Omzinian Scrap thread

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A Romance-based "auxlang"

It modifies Romance words so much they don't look what they look like in Romance.

All words are monosyllabic: (C)(C)(C)V(C).

Syntax

SVOX, OSVX, XSVO

All sentences start with a TAM particle.

A la om leg un zral.
[ələ'(ʔ)om leg ʊn'zɾäl]
PST.PERFVE SG.DEF man read SG. INDEF newspaper
'The man read a newspaper.'
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

An Uralic-ish phonology that tests with Estonian-ish lengths

Primary vowel inventory
ʲi u
ʲe o
ʲæ ɑ

Primary consonant inventory
p t tʲ t͡s k
b d dʲ g
s sʲ
z zʲ
m n nʲ
l lʲ
r rʲ
ʋ j

Simple phonotactics

The maximal syllable is: (C)V(C)(C) or (C)V(V)(C). A syllable ending in two consonants or having two vowels is possible only if it is a strong monosyllabic foot (see below).

All vowels and most consonants can be short or long. Voiced obstruents / b d dʲ g z zʲ/ cannot be geminated and semi-vowels / ʋ j/ can be geminated only in strong feet.
Furthermore, there is a feature I call strong foot/syllable. Diphthongs are also considered long vowels. Long consonants are ither geminated or consonant clusters.

Palatalization

Palatalization is phonemic only in dental consonants, excluding /t͡s/, before back vowels.
Before front vowels, all consonants are palatalized, and the distinction of palatalized and non-palatalized dentals is lost.
Word-finally, palatalization is possible only after a strong syllable. There, it applies to all consonants and should be analyzed as [ʲɪ].


Foot and lengths

Words consist of feet. Here I only handle disyllabic and monosyllabic feet. There might be trisyllabic feet and monosyllabic weak feet, too, but I have enough work describing the current topic. A foot consists of a primarily or secondarily stressed syllable and a possible unstressed syllable.

Weak (= non-strong) feet

All weak feet have two syllables. The first one can be short or long while the second one is always short. There can be an initial consonant that does not belong to the feet, and there can be a final short consonant that does not affect the analyses of the feet. Feet 2) and 3) have a longer duration than 1) because their first syllable is longer, and the second syllables have equal durations.
1) VCV (a short vowel + a short consonant + a short vowel)
2) V:CV (a long vowel + a short consonant + a short vowel)
3) VC:V (a short vowel + a long consonant + a short vowel)

Strong feet

There can be only one strong foot per word, and it is the first one. Like all first syllables, it always has the primary stress. Strong feet are not longer than 2) or 3). Both consonants and vowels in their first syllable are somewhat lengthened, but the vowel of the second syllable is shortened or dropped altogether. That is, strong feet are not “stronger” altogether, but the weight is gathered to the first syllable while, in weak feet, it is more equally shared. I mark the relative lengthening by an acute accent on the vowel of the syllable, but it should be remembered that the consonant is lengthened as well. I mark the shortened vowel with ̆ on the vowel. The structure of 4) like that of 2), except that the feet is strong. The structure of 5) like that of 3), except that the feet is strong.
4) V́:CV̆ or V́:CV̆ (a long vowel + a short consonant (+ an overshort vowel))
5) V́C:V̆ or V́C:V̆ (a short vowel + a long consonant (+ an overshort vowel)

Overshort vowels

When appearing as the second syllable of a strong foot, vowels are reduced. All front vowels are reduced to [ʲɪ]. /ʲi, ʲe, ʲæ/ => [ʲɪ].
/u/ and /o/ are reduced to [ʊ]. /u o/ => [ʊ]
/ɑ/ is reduced to [ʌ ~ ɜ]. There is a phonetic vowel harmony between the two realizations. [ʌ] appears if the preceding syllable has back vowels, and [ɜ] appears if it has front vowels.
There is a contrast between [ʊ] or [ʌ ~ ɜ] and full elision. There is no such distinction with [ʲɪ], see the following chapter. That emphasizes the fact that reduced consonants can be very short.


Orthography

A language with palatalization is nice for Cyrillic script.

Vowels
ʲi u <и у>
ʲe o <е о>
ʲæ ɑ <я а>

When long:
ʲi: u: <ии уу>
ʲe: o: <еэ оо>
ʲæ: ɑ: <яэ аа>

When reduced:
ʲɪ ʊ ʌ~ɜ <ь ъ э>

Consonants
p t tʲ t͡s k <п т ть ц к>
b d dʲ k <б д дь к>
s sʲ <с сь>
z zʲ <з зь>
m n nʲ <м н нь>
l lʲ <л ль>
r rʲ <р рь>
ʋ j <в й>

Geminated consonants are written twice, but <ь> of palatalization is not repeated.

This orthography relatively well marks strong syllables. All monosyllabic words are strong. Similarly syllables followed by a reduced vowel are strong.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

p t k͡p k
b t g͡b g
f s
v z
m n l r
j w

Long
i: ɨ: u: <í ý ú>
e: o: <é ó>
ɛ: ɔ: <è ò>
ä: <á>

Short
i ɨ u <i y u>
ɛ ɔ <e o>
a <a>

Similar length systems to those in the above project.
Nouns have DIRECT, LOCATIVE, and GENITIVE cases.

NOM tasa (short first syllable)
LOC taasa (long first syllable)
GEN tassa (long first syllable)

NOM taas (extra-long first syllable)
LOC taasü (extra-long first syllable)
GEN taasï (extra-long first syllable)

NOM tass (extra-long first syllable)
LOC tassü (extra-long first syllable)
GEN tassï (extra-long first syllable)

Nasals and liquids can replace a short vowel
NOM tnsa (short first syllable)
LOC tansa (long first syllable)
GEN tnssa (long first syllable)
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote: 06 Jul 2021 23:19 p t k͡p k
ɓ ɗ
β? ɹ w
m n
s

i ĩ ɨ ɨ̃ u ũ
ə
a ã

Phonotactics
(C)V(C)
The coda is always a voiceles stop or /s/.

Stress on the penultimate syllable if it is closed.
Stress on the ultimate syllable if the penultimate syllable is open.

Mainly agglutinative (Adding schwa to C_CV# to move stress to the last syllable is kind process morphology.)
Head marking
Fluid intransitive marking on cross-referencing in the verb.
Mood-prominent (no tense or aspect), evidentiality
Converbs
Noun classes are marked with an infix after the first consonant of the stem
k<i>sani
<HUMAN.SG>-person
'a person'

k<ut>sani
<PHYSICAL>-person
'human body'

Verbs agree the class of their subject.
wan-i
eat-HUMAN.SG
'She/he is eating. '


All non-monovalent verbs have a voice-kind marker that codes the role of the second argument. I gloss it as APPLICATIVE.

p-et-wan-i
APPL.DESTROY-LIQUID-eat-HUMAN
'She/he is eating (ie. drinking) the liquid.'


If there isn't the voice marker, the second argument appears as an adjunct in the oblique case or is incorporated.

wan-i n<et>sak-e
eat-HUMAN <liquid>water-OBL
'She/He is drinking water.'
~
nesak-wan-i
water-eat-HUMAN

The applicative thing is not an Austronesian trigger. Topicality or definiteness doesn't really affect which voice is used. The voice used is rather determined by the verb lexeme, though some voices can be used by one verb.
Topicality is coded in word order.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote: 04 Jul 2021 10:46 A Pseudo-Germanic lang

One of my favoutite consonant inventories, which I didn't make myself but somebody posted in Random Phonologies thread years ago.
p t̪ t͡s k
m n ŋ
s x
z ɣ
l ɾ (or possibly ʀ)
ʋ j

Hungurian-ish vowels
y i u
ø e o
ä
Vowels are either long or short (still considering if it affects quality)
Normal voice or creaky voice. (Creaky voice always with vowel-initial words ála German, where the glottal stop seems to often realize that way.)
(I'm not sure if length and phonation distinctions can co-appear or if one is neutralized ála Danish.)

Nouns
Two genders: Fem Masc + Plural, where gender is neutralized.
Two noun cases: Nominative and Obliques (Accusative-Dative, double object).
Geninitive could be formed with a kind of Idaafa: [possessed][article[possessor]], "house the man".

Case and gender appear in the article (and somewhat in adjective attributes):
DEF.M.NOM, DEF.F.NOM, DEF.PL.NOM
DEF.M.OBL, DEF.F.OBL, DEF.PL.OBL
INDEF.M.NOM, INDEF.F.NOM, INDEF.PL.NOM
INDEF.M.OBL, INDEF.F.OBL, INDEF.PL.OBL

In the possession construction, the article has the case and number of the possessor but the case of the whole NP/possessed.

Location prepositions express direction with Oblique and place with Nominative, ála Esperanto.
I'm still thinking how to derive the consonant phoneme inventory.
Probably the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated stops could be maintained in consonant clusters.

pʰr → px ~ pχ
pr ~ br → pɣ ~ pʁ
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A Romlang

Verb
- Stress always lies on the stem.
- Second conjugation (e) verbs have a synthetic imperfect with -j and a complex imperfect with auxiliary to 'I have'. First conjugation verbs only have the complex imperfect.
- The perfect is always complex but, in third persons, the auxiliary can be dropped.
- The future is formed with prefix vol-.

Present Indicative
'faço 'I do'
'façes
'façe
'façeus
'façeis
'façen

Imperfect Indicative
'fa.çjo ~ to 'fat
'fa.çjes ~ tes 'fat
'fa.çje ~ 'te 'fat
'fa.çjeus ~ 'teneus 'fat
'fa.çjeis ~ 'teneis 'fat
'fa.çjen ~ ten 'fat

Perfect Indicative
'avo 'fat
'aves 'fat
'ave 'fat ~ 'fat
'aveus 'fat
'aveis 'fat
'aven 'fat ~ 'fat

Future
vol'faço
vol'façes
vol'façe
vol'façeus
vol'façeis
vol'façen
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Still the Romlang

There is a small conjugation of 5 monosyllabic verbs:

da- 'give'
fa- 'do'
sa- 'know'
sta- 'stay'
va- 'go'

Their specialities are:
- present indicative sg1 -u and sg2 imperative -i markers are added to the vowel stem
- present indicative pl1 and pl2 markers are syllabic -mus -this
- imperfect is formed with -v(a)
- conjunctive present forms are irregular (dia, facha, sapha, stia, vada)

sau 'I know'
sas
sa
samus
satis
san

Sai 'Know!'

savo 'I knew'
savas
sava
savaus
savais
savan

pe sapha 'that I know'
pe saphas
pe sapha
pe saphaus
pe sapais
pe saphan
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote: 05 Aug 2021 16:19
Omzinesý wrote: 04 Jul 2021 10:46 A Pseudo-Germanic lang

One of my favoutite consonant inventories, which I didn't make myself but somebody posted in Random Phonologies thread years ago.
p t̪ t͡s k
m n ŋ
s x
z ɣ
l ɾ (or possibly ʀ)
ʋ j

Hungurian-ish vowels
y i u
ø e o
ä
Vowels are either long or short (still considering if it affects quality)
Normal voice or creaky voice. (Creaky voice always with vowel-initial words ála German, where the glottal stop seems to often realize that way.)
(I'm not sure if length and phonation distinctions can co-appear or if one is neutralized ála Danish.)

Nouns
Two genders: Fem Masc + Plural, where gender is neutralized.
Two noun cases: Nominative and Obliques (Accusative-Dative, double object).
Geninitive could be formed with a kind of Idaafa: [possessed][article[possessor]], "house the man".

Case and gender appear in the article (and somewhat in adjective attributes):
DEF.M.NOM, DEF.F.NOM, DEF.PL.NOM
DEF.M.OBL, DEF.F.OBL, DEF.PL.OBL
INDEF.M.NOM, INDEF.F.NOM, INDEF.PL.NOM
INDEF.M.OBL, INDEF.F.OBL, INDEF.PL.OBL

In the possession construction, the article has the case and number of the possessor but the case of the whole NP/possessed.

Location prepositions express direction with Oblique and place with Nominative, ála Esperanto.
I'm still thinking how to derive the consonant phoneme inventory.
Probably the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated stops could be maintained in consonant clusters.

pʰr → px ~ pχ
pr ~ br → pɣ ~ pʁ
So, there are two cases: the nominative and the oblique (merger of the accusative, dative, and genitive). They mostly realize in articles. The masculine nominative definite article is da, and the masculine oblique definite article is do.

Kat 'cat' and man 'man' are both masculine.

1)
In an older state of the language, the possessor followed the possessed in the oblique case, which was a remnant of the old genitive case.

So the NP in the nominative was:
da kat do man 'the cat of the man'

And the NP in the oblique case was:
do kat do man 'the cat of the man'

2)
But then the article of the possessed was lost. That also happens with the English 's genitive: ?? 'the man's the cat'

So, both the constructions became alike:
kat do man 'the cat of the man'

3)
But now the construction had just one article, always in the oblique case. It was reanalysed as the marker of the case of the whole construction:

So the NP in the nominative became:
kat da man 'the cat of the man'

And the NP in the oblique case became:
kat do man 'the cat of the man'

4)
Now the oblique case had lost its function as the marker of possession and the possession construction was just expressed syntactically. So, the oblique case is now called the accusative and it markes both direct and indirect objects.

Does this sound like a natural development?
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A lang imitating Chinese

Onset
pʰ tʰ t͡ʂʰ kʰ
p t t͡ʂ k
b d d͡ʐ g
s ʂ
z ʐ
l
mʰ nʰ ɲʰ
m n ɲ

- Alveolars and retroflexes merger before /i/ or /y/ or a corresponding glide and become corresponding palatals.

Medial
j ɥ w

Nucleus
i y u
ə
ɑ ɒ
(The coda consonants below can also be syllabic. )

/jə/ = [je]
/ɥə/ = [ɥe]
/wə/ = [wo]

/jɑ/= [ja]
/ɥɑ/ =[ɥa]
/wɑ/=[wɑ]

/jɒ/= [jɶ]
/ɥɒ/=[ɥɶ]
/wɒ/=[wɒ]

Coda
n ŋ (Nasalizes the preceding vowel)
l ʟ


Tones
The tone system is relatively easy.
<a> flat tone
<á> rising tone
<à> lowering tone
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote: 11 Sep 2021 18:18 A new derivation from Kahichali phoneme inventory.

p t k
s ʃ ç x (ʍ)
m n
l r j (w)

- I'm not sure if the labiovelars should be included.

y i u
ɛ ɑ
Vowels can be nasalized and have some tones.

Syllable structure:
(C)(C)V

The allowed consonant clusters are:
plosive + fricative/liquid
{p t k} + {s ʃ ç x (ʍ) l r}
Phonetically, there are thus affricates and velar/palatal 'aspiration'.
Accent
This is best described as a pitch-accent language. There are three tones: high, rising, and mid. A syllable can be either accented (has either a high tone or a rising tone) on non-accented (has a mid tone). The rules are:
i) Last syllable is never accented.
ii) Two accented syllables cannot appear in line.
iii) More than three non-accented syllables cannot appear in line (three is rare too).

Most words have one accented syllable but long ones have several. Words without accents are possible.

There are thus feet consisting of an accented syllable and (a) non-accented syllable(s), but their lengths are irregular.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Mekša. 'I (we excl.) hit him/her/them.'
Mekha. 'You hit him/her/them.'
Meka. 'He/she/they hit him/her/them.'
Mekra. 'We (incl.) hit him/her/them.'

Mehetša. 'He/she/they hit me (us excl.).'
Mehetha. 'He/she/they hit you.'
Meheta. 'He/she/they hit him/her/them.'
Mehetra. 'He/she/they hit us (incl.).'
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
Post Reply