Hopefully I can get some feedback and help with some of the more difficult grammar stuff. I have the phonology down for the most part, although I did recently change out /q/ for a glottal stop represented by <q>, and I still have to go through and change everything that had a /q/ in it...
Anyways, here it is: the Thread
Overview (from the GoogleDoc for this lang):
Nillahimma is a constructed language created by Kory Bourque for using in his fantasy realm, Kormond, which will be the setting for several stories. As of now, the speakers of Nillahimma are undecided, but maybe by the jungle dwellers in the basin south of Arkai and west of Anuvia.
Nillahimma is polysynthetic, with extensive noun incorporation, and the verbs being the main focus of the clause. It has six nominal cases - ergative, absolutive, dative, oblique, possessor, and possessed - three numbers, thirteen aspects, seven moods, and three tenses. There is proximate/obviative distinction, and a switch-reference system that focuses on the subjects.
Plosives: /p t k ʔ/ <p t k q>
Nasals: /m n/ <m n>
Fricatives: /f s x h/ <f s x h>
Trill: /r/ <r>
Approximants: /w l j/ <w l j>
/w/ is a labiovelar approximant, but I have listed it where I have for conciseness.
Vowels: /i e a ɑ o u/ <i e æ a o u>
It used to be /a ɑ/ <a æ> but /ɑ/ is much more common in Nillahimma, and I got tired of copy/pasting the ligature, so...
/p t k ʔ/ > [p͡f t͡θ k͡x q͡χˤ] word-initially. Examples:
There are two types of syllables in Nillahimma: Non-Word-Final syllables, and Word-Final syllables. Their names are pretty self-explanatory.
NWF syllable phonotactics:
(C)(C)V(t, N, s, x, h, r, l, j)
WF syllable phonotactics:
(C)(C)V(N, s, l, r)
p, t, k + F, A, r, ʔ
N + ʔ, r, j
F + S, N, A, r
r + w
F + F
Vowel clusters are not allowed. However, since Nillahimma has many affixes, VV occurrences are not uncommon. But the language is well-equipped to handle these.
uV > wV
iV > jV
V1V > V1fV
V1 is any vowel except for /u i/
Not really VV, but they still get special treatment:
uj > uw (or uʷ)
iw > ij
Nillahimma does not have a stress system, but instead employs a pitch-accent system. There are two tones, high and low. Roots will almost always have one high tone, whereas larger words (roots plus any INs and affixes) may have more than one high tone. High tone is marked with an accent diacritic, but may be left out at the writer's discretion, and is not marked at all in the native script. The low-tone syllables leading up to the high tone will be rising from the furthest syllable, which will be low tone. If there are no more high tones after the first high tone, the tones descend back to low; if there are other high tones, the tone drops sharply from high to low, then ascends to the next high tone. Incorporated nouns lose their inherit high tones. If there are more than three non-high-tone syllables in either direction of the high tone, a high tone is placed on either the second syllable (if there are more than three NHTSs to the left) and/or on the penultimate syllable (if there are three or more NHTSs to the right).
Now we get to the good part. Verbs are the central hub of Nillahimma. There is a three-way telicity distinction that is pretty neat, and plenty of polysynthetic goodies for all of you poly-nerds to give me tips on.
A3 is reserved for the aspects dealing with teliciy. Telic is usually left out of glosses unless there is a Quasi-Atelic or Atelic verb in the sample being glossed.
Pronomial affixes are prefixed onto the verb stem before any other arguments; any following arguments squeeze themselves between the two.
The PAs encode six morphemes: two person/number units (4 morphemes) and which is the subject, and which is the object (two morphemes). PAs break the normal Erg-Abs structure of Nillahimma, only specifying the subject and the direct object. Some argue that it keeps within the Erg-Abs, and the Subject is in the Ergative and the Object is in the Absolutive, but it the point is moot. PAs are still glossed in the manner of person+number>person+number (e.g. 1sg>3du)
I don't have the completed chart up, but it is very large, with, as of now, 144 SUBJ/OBJ combinations, and I haven't added a few other persons, such as the unspecified (as in, "people do ," "it is often said that..." etc). In any case, it is not completed, and I will be turning to several NA languages that use PAs to get some info and inspiration.
There are three categories of aspects in Nillahimma: completion, non-completion, and telic. Completion aspects are the perfective and the imperfective. The non-completion aspects are gnomic, inceptive, cessative, habitual, iterative, pausative, resumptive, durative, and protractive. The telic aspects are telic, atelic, and quasi-atelic (Qatelic).
There are seven moods in Nillahimma: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, optative, imperative, jussive, and interrogative.
While it is true that the following can be described in more accurate ways, other than MISC, I will group them here, for now, until I elaborate further.
Pronouns are fairly simple, only being marked for number and case. When gender is important to the situation, there are classifiers, though I haven't discovered them yet.
There are three grammatical numbers in Nillahimma: singular, dual, and plural.
Nillahimma double-marks for possessives; that is, it marks both the possessor and the possessed.
I will only touch on this section, and bring it up in greater detail later.
Nillahimma's SR system is fairly simple and is canonical. All conjunctions and relative pronouns have two forms: one for same-subject (glossed CONJ.SS or REL.SS) and one for different subject (glossed CONJ.DS or REL.DS). The anchor clause is the first clause in the sentence, and all subsequent clauses refer back to it for determining whether to have a SS or DS marking.
The DS form of conjunctions and relative pronouns is formed by adding an /l/ to the word, or, in some cases, dropping the coda /r/ and lengthening the vowel.
Well, that is all for now. I look forward to your criticisms and feedback, and I will have more posted as soon as I get around to it!