrespect
disrespectful
disrupt
disruption
disruptive
dissect
dissent
dissipate
dissolve
distance
distant
distill
distinct
distinction
distinctive
distinctly
distinguish
distort
distortion
distract
distraction
distraught
distress
distribute
distribution
distributor
district
distrust
disturb
disturbance
ditch
diva
dive
diver
diverse
diversify
diversion
diversity
divert
divide
dividend
divine
division
divisive
divorce
Dixie
DIY
dizzy
DJ
DNA
do
doc
dock
doctor
doctoral
doctrine
document
documentary
documentation
dodge
dodger
doe
does
doesn't
dog
d'oh
dole
doll
dollar
dolly
dolphin
domain
dome
domestic
domesticate
dominance
dominant
dominate
domination
Dominican
domino
donate
donation
done
dong
donkey
donor
don't
doodle
doom
door
doorbell
doorstep
doorway
dope
dork
dorm
dose
dot
double
doubt
doubtful
dough
doughnut
dove
down
downfall
downhill
download
downright
downside
downstairs
downtown
downward
dozen
Dr.
draft
drag
dragon
dragonfly
drain
drainage
drake
drama
dramatic
dramatically
drank
drape
drastic
drastically
draw
drawback
drawer
drawn
dread
dreadful
dream
dreamer
dreamt
dreamy
dreary
drench
dress
dresser
drew
dribble
drift
drill
drink
drinker
drxp
drive
driven
driver
driveway
drizzle
drone
drool
drop
droplet
drought
drove
drown
drug
drugstore
drum
drummer
drunk
drunken
dry
dryer
dual
dub
Dubai
dubious
Dublin
duchess
duck
duckling
duct
dude
due
duel
duet
dug
duh
duke
dull
dumb
dummy
dump
dumpling
Dumpster
dune
dung
dungeon
dunk
dunno
duo
duplicate
durable
duration
during
dusk
dust
dusty
Dutch
duty
DVD
dwarf
dwell
dweller
dwindle
dye
dyke
dynamic
dynamite
dynasty
d'you
dysfunction
dysfunctional
each
eager
eagerly
eagle
ear
earl
early
earn
earnest
earring
earth/Earth
earthly
earthquake
ease
easily
east
Easter
eastern
easy
eat
eaten
eater
ebb
Ebola
eccentric
echo
eclipse
ecological
ecologist
ecology
economic
economically
economist
economy
ecosystem
ecstasy
ecstatic
Ecuador
Eden
edge
edgy
edible
Edinburgh
edit
edition
editor
editorial
educate
education
educational
educator
eel
eerie
effect
effective
effectively
effectiveness
efficacy
efficiency
efficient
efficiently
effort
effortlessly
egg
eggplant
ego
Egypt
Egyptian
eh
eight
eighteen
eighth
eighty
either
eject
El Paso
El Salvador
elaborate
elastic
elbow
elder
elderly
eldest
elect
election
electoral
electorate
electric
electrical
electricity
electrify
electrode
electromagnetic
electron
electronic
elegance
elegant
element
elementary
elephant
elevate
elevation
elevator
eleven
elf
elicit
eligibility
eligible
eliminate
elimination
elite
elitist
elk
else
elsewhere
elude
elusive
'em
email
emanate
embark
embarrass
embarrassment
embassy
embed
ember
emblem
embody
embrace
embroider
embryo
emerald
emerge
emergence
emergency
emission
emit
emoji
emotion
emotional
emotionally
empathy
emperor
emphasis
emphasize
empire
empirical
employ
employee
employer
employment
empower
empowerment
empress
emptiness
empty
EMT
emulate
enable
enact
enamel
enchant
enclose
enclosure
encode
encompass
encounter
encourage
encouragement
encyclopedia
end
endanger
endear
endeavor
endless
endlessly
endorse
endorsement
endurance
endure
enemy
energetic
energize
energy
enforce
enforcement
engage
engagement
engine
engineer
England
English
engrave
engulf
enhance
enhancement
enjoy
enjoyable
enjoyment
enlarge
enlighten
enlightenment
enlist
enormous
enough
enrage
enrich
enroll
enrollment
ensemble
enslave
ensue
ensure
entail
enter
enterprise
entertain
entertainer
entertainment
enthusiasm
enthusiast
enthusiastic
enthusiastically
entice
entire
entirely
entirety
entitle
entitlement
entity
entrance
entrée
entrench
entrepreneur
entry
envelop
envelope
environment
environmental
environmentalist
environmentally
envision
envy
enzyme
ep
epic
epidemic
epilepsy
episode
equal
equality
equally
equate
equation
equator
equilibrium
equip
equipment
equity
equivalent
er/ER
era
eradicate
erase
erect
erection
erm
erode
erosion
erotic
err
errand
error
erupt
eruption
escalate
escalation
escalator
escape
escort
especially
espresso
essay
essence
essential
essentially
establish
establishment
estate
esteem
estimate
estrogen
etc.
etch
eternal
eternally
eternity
ethanol
ethic
ethical
Ethiopia
Ethiopian
ethnic
ethnicity
etiquette
EU
euro
Europe
European
evacuate
evacuation
evade
evaluate
evaluation
evangelical
evaporate
eve
even
evening
evenly
event
eventual
eventually
ever
evergreen
everlasting
every
everybody
everyday
everyone
everything
everytime
everywhere
evidence
evident
evidently
evil
evoke
evolution
evolutionary
evolve
ew
exacerbate
exact
exactly
exaggerate
exam
examination
examine
examiner
example
exasperate
excavate
excavation
exceed
exceedingly
excel
excellence
excellent
except
exception
exceptional
exceptionally
excerpt
excess
excessive
exchange
excite
excitedly
excitement
exclaim
exclude
exclusion
exclusive
exclusively
excuse
execute
execution
executive
exemplify
exempt
exemption
exercise
exert
exhale
exhaust
exhaustion
exhibit
exhibition
exile
exist
existence
existential
exit
exodus
exoplanet
exotic
expand
expanse
expansion
expansive
expect
expectancy
expectation
expedition
expel
expenditure
expense
expensive
experience
experiment
experimental
experimentation
expert
expertise
expire
explain
explanation
expletive
explicit
explicitly
explode
exploit
exploitation
exploration
explore
explorer
explosion
explosive
export
expose
exposure
express
expression
expressive
exquisite
extend
extension
extensive
extensively
extent
exterior
external
extinct
extinction
extinguish
extra
extract
extraction
extraordinarily
extraordinary
extraterrestrial
extreme
extremely
extremism
extremist
extrovert
eye
eyeball
eyebrow
eyelash
eyelid
eyewitness
fable
fabric
fabricate
fabulous
façade
face
facet
facial
facilitate
facility
fact
faction
factor
factory
factual
faculty
fad
fade
fag
faggot
Fahrenheit
fail
failure
faint
faintly
fair
fairly
fairness
fairy
faith
faithful
fake
falcon
fall
fallacy
fallen
fallout
false
falsely
falter
fame
familiar
familiarity
family
famine
famous
famously
fan
fanatic
fancy
fang
fanny
fantasize
fantastic
fantasy
far
fare
farewell
Fargo
farm
farmer
farmhouse
farmland
fart
farther
fascinate
fascination
fascism
fascist
fashion
fashionable
fast
fasten
fat
fatal
fatality
fate
father
fathom
fatigue
fatty
faucet
fault
faulty
fauna
faux
favor
favorable
favorite
fawn
fax
fear
fearful
fearless
feast
feat
feather
feature
February
feces
fed
federal
federation
fee
feed
feedback
feeder
feel
feet
feign
feline
fell
fellow
fellowship
felon
felony
felt
female
feminine
feminism
feminist
fence
fend
fennel
feral
ferment
fern
ferocious
ferret
Ferris
ferry
fertile
fertility
fertilize
fertilizer
fest
festival
festive
festivity
feta
fetal
fetch
fetus
feud
fever
few
fiancé
fiancée
fiber
fiction
fictional
fiddle
fidelity
fidget
field
fiend
fierce
fiercely
fiery
fiesta
fifteen
fifth
fifty
fig
fight
fighter
figure
file
filet
Filipino
fill
filler
film
filmmaker
filmography
filter
filth
filthy
fin
final
finale
finalist
finalize
finally
finance
financial
financially
finch
find
fine
finely
finger
fingernail
fingerprint
fingertip
finish
finite
Finland
Finnish
fire
firearm
fireball
firefighter
firefly
fireman
fireplace
firewood
firework
firm
firmly
first
firsthand
fiscal
fish
fisherman
fishery
fist
fit
fitness
five
fix
fixture
flag
flagship
flail
flair
flake
flame
flamingo
flank
flap
flare
flash
flashback
flashlight
flashy
flat
flatten
flaunt
flavor
flaw
flawless
flea
fled
flee
fleece
fleet
flesh
flew
flex
flexibility
flexible
flick
flicker
flight
flinch
fling
flint
flip
flirt
float
flock
flood
floor
flop
floppy
flora
floral
Florence
Flores
florida
floss
flour
flourish
flow
flower
flown
flu
fluff
fluffy
fluid
flung
fluorescent
flurry
flush
flute
flutter
fly
flyer
foam
focus
foe
fog
foggy
foil
fold
folder
foliage
folk
folklore
follow
follower
folly
fond
font
food
fool
foolish
foot
footage
football
footnote
footprint
footstep
footwear
for
forage
forbid
forbidden
force
forcefully
fore
forearm
forecast
foreclosure
forefront
forehead
foreign
foreigner
foremost
forensic
forest
forever
forge
forget
forgive
forgiven
forgiveness
forgot
forgotten
fork
form
formal
formally
format
formation
former
formerly
formidable
formula
formulate
forsaken
fort
forth
forthcoming
fortify
fortress
fortunate
fortunately
fortune
forty
forum
forward
fossil
foster
fought
foul
found
foundation
founder
fountain
four
fourteen
fourth
fox
fraction
fracture
fragile
fragment
fragrance
fragrant
frail
frame
framework
France
franchise
frank
frankly
frantic
frantically
fraternity
fraud
fraught
fray
freak
freaky
freckle
free
freedom
freelance
freely
freeway
freeze
freezer
freight
French
frenzy
frequency
frequent
frequently
fresh
freshly
freshman
freshwater
fret
friction
Friday
fridge
friend
friendly
friendship
fright
frighten
frigid
fringe
fro
frog
from
front
frontier
frost
frosty
frown
froze
frozen
fruit
frustrate
frustration
fry
fuck
fucker
fudge
fuel
fugitive
fulfill
fulfillment
full
fully
fumble
fume
fun
function
functional
functionality
fund
fundamental
fundamentalist
fundamentally
fundraiser
fundraising
funeral
fungus
funk
funky
funnel
funny
fur
furious
furiously
furnace
furnish
furniture
furrow
furry
further
furthermore
fury
fuse
fusion
fuss
futile
future
fuzzy
gadget
gag
gaga
gain
gal
gala
galactic
galaxy
gall
gallery
gallon
gallop
gamble
gambler
game
gameplay
gamer
gamma
gang
gangsta
gangster
gap
gape
garage
garbage
garden
gardener
garland
garlic
garment
garner
garnish
gas
gasoline
gasp
gat
gate
gateway
gather
gatherer
gauge
gave
gay
Gaza
gaze
GDP
gear
gee
geek
geese
gel
gem
Gemini
Gen.
gender
gene
general
generalize
generally
generate
generation
generational
generator
generic
generosity
generous
generously
genesis
genetic
genetically
Geneva
genie
genital
genitive
genius
genocide
genome
genre
gentle
gentleman
gently
genuine
genuinely
genus
geographic
geographical
geography
geological
geologist
geometric
geometry
Georgetown
Georgia
germ
German
Germany
gesture
get
getaway
ghetto
ghost
ghostly
GI
giant
giddy
Gideon
gift
gig
gigantic
giggle
gild
gill
gin
ginger
giraffe
girl
girlfriend
girlie
girly
git
give
giveaway
given
glacier
glad
gladly
glamorous
glamour
glance
gland
glare
Glasgow
glass
glaze
gleam
glee
glen
glide
glider
glimmer
glimpse
glint
glisten
glitch
glitter
global
globalization
globally
globe
Glock
gloom
gloomy
glorify
glorious
glory
gloss
glossy
glove
glow
glucose
glue
gluten
gnaw
go
goal
goat
gobble
goblin
god
goddamn
goddess
godfather
goggles
gold
golden
goldfish
golf
golfer
gone
goo
good
good-bye
goodness
goodnight
goodwill
goody
goofy
goon
goose
gopher
gorge
gorgeous
gorilla
gosh
gospel
gossip
got
goth
Gothic
gotten
gourmet
Gov.
govern
governance
government
governmental
governor
gown
GPA
GPS
grab
grace
graceful
gracefully
gracious
grade
grader
gradual
gradually
graduate
graduation
graffiti
graft
grain
gram
grammar
gramps
grand
grandchild
granddaughter
grandfather
grandma
grandmother
grandpa
grandparent
grandson
granite
granny
granola
grant
grape
grapefruit
graph
graphic
grapple
grasp
grass
grasshopper
grassland
grassroots
grassy
grate
grateful
gratitude
grave
gravel
graveyard
gravitational
gravity
gravy
graze
grease
greasy
great
greatly
greatness
Greece
greed
greedy
Greek
green
greenhouse
Greenland
Greenwich
greet
grenade
grew
grey
greyhound
grid
grief
grievance
grieve
grill
grxm
grimace
grime
grin
grind
grip
grit
gritty
grizzly
groan
grocery
groin
groom
groove
groovy
grope
gross
ground
groundbreaking
group
groupie
grove
grow
grower
growl
grown
growth
grudge
gruel
gruesome
grumble
grumpy
grunt
guarantee
guard
guardian
Guatemala
guerrilla
guess
guest
guidance
guide
guideline
guild
guilt
guilty
guinea
guitar
guitarist
gulf
gull
gulp
gum
gun
gunfire
gunman
gunshot
guru
gush
gust
gut
gutter
guy
gym
gymnastic
Gypsy
ha
habit
habitat
hack
hacker
had
Hades
hadn't
haha
hail
hair
haircut
hairstyle
hairy
Haiti
Haitian
half
halftime
halfway
hall
hallelujah
hallmark
hallow
Halloween
hallucination
hallway
halo
halt
halve
ham
Hamas
hamburger
hammer
hamper
hamster
hand
handbag
handcuff
handful
handgun
handicap
handkerchief
handle
handler
handmade
handout
handshake
handsome
handwriting
handy
hang
hanger
hangover
happen
happily
happiness
happy
harass
harassment
harbor
hard
hardcore
harden
hardly
hardship
hardware
hardy
hare
Harlem
harm
harmful
harmless
harmony
harness
harp
harrow
harsh
harshly
harvest
has
hash
hashtag
hasn't
hassle
hast
haste
hasten
hastily
hat
hatch
hate
hateful
hater
hath
hatred
haul
haunt
Havana
have
haven
haven't
havoc
haw
Hawaii
Hawaiian
hawk
hay
hazard
hazardous
haze
hazel
hazelnut
hazy
HD
he
head
headache
headband
headlight
headline
headphones
headquarters
headset
heal
healer
health
healthcare
healthy
heap
hear
heard
heart
heartache
heartbeat
heartbreak
heartbreaking
heartbroken
heartfelt
hearth
heartland
heartless
hearty
heat
heater
heave
heaven
heavenly
heavily
heavy
heavyweight
Hebrew
heck
he'd
hedge
hedgehog
hee
heed
heel
hefty
heh
height
heighten
heir
heist
held
helicopter
helium
hell
he'll
hello
helm
helmet
help
helper
helpful
helpless
hem
hemisphere
hemp
hen
hence
hepatitis
her
herald
herb
herbal
herd
here
here's
heritage
hermit
hero
heroic
heroin
heroine
herpes
herring
hers
herself
he's
hesitant
hesitate
hesitation
heterosexual
hey
Hezbollah
hi
hiccup
hick
hid
hidden
hide
hideous
hierarchy
high
highland
highlight
highly
highness
highway
hijack
hike
hiker
hilarious
hill
hillside
him
himself
hind
hinder
hindsight
Hindu
hinge
hint
hip
hippie
hippopotamus
hipster
hire
his
Hispanic
hiss
historian
historic
historical
historically
history
hit
hitch
HIV
hive
hmm
ho
hoard
hoax
hobbit
hobby
hobo
hockey
hoe
hog
hoist
hold
holder
hole
holiday
Holland
holler
hollow
Hollywood
holocaust
hologram
holy
homage
home
homeboy
homecoming
homeland
homeless
homelessness
homemade
homeowner
homeschool
hometown
homework
homey
homicide
homie
Homo
homosexual
homosexuality
Hon.
hone
honest
honestly
honesty
honey
honeybee
honeymoon
Hong Kong
honk
honor
honorable
honorary
hood
hoodie
hoof
hook
hooker
hoop
hoot
hop
hope
hopeful
hopefully
hopeless
hopelessly
horde
horizon
horizontal
hormonal
hormone
horn
hornet
horny
horrible
horribly
horrific
horrify
horror
horse
horseback
horsepower
hose
hospital
hospitality
hospitalize
host
hostage
hostess
hostile
hostility
hot
hotel
hotline
hound
hour
house
household
housekeeper
housewife
Houston
hover
how
how'd
howdy
however
howl
how's
HP
hub
huddle
hue
huff
hug
huge
hugely
huh
hula
hulk
hull
hum
human
humane
humanitarian
humanity
humble
humid
humidity
humiliate
humiliation
humility
hummingbird
humor
humorous
hump
Hun
hunch
hundred
hung
Hungarian
Hungary
hunger
hungry
hunk
hunt
hunter
hurdle
hurl
hurray
hurricane
hurry
hurt
husband
hush
husky
hustle
hustler
hut
hybrid
hydrate
hydraulic
hydrogen
hyena
hygiene
hymn
hype
hyper
hypnosis
hypnotize
hypocrisy
hypocrite
hypothesis
hypothetical
hysteria
hysterical
I
ice
iceberg
Iceland
icon
iconic
icy
I'd
ID
Idaho
idea
ideal
ideally
identical
identification
identify
identity
ideological
ideology
idiot
idle
idol
if
ignite
ignition
ignorance
ignorant
ignore
iguana
ill
I'll
illegal
illegally
illicit
Illinois
illness
illuminate
illusion
illustrate
illustration
I'm
IM
image
imagery
imaginary
imagination
imaginative
imagine
imbalance
imitate
imitation
immature
immediate
immediately
immense
immensely
immerse
immigrant
immigration
imminent
immoral
immortal
immortality
immune
immunity
impact
impair
impairment
impatient
impeach
impeachment
impending
imperative
imperfect
imperial
implant
implement
implementation
implicate
implication
implicit
implore
imply
import
importance
important
importantly
impose
impossible
impostor
impoverished
impress
impression
impressive
imprint
imprison
imprisonment
improper
improve
improvement
improvise
impulse
impulsive
in
inability
inaccurate
inactive
inadequate
inadvertently
inappropriate
inaugural
inauguration
Inca
incapable
incarcerate
incarceration
incense
incentive
inch
incidence
incident
incidentally
incite
inclination
incline
include
inclusion
inclusive
income
incoming
incompetent
incomplete
inconsistent
inconvenience
incorporate
incorrect
incorrectly
increase
increasingly
incredible
incredibly
incumbent
indeed
indefinitely
independence
independent
independently
index
India
Indian
Indiana
Indianapolis
indicate
indication
indicative
indicator
indict
indictment
indie
indifference
indifferent
indigenous
indigo
indirect
indirectly
indistinct
individual
individually
Indonesia
Indonesian
indoor
induce
indulge
industrial
industry
ineffective
inequality
inevitable
inevitably
inexpensive
inexperience
infamous
infant
infantry
infect
infection
infectious
inferior
infest
infestation
infiltrate
infinite
infinitely
infinity
infirmary
inflame
inflammation
inflammatory
inflatable
inflate
inflation
inflict
influence
influencer
influential
influenza
influx
inform
informal
informant
information
informative
infrared
infrastructure
infuriate
infuse
ingest
ingredient
inhabit
inhabitant
inhale
inherent
inherently
inherit
inheritance
inhibit
initial
initially
initiate
initiative
inject
injection
injure
injury
injustice
ink
inland
inmate
inn
innate
inner
inning
innocence
innocent
innovation
innovative
input
inquire
inquiry
insane
insanely
insanity
inscription
insect
insecticide
insecure
insecurity
insensitive
insert
inside
insider
insight
insignificant
insist
insistence
insomnia
inspect
inspection
inspector
inspiration
inspirational
inspire
instability
install
installation
installment
instance
instant
instantly
instead
instill
instinct
instinctively
institute
institution
institutional
instruct
instruction
instructional
instructor
instrument
instrumental
insufficient
insulate
insulin
insult
insurance
insure
insurer
insurgent
intact
intake
integral
integrate
integration
integrity
intel
intellect
intellectual
intellectually
intelligence
intelligent
intend
intense
intensely
intensify
intensity
intensive
intent
intention
intentional
intentionally
intently
inter
interact
interaction
interactive
intercept
interception
intercom
intercourse
interest
interestingly
interface
interfere
interference
interim
interior
intermediate
intern
internal
internally
international
internationally
Internet
internship
interpersonal
interpret
interpretation
interpreter
interrogate
interrogation
interrupt
interruption
intersection
interstate
intertwine
interval
intervene
intervention
interview
interviewer
intestine
intimacy
intimate
intimidate
intimidation
into
intolerance
intoxicate
intricate
intrigue
intro
introduce
introduction
introvert
intrude
intruder
intrusion
intuition
intuitive
invade
invader
invasion
invasive
invent
invention
inventor
inventory
invert
invest
investigate
investigation
investigative
investigator
investment
investor
invincible
invisible
invitation
invite
invoke
involuntary
involve
involvement
inward
ion
iOS
Iowa
IP
iPad
iPhone
iPod
IQ
Iran
Iranian
Iraq
Iraqi
Ireland
iris
Irish
iron
ironic
ironically
irony
irrational
irregular
irrelevant
irresistible
irresponsible
irrigation
irritate
irritation
is
Islam
Islamic
Islamist
island
isle
isn't
isolate
isolation
isotope
Israel
Israeli
issue
Istanbul
it
Italian
Italy
itch
itchy
it'd
item
iteration
itinerary
it'll
its
it's
itself
IV
I've
ivory
ivy
jab
jackal
jackass
jacket
jackpot
Jacksonville
jade
jagged
jaguar
Jah
jail
jalapeño
jam
Jamaica
Jamaican
janitor
January
Japan
Japanese
jar
jasmine
Java
jaw
jazz
jealous
jealousy
jeans
Jedi
jeep
jeez
Jehovah
jelly
jellyfish
jeopardize
jeopardy
jerk
jersey/Jersey
Jerusalem
jet
Jew
jewel
jewelry
Jewish
jihad
jihadist
jingle
jive
job
jock
jockey
jog
join
joint
joke
joker
jolly
jolt
journal
journalism
journalist
journey
joy
joyful
joyous
Jr.
Judaism
judge
judgment
judicial
judiciary
jug
juggle
juice
juicy
jukebox
July
jumbo
jump
jumper
jumpsuit
junction
June
jungle
junior
junk
junkie
Jupiter
Jurassic
jurisdiction
juror
jury
just
justice
justification
justify
juvenile
Kabul
kale
kangaroo
Kansas
karaoke
karate
karma
kayak
Kazakhstan
keen
keep
keeper
keg
Kent
Kentucky
Kenya
kept
kernel
ketchup
kettle
key
keyboard
keyword
khaki
kick
kid
kiddo
kidnap
kidnapper
kidney
kill
killer
kilogram
kilometer
kin
kind
kindergarten
kindle
kindly
kindness
king
kingdom
kiss
kit
kitchen
kite
kitten
kiwi
Klingon
knack
knead
knee
kneel
knelt
knew
knife
knight
knit
knob
knock
knot
know
knowingly
knowledge
knowledgeable
known
knuckle
koala
Korea
Korean
kosher
Kremlin
kung fu
Kurd
Kurdish
Kyoto
lab
label
labor
laboratory
laborer
lace
lack
lad
ladder
laden
lady
ladybug
lag
lagoon
laid
lake
lama
lamb
lambda
lame
lament
lamp
lance
land
landfill
landlord
landmark
landscape
landslide
lane
language
lantern
lap
lapse
laptop
large
largely
lark
larva
Las Vegas
lasagna
laser
lash
last
lastly
latch
late
lately
latex
Latin
Latino
latitude
latte
latter
laugh
laughter
launch
launcher
launder
laundry
laurel
lava
lavender
lavish
law
lawmaker
lawn
lawsuit
lawyer
lax
lay
layer
layout
lazy
lead
leader
leadership
leaf
leafy
league
leak
lean
leap
leapt
learn
learner
Last edited by Khemehekis on 21 Jun 2021 03:58, edited 1 time in total.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 77,000 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
Post Reply