CBB Conlang Relay

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CrazyEttin
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CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

Might as well make a full thread about this.

So, i'm organising a CBB Conlang Relay, or CBBCR for short (Long abbreviations ftw!).

If you're interested in participating, please post the name of the language you'll be participating with.

(Native scripts are allowed, you'll just have to provide information on how to read them)

Participants
•Original (From the Russell-Einstein Manifesto by Bertrand Russel)
Spoiler:
There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death.
•CrazyEttin (Antregabua): PDF
•Skógvur (Vanga)
Spoiler:
Kotinsaji ómanantazlnufiauzi, iujuktantazlni lónailjœus sælgæntæzlnyfiæuzi.

Taus láljufiauzi lœyfœkssǽwildnæs talpssanuzi, iunlaumantalnufianuzzgi?

Untnah sásájantazlnjanui. Untḿ nlazumim lówúsmpuhmaqmlaunzi.

Iunlazumuhmauzi lókuwjóhs iusælktytnyhmæuzi, lœyjiunlazumuhmauzzgatta iuqitaukukutkḿ.
Here's the translation:
Had I been able to choose my own future, I would have wanted to grow and find wisdom.

Did I choose to die so that I would be able not to have to remember the quarrels?

I would have wanted to stay with humanity. Remember your humanity and forget everything else.

If you just remember that, then you will end up in a good place, but if you do not remember, there is a risk that everything that awaits you is total death.
•nmn (Jumju)
Spoiler:
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In English:

As the time flies besides me I want to have created it so I grow, but it seems I wanted to find it.
What I carried dies and they speak angrily; was it connected to them, so I didn't want to remember them?
They're human. I would have wanted to remain to them. You're human, remember, but lose everything else.
Now you'll remember it and it's good to live. In this way you'll be able to find it, however if you don't remember, you'll risk to die.
•Ossicone (Uskra)
Spoiler:
Uskra:
Um śi'ara'uk, ikuma sun usta ama, ira śismi'asa. Iki sku numa ikuma sun uska ama. Ikuma sanik ukuma iki niskra utan sku. As nima nai sri? As na ira mri ikuma sun uhuśika sri? Nima 'in. Tima 'in. Tihuśika na satakas upru. Sakuras atrim ama pra na tima sku tima. Ira sakas arik uska ama, iki mri tihuśika, mri sakas numa ukuma.

English:
When I was flying, I wanted to make it so I (will) grow. But possibly I wanted to find it. I carried it to die but he speaks with anger. Is it part of them? And so I don't want to know that? It is a person. You are a person. You know and give it to everyone. You remember it now and you are happy. So you will be able to find it. But if you don't know it, you have no change of dying.
•Chagen (Pazmat)
Spoiler:
Tuwiō, cu segux zjiar, fet vanct ardzjim. Ac, m Castract, na cu afeghgux zjiar. vensja Vanct zsenzji, ac m Azgwetz matgux? Yamp gux? Mo, conya Vanct zsenzjix? Pez gux. Pez fe. Confe vanct nas-pi tzīfe. Se vanct zrtsclwafe n sensina fe. Fet afeghfe na vamct fe, ac confex, ac Castract sefe na vensjgux.
-----------------

I am flying, you want them to have one, so that you can grow them. But, with a chance, that you want them to search for one. I carried them to die, but why do they speak with anger? Are they distant? And, did I not carry them to know? They are people. You are people. You know you give them all. Now you remember them and you are happy. So, you search for them, but you don't know, but you have a chance that they die.
•Trailsend (Feayran)
Spoiler:
And Feayran:


Náa sokujuxáda, ttunuxéiwlhtorukete hanusàojusóirùule. Háa úng suqqutoknkaéwlhto hulonrùukaéwlhtos.

Síi úk holujukúruùttorùoqkoùn, úk uá luxàuroqrùusástoste tií? Mosujàukáruùk tií? Háa hé hoskukóstojuke holujusúruùsùokoùn há?

Náa hulháruùmnaè, sú ué hulhákumnaè. Róu xezulháruùkumnaè, lhéi hí sukulhákorùukeniè. Hóo ùewukuxárukesk, róu jowusàoxákusn.

Déi tí sulháruù tí hé sulháku, uk ná hoskulhoqaìnxástokuke. Úk ué ttoruraéruùq.



Well, I was flying; if only they had a medicine, with which I could begin to mature them. Ah, but they must find that medicine by chance.

Alas, although I carried them as far as death, do they still speak belligerently? Are they distant from me? And did I not carry them in order to learn as much?

Well, they are kin, and you also are kin. Truly, you know them, and accordingly you give them everything. Ah, but you are thinking upon them; indeed, because of that you are glad.

But you and they are one and the same, yet you did not know this before. However, they may have perished.


Interlinear

náa sok<u-ju-x-á>da, ttun<u-x-éi-wlhto-r<u>ke>te han<u-s<ào>-ju-s-ói-rùu>le.

háa úng s<u-qqut<o>k-n-k-aé-wlhto> h<u-l<o>n-rùu-k-aé-wlhto>s.

síi úk hol<u-ju-k-ú-ruù-ttor<ùo>q>koùn, úk uá l<u-xàur<o>q-rùu-s-á-sto>ste tií?

mos<u-j<àu>-k-á-ruù>k tií?

háa hé hosk<u-k-ó-sto-j<u>>ke hol<u-ju-s-ú-ruù-s<ùo>>koùn há?

náa h<u-lh-á-ruù>mnaè, sú ué h<u-lh-á-ku>mnaè.

róu xez<u-lh-á-ruù-k<u>>mnaè, lhéi hí s<u-ku-lh-á-ko-r<ùu>ke>niè.

háa ùew<u-ku-x-á-r<u>ke>sk, róu jow<u-s<ào>-x-á-ku>sn.

déi tí s<u-lh-á-ruù> tí hé s<u-lh-á-ku>, hóo hosk<u-lh<o>qaì-n-x-á-sto-k<u>>ke.

úk ué ttor<u-r-aé-ruù>q.

= = = = =

déi – an explanatory interjection, marks a result or final conclusion

h*mnaè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be kin/family”
~~~~~~PATIENT: the person who is family

h*s : in perfective aspect (-k-), “to find”
~~~~~~VIALIS: the way or route by which the thing was found
~~~~~~AGENT: the searcher
~~~~~~PATIENT: the thing which was found

há : particle indicating the preceding predicate is a question (and the speaker expects the answer to be yes)

háa : interjection indicating privileged understanding of something

han*le : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to become savvy/capable/experienced/mature, to become well-developed in both mind and body”

hé : particle indicating given information, or information the speaker expects the audience already knows/agrees with. (See grammar notes.)

hí : any, every. Indicates that some element of the following predicate refers to all objects across some domain. (The targeted element is typically a previously-unassigned classifier.)

hol*koùn : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to be in the process of carrying something to a destination.” In perfective aspect (-k-), “to carry something all the way to a destination.”
~~~~~~AGENT: the carrier
~~~~~~PATIENT: the thing being carried
~~~~~~LATIVE: the destination, or purpose of carrying the thing

hóo : an interjection indicating mischief or a potential source of trouble

hosk*ke : in stative aspect (-x-), “to know a piece of information.” In perfective aspect (-k-), “to learn a piece of information.”
~~~~~~VIALIS: the time period during which the thing was known
~~~~~~PATIENT: the piece of information
~~~~~~LOCATIVE: the person who knows/learned the information

j* : as an incorporated root, first person pronoun.

jow*sn : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be content/happy”
~~~~~~ABLATIVE: the reason or cause for being content
~~~~~~PATIENT: the person who is content

k* : as an incorporated root, second person pronoun.

l*n : as an incorporated root, “a particular way/method/style of doing something.” Often an anaphoric reference to method described by another predicate. “In such a manner.”

l*ste : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to be talking”
~~~~~~VIALIS: the person's manner or mode of speaking
~~~~~~AGENT: the speaker
~~~~~~PATIENT: the thing being said

lh*qaì : as an incorporated root, “the past; the period of time leading up to now.”

lhéi : interjection indicating something that is done properly, in accordance with custom.

mos*k : in perfective aspect (-k-), “to have arrived at a distant location.”
~~~~~~ABLATIVE: the landmark from which the distance is measured
~~~~~~PATIENT: the thing which has arrived

náa : interjection used to transition between topics

qqut*k : as an incorporated root, “a chance occurrence, a coincidence.”

r*ke : as an incorporated root, the predicate form of the non-competitive predator scent class. (See Affixes.)

róu : interjection used to stress the veracity of the information that follows

s* : auxiliary/coverb (see grammar notes)

s*niè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be a giver of something to someone”
~~~~~~AGENT: the giver
~~~~~~PATIENT: the gift
~~~~~~LATIVE: the recipient

síi : interjection marking concern or sadness

sok*da : in stative aspect (-s-), “to be flying somewhere”
~~~~~~AGENT: the flyer

sú : particle marking surplus or addition, “also”

tí : restrictive particle (see grammar notes)

tií : particle indicating that the preceding predicate is a polar question

ttor*q : in conjectural aspect (-r-), “it seems from available evidence that something died”. As an incorporated argument, “death”
~~~~~~PATIENT: the thing that died

ttun*te : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be in the possession of someone”
~~~~~~PATIENT: the possession
~~~~~~LOCATIVE: the possessor

uá : interjection marking surprise

ué : interjection marking a point of attention, a crucial piece of information

ùew*sk : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be thinking upon a memory, to be thinking back to something, to be remembering something”
~~~~~~AGENT: the rememberer
~~~~~~LOCATIVE: the thing being thought about

úk : contrastive particle, “but”

úng : negative particle, “not.” (See grammar notes)

xàur*q : as an incorporated root, “anger, belligerence.”

xez*mnaè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be known by someone”
~~~~~~PATIENT: the person who is known
~~~~~~LOCATIVE: the person who knows them

= = = = =

Morphology

Feayran has one class of content words, called “predicates.” All predicates have the following structure (where items in parentheses are non-obligatory):

pre-stem + STANCE + (INC1) + (AGENT) + (NEGATION) + ASPECT + VOICE.MOOD + (PATIENT) + (INC2) + post-stem

Feayran roots are bipartite, consisting of a pre-stem and post-stem. Inflections are infixed between the stems. In the lexicon, the pre- and post-stems are separated by an asterisk. In some cases, one of the two stems may be empty.

STANCE affixes:
-u- : speaker is in leading stance toward audience. Stance is an important concept in Feayran but does not feature much in this translation. For purposes of this relay, think of leading stance as just indicating that the speaker has a relatively higher social standing.

AGENT/PATIENT affixes:
-ju- : first person singular, speaker in leading stance toward audience
-ko- : second person scent trace, referent is singular inanimate. Typically indicates something which belongs to the listener.
-ku- : second person singular, speaker in leading stance toward audience
-rùu- : non-competitive predator scent trace, plural, speaker in leading stance toward referent. Often used to refer to other people. You can assume that all usages of this affix refer to the same group.
-sto- : source scent trace, referent is inanimate singular. Used to refer to words, ideas, thoughts.
-wlhto- : medicinal scent trace, referent is inanimate singular. You can assume all usages of this affix refer to the same object.

NEGATION affixes:
-n- : negates the base meaning of the predicate. E.g., jow*sn, “happy/content”, when negated with -n- means “unhappy/discontented”.

ASPECT affixes:
-k- : perfective aspect, indicates a change of state in atelic roots or a completion of a telic root.
-lh- : essential aspect, indicates an inherent, inalienable property of something.
-r- : conjectural aspect, indicates something which appears to be so based on available evidence.
-s- : imperfective aspect, indicates a progressive change or progress toward a goal.
-x- : stative aspect, indicates a non-inherent, alienable property of something.

VOICE.MOOD affixes:
-á- : indicative mood.
-aé- : potential mood, indicates possibilities/capacities/abilities.
-éi- : optative mood, indicates something that the subject wishes were so or hopes will become so.
-ó- : causative voice, subjunctive mood.
-ói- : causative voice, optative mood.
-ú- : causative voice, indicative mood.

INCORPORATED CASE affixes:
-ào-: ablative case, inanimate referent
-àu-: ablative case, leading-stance referent
-o-: vialis case when in INC1 position, locative case when in INC2 position, inanimate referent
-u-: vialis case when in INC1 position, locative case when in INC2 position, speaker in leading-stance toward referent
-ùo-: lative case, inanimate referent
-ùu-: lative case, speaker in leading stance toward referent

= = = = =

Grammar Notes

Auxiliary Roots:

The auxiliary/converb root, s*, frequently serves as an anaphoric reference to another predicate. Often, this means it gets incorporated as an ablative or lative argument in order to show relationships between two predicates. When an auxiliary is incorporated as an ablative argument, that indicates the incorporating predicate arose or resulted from some other predicate. When an auxiliary is incorporated as a lative argument, that indicates the incorporating predicate led to or resulted in some other predicate.

When used as a full predicate, you can interpret s* as meaning something like to be.


Necessity via double negation:

Necessity is shown by taking a predicate in the potential mood (-aé-), negating it with the -n- infix, and then negating it again with a preposed úng particle. E.g.:

Úng nuwunlhruùsn.
not it_is_possible_for_people_to_not_sleep
People have to sleep.


Equation of identity:

The following structure indicates that two things are in fact the same thing:

tí [predicate1], tí hé [predicate2]

E.g.,

Tí nanhulhálsiju tí hé mìinulhálsiku.
only she_is_my_mother only that_one she_is_your_sister
My mother is your sister.


Word Order:

Word order is determined by newsworthiness; predicates that are surprising, or more important, or new topics, etc., come earlier in the phrase.
•Milyamd (Perkelen)
Spoiler:
Xiñ ñidot. Xin tiwoñña be, mosogegña xin, he satña xik gıt fabab.
Xiñ cıxebi. Beñ fıñe jowı, gıñ wigıxak, he gıñ ñi xalogetpa satin.

Cejit habña be, satña xik xıwı belendi. Beñ jowı, satin jibınña gı boxadit, ñi yim pa?
Satña xif tomocid?
Beñ xif satdi, xin nahıhapña xik satdi, wabe?

Satña powa… Bıñoñ be, wıñ satin powa.
Wabeñ be, satña wın nahıhapet. He wık nejid wınña ñici xaloget.
Xiñ cıxebi. Wıñ bek giweña, wabeñ wın geyinoset.

Ñiñ be, satña wın bıño. Hobıhañ be, gıñ katehet wın nahıhapetpa.
Habña be, satña belenet.

----

*-d(i) - dative, allative
*-(e)t - locative, instructive
*-f(o) - ablative
*-(i)n - genitive, possessive
*-k(ı) - causative
*-ñ(a) - topical
*-pa - negation
*be - relative pronoun
*belen - death
*bıño - matter
*boxadi - anger
*cejit - sth unlucky
*cıxebi - sure
*fabab - well-developed
*fıñe - only
*geyinos - memory
*gı - 3 person
*giweña - happy
*hab - the other side
*he - and
*hobıha - trouble
*jibın - words, opinion
*jowı - possibility
*kateh - past
*mosogeg - substance
*nahıhap - knowledge
*neji - everyone
*ñi - this, such, yes
*ñici - proper
*ñido - air
*powa - family
*pa - no, not
*sat - 3 person plural
*tifoc - idea
*tiwoñ - desire
*tomoci - far
*wabe - truth, true
*wı - 2 person
*wigıxa - coincidence
*xalog - manner, method
*xıwı - whole, total
*xi - 1 person
*yim - or

----

The language is my try on the verblessness.

It is driven by the topic-comment constructions (X is Y), where the topic (X) is optional and marked with the topical case and the comment (Y) is obligatory and can have any other endings.

The relative pronoun be represents following clause (or conjoined clauses) as a whole.

Possessives can be declined further.
•Xing (Wakeu)
Spoiler:
Torch:
E lannga mai. E kai a mai ta pone we nge pwala era.
E anga mai. E ngalo kia. E kunei ta kokki o era. I kaima.
E nei mella mweto i melo.
E appe tala era mai.
E lika a mai taima tewa era. Ta koma o mai e lika a mai tewa era.
E nei meaiwa era. E nei ta kina kia, e nei ta meaiwa o era.
E nei ta rua kia. E nei po ta koma o mai era, we nei melo tera terei. E nei taima ta kokki i ngoe.
E anga mai. E tima ngoe me pare o taima. E tette a ngoe ta rua.
E nei mella kia. E nei ta kina o ngoe. E nei melo raikitoo, e kelikeli era. E kunei melo ta koma i ngoe.
Ko leuku era i melo

Wordlist:

kunei - NEG, to be not, not to be
a - ergative marker
anga - to be certain (to know something for sure.)
appe - to be located, to stand
e - present tense marker
era - 3pl
i - in, at, on (locative marker)
kai - to want to have, to desire
kaima - certainy
keli - to be finished, to end, to be gone, to vanish away.
kia - 3pl
kina - matter, issue
ko - past tense, perfective
koma - knowledge
lannga - to fly
lika - to give
le- plural marker
mai - 1sg
me - with, by
meaiwa - family
mella - so, that, thus
mweto - misfortune
ngalo - to be a coincidence, to happen by chance
nge - infinitive marker
nei - to be
ngoe - 2sg
o - genitive marker
pwala - to develop, to evolve, to realise somthing's or someone's full potential.
po - genitive marker
raikitoo - trouble, problem
ta - singulative article
taima - this, that (demonstrative)
tala - to be far away from something
tera - all, everybody, everything
terei - person
tette - to remember
tewa - to, for (dative/purposive)
tima - to be happy
melo - contrary,
pare - cause
kokki - way, manner, method
pone - form, substance.
rua - truth, reality, fact
uku - die
we - and

Brief grammar:

The grammar is head-first, modified-modifier. The word order is ofter VSO, but variations occur. The different roles are marked by prepositions (the absolutive is unmarked). Some (but not alla verbs) have plural forms. Those may be formed either (1) by reduplication, or (2) by the prefix le-. Adjectives behave like verbs, that are placed after the noun they modify.

In English:

I'm flying. I want the substance, that they should evolve.
I'm certain. It's a coincidence. It's not their ways. For sure.
So are the misfortunes, on the other hand.
I am far away from them.
I give it to them. I give them my knowledge.
They are my family. It's the issue. it's their family.
I'm certain. You are happy because of that. You remember the truth.
So it is. It's your issue. The problems, on the other hand, they have vanished. You do not know them, on the other hand.
On the other hand, they die.
•MrKrov (Pag-buum)
•Maraxxus (Maxédri): PDF
•Pirka (Skipped)
•Fanael (Skipped)
•cedh (Buruya Nzaysa)
Spoiler:
BURUYA NZAYSA TEXT
==================

Tɛh ɔ ñalisa u ru ɔdɔ, ni pɔ’ɔ wə ɛ’i se’ə. Esəña smada nzɔ uysava nada.

Səh ɔ yɔsko; səh ɔ toxasa. Ma’ɔwa nzo ñəmona olmat. Sə lo ruyo puh nzɔ xɔsɔ bəduga lu letsədə ah. Sə ɛru ɔ ñanɛvo tsəñe u ɛru. Tsonexa puh lo maldɔ sədə ɔ gəsta ñavra o oba dəpse kwə kətsɔda. Tsonexa lu mvɔnza puh lo avo aymɛ mvəbo oba ru ñeda. Esə ɔ nzɔñu rɛ səh ɔ toxasa!

Puh ɔ spɛ’ayla sədə, gasə dediga u mvəskɛ puh lo avo ah ɔ nzesu. Dal sə nzɔ ñəmona lu mvɔnza rɛbɛ aymɛ. Sə ɔ lotsɛ ñalta lu pima ah u maldɔ sədə ñuməgi. Esə nzɔ lu lotsɛ. Dal eskena u namə dedi meko ntɛxavu dalmə. Xutsɔ ɔdɔ’ɔwa podɔ ŋkə esə mɔra o mura.

Sə lu restɛ xɛpu adɔ. Ma ɛru ɔ rudɔ nonə. Ma nzɔ ntɛ u sɔnza mɔwa, dal ntɛ u tsɛñɛru. Tsonah atsa ntɛ xə’ə oba maldɔ ɔdɔ no.



GLOSSARY
========

adɔ (pp.) (2nd person object form of ah: "of you")
ah pp. +NOM of, belonging to, with regard to
atsa adv. still; as it stands; in the end
avɔ v. flourish, thrive, prosper
aymɛ (pp.) (1st person plural object form of ah: "of us")
axe (pp.) (1st person singular object form of ah: "of me")
bəduga adv. almost, nearly, not quite
dal cj. but
dalmə v. present, lift towards, suggest
dedi n. option, possibility, chance
dediga adv. maybe, possibly
dəpse n. child
ɛru pron. everyone
ɛ’i aux. (optative auxiliary: "want to")
esə- aux. (emphatic/abilitative auxiliary: "do indeed, can indeed")
gas- aux. (permissive/potential auxiliary: "may")
gəsta n. family; descendants
kətsɔda v. give, donate, bestow, provide
kwə pp. +NOM with (comitative)
letsədə n. opposite; counterpart
lo det. (definite article, nominative)
lotsɛ n. correct, true; truth
lu det. (definite article, accusative)
ma- aux. (negative auxiliary: "do not")
maldɔ n. person, human being
meko n. lookalike, replacement, substitute, stand-in
mɔra v. choose, select
mɔwa v. begin; originate in
mura v. decide
mvəbo pp. +ACC between, among
mvəskɛ n. necessary thing, duty, prerequisite
mvɔnza n. tradition, informal knowledge, folk wisdom
nada v.erg feel (emotionally)
namə qu. some, a few
ni cj. if/then
no v.erg die
nonə aux. (intentional auxiliary: "going to")
ntɛ pp. +NOM with, by, like
ntɛxavu adv. also, furthermore
nzesu n. unusual, different
nzɔ det./pron. (topic marker, nominative)
nzo det./pron. (topic marker, accusative)
nzoñu n. virtue, righteous action; advantage
ñalisa qu. too many
ñalta adv. indeed, actually
ñanɛvo n. relative, kin
ñavra n. broad, wide, large
ñayɔsko n. joy, happiness, satisfaction, well-being
ñeda v. share
ñəmona n. conscience, responsibility, self-imposed duty
ñuməgi v. rely on, depend on
ŋkə n. same, identical, -self
ɔ det. (indefinite article, accusative)
ɔdɔ(w)- aux. (resultative auxiliary: "have become")
o cj. and
oba qu. many
olmat v. be familar with, be accustomed to
pimə v. sacrifice, cede, abandon
pɔ(w)- aux. (conditional auxiliary: "might, would, could")
podɔ (pp.) (2nd person object form of puh: "to/for you")
puh pp. to, for (benefactive)
rɛ cj. (complementizer, accusative)
rɛbɛ n. fertile; fruitful; suitable; morally appropriate
resti v. make up one's mind; vote
ri cj. (complementizer, nominative)
ru n. man; person
rudɔ n. archetype, role model
ruyɔ v. invent; solve a problem
se’ə v. jump; insist on
sədə n. another
smada adv. recently, lately
spɛ’ayla n. nation, ethnicity, large group of people
sɔnza n. doctrine, theory; explanation
so- aux. (null auxiliary: "do")
ta- aux. (inceptive auxiliary: "start")
toxasa n. large quantity, myriad, multitude
tsɛñɛru n. mutual agreement; win-win situation
tsəñe n. unlikely, far-fetched; having a distant but non-obvious connection
tson- aux. (habitual/gnomic auxiliary: "be always")
u det. (indefinite article, nominative)
u pp. +NOM of, from, connected to
uysava n. wish, desire
wə- aux. (predictive/future auxiliary: "will do")
xɛpu n. alone, on one's own, solitary
xə’ə adv. so, thus, in this way
xɔsɔ n. difficulty, obstacle, challenge, riddle
xutsɔ cj. so, therefore
yɔsko n. glad, happy, joyous, fortunate

Auxiliary verb suffixes:

-ah suffix 3rd person plural intransitive
-exa suffix 1st person plural subject, 3rd person object
-ə suffix 3rd person singular intransitive
-əh suffix 1st person plural intransitive
-əña suffix 1st person singular subject, 3rd person agent/source (used with ergative verbs)
-xena suffix 3rd person reflexive
-’ɔ suffix 2nd person singular intransitive
-’ɔwa suffix 2nd person singular subject, 3rd person object

Note: Vowel-initial auxiliary suffixes usually delete a preceding vowel, with the exception that -ə is itself deleted after /a/, and that -əh coalesces with preceding /a/ into -ɛh. Suffixes beginning in /x/ delete a preceding /ə/, with the suffix-initial consonant fortifying to /k/.



GRAMMAR
=======

TYPOLOGY:

- mostly isolating
- head-initial
- basic word order: AuxSOV with occasional topic fronting and subclause postposing
- basic morphosyntactic alignment: NOM-ACC
- pro-drop

NOMINALS:

- no distinction between nouns and adjectives
- nouns/adjectives do not inflect at all
- determiners are mandatory in all full (i.e. non-pronominal) noun phrases. If no other determiner is present, non-numeral quantifiers can also fulfil this role.
- nouns without a determiner usually have adjectivial function
- most determiners are marked for case
- nominal number is unmarked

PREPOSITIONS:

- prepositions inflect for the person of their object
- each preposition governs a specific case for their object
- objects of prepositions can be omitted if clear from context

VERBS:

- content verbs do not inflect at all (except that they are nominalised in relative clauses, which is typically indicated by using a different word-final vowel)
- auxiliary verbs are mandatory in all clauses
- auxiliary verbs inflect for person and number of the subject AND person of the object
- there is a small class of "ergative verbs" (mostly verbs of perception) whose subjects are marked with the accusative case, and which require a special set of transitive person markers on the auxiliary
- aspect and mood are indicated by the choice of the auxiliary
- no tense marking
- additional distinctions may be made by adding one or more uninflected auxiliary right before the content verb, or sentence-finally if the content verb is missing
- in clauses which have no content verb but contain an accusative-marked noun phrase, the auxiliary functions as a copula



LINKS
=====

Grammar sketch: http://akana.conlang.org/wiki/Buruya_Nzaysa

INTERLINEAR GLOSS
=================

Code: Select all

Tɛh         ɔ         ñalisa   u    ru  ɔdɔ,    ni      pɔ’ɔ         wə      ɛ’i     se’ə.
ta     -əh  ɔ         ñalisa   u    ru  ɔdɔ     ni      pɔ      -’ɔ  wə      ɛ’i     se’ə
INC.COP-1PL INDEF.ACC too_many of.3 man RES.AUX if/then COND.AUX-2SG FUT.AUX OPT.AUX jump

When we become too many people, you will want to jump.


Esəña          smada    nzɔ     uysava    nada.
esə     -əña   smada    nzɔ     uysa  .va nada
EMPH.AUX-1SG<3 recently TOP.NOM desire.VN feel

I am certainly feeling this desire recently.


Səh          ɔ         yɔsko;    səh          ɔ         toxasa.
so      -əh  ɔ         yɔsko     so      -əh  ɔ         toxasa
NULL.COP-1PL INDEF.ACC fortunate NULL.COP-1PL INDEF.ACC multitude

We are lucky; we are numerous.


Ma’ɔwa        nzo     ñəmona         olmat.
ma     -’ɔwa  nzo     ñəmona         olmat
NEG.AUX-2SG>3 TOP.ACC responsibility be_familiar_with

You are not familiar with this responsibility.


Sə           lo      ruyo     puh   nzɔ     xɔsɔ      bəduga lu      letsədə  ah.
so      -ə   lo      ruyɔ .o  puh   nzɔ     xɔsɔ      bəduga lu      letsədə  ah
NULL.COP-3SG DEF.NOM solve.VN for.3 TOP.NOM challenge almost DEF.ACC opposite of.3

The solution to that challenge is almost the opposite of it.


Sə           ɛru      ɔ         ñanɛvo   tsəñe               u    ɛru.
so      -ə   ɛru      ɔ         ñanɛvo   tsəñe               u    ɛru
NULL.COP-3SG everyone INDEF.ACC relative distantly_connected of.3 everyone

Everyone is a distant relative of everyone.


Tsonexa       puh   lo      maldɔ  sədə  ɔ         gəsta  ñavra o   oba  dəpse kwə    kətsɔda.
tson   -exa   puh   lo      maldɔ  sədə  ɔ         gəsta  ñavra o   oba  dəpse kwə    kətsɔda
HAB.AUX-1PL>3 for.3 DEF.NOM person other INDEF.ACC family wide  and many child with.3 donate

We are used to giving a large family and many children to other people.


Tsonexa       lu      mvɔnza      puh   lo      avo       aymɛ   mvəbo     oba  ru  ñeda.
tson   -exa   lu      mvɔnza      puh   lo      avɔ   .o  aymɛ   mvəbo     oba  ru  ñeda
HAB.AUX-1PL>3 DEF.ACC folk_wisdom for.3 DEF.NOM thrive.VN of.1PL between.3 many man share

We are used to sharing the knowledge for our prosperity with many people.


Esə          ɔ         nzɔñu  rɛ      səh          ɔ         toxasa!
esə     -ə   ɔ         nzɔñu  rɛ      so      -əh  ɔ         toxasa
EMPH.COP-3SG INDEF.ACC virtue SUB.ACC NULL.COP-1PL INDEF.ACC multitude

It is a good thing that we are numerous!


Puh   ɔ         spɛ’ayla sədə,
puh   ɔ         spɛ’ayla sədə
for.3 INDEF.ACC nation   other

gasə         dediga   u         mvəskɛ    puh   lo      avo       ah   ɔ         nzesu.
gaso    -ə   dediga   u         mvəskɛ    puh   lo      avɔ   .o  ah   ɔ         nzesu
PERM.COP-3SG possibly INDEF.NOM necessary for.3 DEF.NOM thrive.VN of.3 INDEF.ACC different

For other nations, that which is necessary for their prosperity might be different.


Dal sə           nzɔ     ñəmona         lu      mvɔnza      rɛbɛ        aymɛ.
dal so      -ə   nzɔ     ñəmona         lu      mvɔnza      rɛbɛ        aymɛ
but NULL.COP-3SG TOP.NOM responsibility DEF.ACC folk_wisdom appropriate of.1PL

But this responsibility is our proper tradition.


Sə           ɔ         lotsɛ 
so      -ə   ɔ         lotsɛ 
NULL.COP-3SG INDEF.ACC truth 

ri      tsonexa       puh   lo      ñayɔsko   o   avo       aymɛ   kwə
ri      tson   -exa   puh   lo      ñayɔsko   o   avɔ   .o  aymɛ   kwə
SUB.NOM HAB.AUX-1PL>3 for.3 DEF.NOM happiness and thrive.VN of.1PL with.3 

ñalta  lu      pima         ah   u         maldɔ  sədə  ñuməgi.
ñalta  lu      pimə     .a  ah   u         maldɔ  sədə  ñuməgi
indeed DEF.ACC sacrifice.VN of.3 INDEF.NOM person other rely_on

It is true that we indeed depend on the sacrifice of others for our happiness and prosperity.


Esə          nzɔ     lu      lotsɛ.
esə     -ə   nzɔ     lu      lotsɛ
EMPH.COP-3SG TOP.NOM DEF.ACC truth

This is the truth.


Dal eskena          u         namə dedi   meko        ntɛxavu dalmə.
dal esə     -xena   u         namə dedi   meko        ntɛxavu dalmə
but EMPH.AUX-3.REFL INDEF.NOM some option replacement also    present

But some alternative options also present themselves.


Xutsɔ     ɔdɔ’ɔwa       podɔ  ŋkə  esə      mɔra   o   mura.
xutsɔ     ɔdɔ    -’ɔwa  podɔ  ŋkə  esə      mɔra   o   mura
therefore RES.AUX-2SG>3 for.2 same EMPH.AUX select and decide

So you can choose and decide for yourself.


Sə           lu      restɛ     xɛpu  adɔ.
so      -ə   lu      resti .ɛ  xɛpu  adɔ
NULL.COP-3SG DEF.ACC choose.VN alone of.2

It is your own choice.


Ma          ɛru      ɔ         rudɔ      nonə.
ma     -ə   ɛru      ɔ         rudɔ      nonə
NEG.COP-3SG everyone INDEF.ACC archetype INT.AUX

Not everyone is going to be a role model.


Ma          nzɔ     ntɛ  u         sɔnza  mɔwa,
ma     -ə   nzɔ     ntɛ  u         sɔnza  mɔwa
NEG.AUX-3SG TOP.NOM by.3 INDEF.NOM theory begin

dal ntɛ  u         tsɛñɛru.
dal ntɛ  u         tsɛñɛru
but by.3 INDEF.NOM mutual.agreement

This does not begin with doctrine, but with mutual agreement.


Tsonah      atsa         ntɛ  xə’ə     oba  maldɔ  ɔdɔ     no.
tson   -ah  atsa         ntɛ  xə’ə     oba  maldɔ  ɔdɔ     no
HAB.AUX-3PL as_it_stands by.3 this_way many person RES.AUX die

In the end, many people die this way.

SMOOTH ENGLISH TRANSLATION
==========================

When we become too many people, you will want to jump. I am certainly feeling this desire recently.

We are lucky; we are numerous. You are not familiar with this responsibility. The solution to that challenge is almost the opposite of it. Everyone is a distant relative of everyone. We are used to giving a large family and many children to other people. We are used to sharing the knowledge for our prosperity with many people. It is a good thing that we are numerous!

For other nations, that which is necessary for their prosperity might be different. But this responsibility is our proper tradition. It is true that we indeed depend on the sacrifice of others for our happiness and prosperity. This is the truth. But some alternative options also present themselves. So you can choose and decide for yourself.

It is your own choice. Not everyone is going to be a role model. This does not begin with doctrine, but with mutual agreement. In the end, many people die this way.
•2-4 (Kàipói)
Spoiler:
Relay text
Àpi ái póki ái áo na cái iànio tcí no hópài ki.
[ɐ̃̀.ᵐbī áí̯ pʷʰɔ́.ɡʲī áí̯ áó̯ dā sáí̯ ĩ̯̀ɐ̃̀ⁿðʲī̯ō ǂí dōɦʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̀ᵑɡʲī]
There will start to be too many people if they want to insist on.
Xa cáihì, na mòti caonò lcà àpi.
[ʔā sáɪ̯́ʑĩ̀ dā mɔ̃̀ⁿʤī sāɔ̯̄nõ̀ ǁã̀ ɐ̃̀.ᵐbī]
As for the desire, they recently can indeed feel it.
Riá ái kòi; riá ái riopaha.
[ɾʲí̯á áí̯ kʷʰõ̀ĩ̯̀ | ɾʲí̯á áí̯ ɾʲī̯ɔ̄.bɐ̄.ɦā]
We are happy; we are numerous.
Noi lai ái omáiha cì tikánò.
[dōī̯ lāī̯ áí̯ ɔ̄.βáɪ̯́ʑā ʃĩ̀ʤɪ̄.ɡɐ́.nõ̀]
You aren't familiar with responsibility.
Na xiáo ani mià kòkiói io.
[dā ʔí̯áó̯ ɐ̄.ðʲi mĩ̯̀ã̀.ᵑɡʷɔ̃̀.ᵑɡʲí̯óí̯ ī̯ō]
They do almost without any difficulty.
Hópài ianì ái gapoiha gìnaha cài hópài ianì.
[hʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̀ ī̯ɐ̄.nĩ̀ áí̯ gɐ̄.bʷōɪ̯̄ɦā ɲɪ̃̀.ⁿdɐ̄.ɦā sã̀ɪ̯̃̀ɦʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̀ ī̯ɐ̄.nĩ̀]
Everyone is distantly related to everyone.
Riá ái nà omái ìti mò cì gáxai ato ki cài hópài cánà ki.
[ɾʲí̯á áí̯ nã̀ ɔ̄.βáí̯ ɪ̃̀.ⁿʤī mõ̀ sɪ̃̀.ᵑɣɐ́.ʔāī̯ ɐ̄.dɔ̄ɡʲī. sã̀ɪ̯̃̀.ɦʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̯̀ sɐ́.nɐ̃̀.ᵑɡʲī]
We will always give to the another people a large family with many children.
Hió ìti cì hópài ato ki hào no póhaihì.
[ɕí̯ó ɪ̃̀.ⁿʤī sɪ̃̀.ɦʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̯̀. ɐ̄.dɔ̄.ɡʲī hã̀õ̯̀ dɔ̄.bʷɔ́ɦāɪ̯̄ʑĩ̀]
The tradition of flourishing is always shared among many people.
Àpi ái cáca lcà ná lai xiáo ato!
[ɐ̃̀ᵐbʲī áí̯ sɐ́zā ǁã̀ dá lāī̯ ʔí̯áó̯ ɐ̄.dō]
It is indeed the virtue that we do much!
Paxi oa póhaihì xco ái noika icaha oa ráiri cánà.
[pʰɐ̄.ʔī ō̯ɐ̄.bʷɔ́.ɦāɪ̯̄.ʑĩ̀ ǀō áí̯ dōɪ̯̄.ɡā ɪ̄.zɐ̄.ɦā ō̯ɐ̄.ɾáɪ̯́.ɾʲī sɐ́.nã̀]
For another nation, a duty for flourishing may possibly be unusual.
Gi tinà no hào ái pòto hoha no riá.
[gʲī ʧɪ̄.nã̀ dɔ̄.ɦã̀õ̀ áí̯ pʷʰɔ̃̀.ⁿdō hʷɔ̄.ɦā dɔ̄.ɾʲí̯á]
But the conscience of tradition is morally appropriate of us.
Lálio mao ái tcòka no hópài gi xiopòta.
[lɐ́.lʲī̯ō bāō̯ áí̯ ǂɔ̃̀.ᵑɡā dɔ̄.ɦʷó.bã̀ĩ̯̀ gʲī ʔī̯ɔ̄.bʷɔ̃̀.ⁿdā]
The actual truth is the sacrifice of another people that rely on.
Àpi ái lálio.
[ɐ̃̀.ᵐbʲī áí̯ lɐ́.lʲī̯ō]
It is the truth.
Gi rìmoi lálòha iti pioti lcà àpi.
[ɡʲī rʲɪ̃̀.ᵐwōī̯ lɐ́.lɔ̃̀.ɦā ɪ̄.ʤī pʲʰī̯ɔ̄.ʤī ǁã̀ ɐ̃̀.ᵐbʲī]
But an optional replacement also suggests itself, indeed.
Òpa lai còmì áki mòtiha kó í ágonà lcà oa lai.
[ɔ̃̀.ᵐbā lāī̯ sɔ̃̀.mĩ̀ ɐ́.ɡʲī mɔ̃̀.ⁿʤɪ̄.ɦā kʷʰó í.á.wɔ̄.nã̀ ǁã̀ ō̯ɐ̄.lāī̯]
So you have become able to indeed select and decide for yourself.
Lai màirí pó.
[lāī̯ mã̀ɪ̯̃̀.ɾʲí pʷʰó]
You vote on your own.
Noi hópài ianì kò cáni xoái.
[dōī̯ hʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̯̀ ī̯ɐ̄.nĩ̀ kʷʰõ̀ sɐ́.ʤī ʔó̯áí̯]
Everyone is not going to have a role model.
Noi póki cì tcáno, gi cì xànoi.
[dōī̯ pʷʰɔ́.gʲī sɪ̃̀ǂɐ́.dō|ɡʲi sɪ̃̀.ʔɐ̃̀.ⁿðōī̯]
Do not begin with a doctrine, but with an agreement.
Cò hópài ato ki tímo lò òxi.
[sõ̀ hʷɔ́.bã̀ĩ̯̀ ɐ̄.dɔ̄.ɡʲi ʧʰɪ́.wō lõ̀ ɔ̃̀.ʔī]
Thus many people still become dead.
•Helios (Skipped)
•Crazyettin (English)
Spoiler:
It will start if they want persons too much.

Desire, they can really feel it.

We are happy; We are numerous.

You are not familiar with responsibility.

They do [Not in the vocabulary] without any difficulty

Everyone is related distantly to everyone else.

We will give the always big family with many children, other persons are wanted.

Tradition of flourishing is always shared among many persons.

It is really a virtue that you do much!

Duty to flourish may be unusual for other communities, but conscience of tradition is morally our [Not in the vocabulary].

The actual truth is the sacrifice of person that relies on.

It is the truth, but an optional replacement also really suggests it.

So you have made ability to really choose and decide for yourself.

You vote alone.

Not everyone will have a role model.

One starts not with a doctrine, but with an agreement.

Thus many persons still become dead.
There's now also a FrathWiki page about this relay.
Last edited by CrazyEttin on 02 Oct 2012 08:55, edited 28 times in total.
Prinsessa
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Prinsessa »

Interested in participating mainly with Vanga, but may also do Kozea.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

Skógvur wrote:Interested in participating mainly with Vanga, but may also do Kozea.
I think participating with two conlangs might be a bit problematic.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by nmn »

Will participate, with Jumju. Are native scripts allowed?
Interested in participating mainly with Vanga, but may also do Kozea.
Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea Kozea
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

nmn wrote:Will participate, with Jumju. Are native scripts allowed?
Why not? You'll just have to provide information about reading it in addition to grammar and vocabulary to the next link in the relay.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by nmn »

When does it begin?
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

nmn wrote:When does it begin?
There needs to be at least few days' time so that all interested people have the possibility to sign up.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Ear of the Sphinx »

Nvm, I'm in.
Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Fanael »

I'm in. Do I have to choose the language right now?
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Ossicone »

I'm game. I'd use Uskra.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Maraxxus »

Basically the same thing as Víkkímpæitia?
:nld: :eng: :hun: :fra: :deu:
:con: Maxédri
:con: Faljüdax
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Chagen »

I could be game for this, as long as we're not translating a whole goddamn paragraph or something.

I'll use Pazmat.
Nūdenku waga honji ma naku honyasi ne ika-ika ichamase!
female-appearance=despite boy-voice=PAT hold boy-youth=TOP very be.cute-3PL
Honyasi zō honyasi ma naidasu.
boy-youth=AGT boy-youth=PAT love.romantically-3S
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Trailsend »

Chagen wrote:I could be game for this, as long as we're not translating a whole goddamn paragraph or something.
Relay texts are typically a couple short paragraphs in length.

I'm interested in participating with Feayran, but whether I can depends on when the relay would be happening.
任何事物的发展都是物极必反,否极泰来。
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

Fanael wrote:I'm in. Do I have to choose the language right now?
No, if you don't want to.
Maraxxus wrote:Basically the same thing as Víkkímpæitia?
I fail to see any similarity.
Trailsend wrote:
Chagen wrote:I could be game for this, as long as we're not translating a whole goddamn paragraph or something.
Relay texts are typically a couple short paragraphs in length.
This would be the case in this one, too.
Trailsend wrote:I'm interested in participating with Feayran, but whether I can depends on when the relay would be happening.
I'm sure we can make it so you're able to participate.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Click »

I'll use Rutān. Tomorrow, I'll finish writing the reference grammar and post it tomorrow. The link in my signature is outdated.
Unfortunately, I won't be available during the next 9 days after tomorrow. [:(]
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Fanael »

CrazyEttin wrote:No, if you don't want to.
Good. Because I still have some orthographic issues to deal with, so I don't know how the name of the language is spelled.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Prinsessa »

Fanael wrote:
CrazyEttin wrote:No, if you don't want to.
Good. Because I still have some orthographic issues to deal with, so I don't know how the name of the language is spelled.
Make up an exonym. Kozea and Vanga are not actually the respective endonyms of these languages, for example. Equally, 'Swedish' is not the name of Swedish in Swedish. If you know what language you will use, but simply don't know how to spell it, I mean.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by CrazyEttin »

Skógvur wrote:
Fanael wrote:
CrazyEttin wrote:No, if you don't want to.
Good. Because I still have some orthographic issues to deal with, so I don't know how the name of the language is spelled.
Make up an exonym. Kozea and Vanga are not actually the respective endonyms of these languages, for example. Equally, 'Swedish' is not the name of Swedish in Swedish. If you know what language you will use, but simply don't know how to spell it, I mean.
[+1]
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Xing »

I'm in with Wakeu
Last edited by Xing on 28 Jul 2012 20:56, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay

Post by Fanael »

Sure, that's a possibility. But English exonyms are seldom as cool as endonyms.
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