Quick Diachronics Challenge

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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

So… I seem to have really gotten the wrong idea about the direction in which this thread was headed. From my perspective, it felt like there was a general trend towards "harder"/"longer" challenges each round, so I assumed that's what people wanted. Clearly, though, I took that idea too far and made the game too time-consuming and no longer enjoyable or appealing.

I'd really like for this game to continue, but I don't see the need to abandon this thread and start a new one.

I could either a) end the current round ASAP by naming whoever got closest the winner, or I could b) take the current "data set" and eliminate 2-3 of the words and at least half of the languages, along with revealing what people have already gotten correct to hopefully help things get wrapped up more quickly. I'm definitely leaning towards the first option, but sangi39 and ɶʙ ɞʛ, since you were the two participants in this round, what do you think? What would you prefer?
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

The first option seems better. Also, for future challenges, there should be a fixed number of guesses per player instead of continuing until someone gets the answer exactly correct.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 21 Sep 2021 04:56 The first option seems better.
[tick] I'm inclined to agree, but I'll give sangi39 some more time to weigh in before I "announce" anything.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 21 Sep 2021 04:56 Also, for future challenges, there should be a fixed number of guesses per player instead of continuing until someone gets the answer exactly correct.
The game has never been like that, at least not in my experience. In the past few rounds, it seems, people have managed to reconstruct the original forms exactly, but I don't remember that ever being a requirement for winning. Once the person whose turn it was decided that things had gone on long enough, they would end the round and declare whoever got closest the winner. For example, if this round hadn't failed, I would have announced a winner after participants had guessed at most 4-5 times, regardless of whether or not anyone had reconstructed any of the original forms with 100% accuracy.

Of course, I could be forgetting something, and this thread has been going on for longer than I've been playing, so it's certainly possible that this was once how things worked.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by sangi39 »

shimobaatar wrote: 21 Sep 2021 05:54
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 21 Sep 2021 04:56 The first option seems better.
[tick] I'm inclined to agree, but I'll give sangi39 some more time to weigh in before I "announce" anything.
I'd agree as well (after, what, five and a half months without any activity, it doesn't seem to make too much sense to leave it hanging). What I will say, though, is that I've largely had to drop anything "big" as well, as work has continued to pile up on my end (more home-working shifts so that we don't fall behind), I've started playing DnD again as well, and other things going on, I don't think I'd really have time for even a small challenge. That being said, one of the other reasons I enjoyed this game was as a spectator, seeing what sorts of changes people guess from the data they had, so I'd like to see it carry on.


shimobaatar wrote: 21 Sep 2021 05:54
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 21 Sep 2021 04:56 Also, for future challenges, there should be a fixed number of guesses per player instead of continuing until someone gets the answer exactly correct.
The game has never been like that, at least not in my experience. In the past few rounds, it seems, people have managed to reconstruct the original forms exactly, but I don't remember that ever being a requirement for winning. Once the person whose turn it was decided that things had gone on long enough, they would end the round and declare whoever got closest the winner. For example, if this round hadn't failed, I would have announced a winner after participants had guessed at most 4-5 times, regardless of whether or not anyone had reconstructed any of the original forms with 100% accuracy.

Of course, I could be forgetting something, and this thread has been going on for longer than I've been playing, so it's certainly possible that this was once how things worked.
I think this mostly depended on the user, and the time in the thread as well. Some people would go for a "three rounds, closest answer wins" sort of thing, others would add in extra data with each round or two, others would go for "exact answers or as close as" and run the game until then. Some used maps, others didn't. Some counted branching in their count of who won, others wouldn't. It's really more like a thread of a certain "kind" of game, than a unified, single, "one set of rules" type of thing
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

sangi39 wrote: 21 Sep 2021 22:17
shimobaatar wrote: 21 Sep 2021 05:54
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 21 Sep 2021 04:56 The first option seems better.
[tick] I'm inclined to agree, but I'll give sangi39 some more time to weigh in before I "announce" anything.
I'd agree as well (after, what, five and a half months without any activity, it doesn't seem to make too much sense to leave it hanging).
Glad we're all on the same page, then!
sangi39 wrote: 21 Sep 2021 22:17 What I will say, though, is that I've largely had to drop anything "big" as well, as work has continued to pile up on my end (more home-working shifts so that we don't fall behind), I've started playing DnD again as well, and other things going on, I don't think I'd really have time for even a small challenge. That being said, one of the other reasons I enjoyed this game was as a spectator, seeing what sorts of changes people guess from the data they had, so I'd like to see it carry on.
That's completely understandable, of course. I'm sorry to hear you've been so busy.

You won this round, actually, but given what you've said here, I assume you'd prefer to "pass" the next turn to ɶʙ ɞʛ?

As usual, here's a very rough "answer key" for this round:
Spoiler:
Stage 0: A-Z
Stage 1: A-F G-M N-T U-Z
Stage 2: AB CD EF / GHI JK LM / NO PQR ST / UV WX YZ
Stage 3: A B / C D / E F // G H I / J K / L M // N O / P Q R / S T // U V / W X / Y Z

A-Z
[ˈkʼɨːŋoˌs̺uː] - [guˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmɔ] - [ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] - [xaˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] - [ˈkʼiːneˌhaːrɨ]



A-F
[ˈkʼiːnɔˌsuː] - [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmwa] - [ˈkiːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] - [haˈθoːʔɪˌpɔː] - [ˈcʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ]
-Velars are palatalized before front vowels ([ˈkʼiːneˌhaːrɨ] > [ˈcʼiːneˌhaːrɨ])
-[x ŋ] > [h n] ([xaˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] > [haˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː], [ˈkʼɨːŋoˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼɨːnoˌs̺uː])
-Uvulars merge with velars ([ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː])
-[ɨ(ː)] > [i(ː)] ([ˈkʼɨːnoˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼiːnoˌs̺uː], [ˈcʼiːneˌhaːrɨ] > [ˈcʼiːneˌhaːri]
-[i u e o ɛ ɔ] > [ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ ja wa] ([ˈkʼiːnoˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼiːnɔˌs̺uː], [guˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmɔ] > [gʊˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmwa], [ˈkiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡s̺ʼjaˌɓeː], [haˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] > [haˈs̻oːʔɪˌpɔː], [ˈcʼiːneˌhaːri] > [ˈcʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ])
-Laminal sibilants become non-sibilants ([ˈkʼiːnɔˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼiːnɔˌsuː], [gʊˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmwa] > [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmwa], [ˈkiːt͡s̺ʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː], [haˈs̻oːʔɪˌpɔː] > [haˈθoːʔɪˌpɔː])


AB
[ˈcʼiːnzuː] - [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa] - [ˈciːt͡sʲʼaˌɓeː] - [haˈðoːʔpɔː] - [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːd]
-Fricatives are voiced intervocalically ([ˈkʼiːnɔˌsuː] > [ˈkʼiːnɔˌzuː], [haˈθoːʔɪˌpɔː] > [haˈðoːʔɪˌpɔː], [ˈcʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ] > [ˈcʼiːnɛˌɦaːrɪ])
-Palatal obstruents become alveolo-palatal ([ˈcʼiːnɛˌɦaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɛˌɦaːrɪ])
-Velars are palatalized before front vowels ([ˈkʼiːnɔˌzuː] > [ˈcʼiːnɔˌzuː], [ˈkiːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈciːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː])
-Short, unstressed vowels are lost after single consonants in non-initial syllables ([ˈcʼiːnɔˌzuː] > [ˈcʼiːnzuː], [haˈðoːʔɪˌpɔː] > [haˈðoːʔpɔː], [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɛˌɦaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːr])
-[Cj Cw] > [Cʲ Cʷ] ([ˈciːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈciːt͡sʲʼaˌɓeː], [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmwa] > [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa])
-[r] > [d] ([ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːr] > [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːd])

A
[ˈt͡ɕʼiːnd͡zuː] - [guˈt͡θʼɛːŋa] - [ˌt͡ɕiːt͡sʼaˈɓeː] - [haˈðoːppɔː] - [ʈ͡ʂʼiːˈnʱaːð]
-Primary stress shifts to the heaviest syllable, starting from the right ([ˈciːt͡sʲʼaˌɓeː] > [ˌciːt͡sʲʼaˈɓeː], [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːd] > [t͡ɕʼiːnˈɦaːd])
-[ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ] > [i u e o] ([gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa] > [guˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa])
-Palatalized alveolar sibilants are depalatalized, alveolo-palatals become retroflex, and palatal obstruents become alveolo-palatal ([ˈcʼiːnzuː] > [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnzuː], [ˌciːt͡sʲʼaˈɓeː] > [ˌt͡ɕiːt͡sʼaˈɓeː], [t͡ɕʼiːnˈɦaːd] > [ʈ͡ʂʼiːnˈɦaːd])
-[Cɦ ʔC] > [Cʱ CC] ([haˈðoːʔpɔː] > [haˈðoːppɔː], [ʈ͡ʂʼiːnˈɦaːd] > [ʈ͡ʂʼiːˈnʱaːd])
-Fricatives become affricates after nasals ([ˈt͡ɕʼiːnzuː] > [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnd͡zuː])
-Voiced stops and affricates become fricatives postvocalically ([ʈ͡ʂʼiːˈnʱaːd] > [ʈ͡ʂʼiːˈnʱaːð])
-Labialized labials become velars ([guˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa] > [guˈt͡θʼɛːŋa])

B
[ˈt͡ʃʼindru] - [goˈt͡θʼɛma] - [ˈt͡ʃit͡ʃʼaˌɓe] - [haˈvoːpɔ] - [ˈt͡sʼiŋŋan]
-Long vowels are shortened ([ˈcʼiːnzuː] > [ˈcʼinzu], [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmʷa] > [gʊˈt͡θʼɛmʷa], [ˈciːt͡sʲʼaˌɓeː] > [ˈcit͡sʲʼaˌɓe], [haˈðoːʔpɔː] > [haˈðoʔpɔ], [ˈt͡ɕʼiːnɦaːd] > [ˈt͡ɕʼinɦad])
-[ɪ ʊ] > [e o] ([gʊˈt͡θʼɛmʷa] > [goˈt͡θʼɛmʷa])
-Palatal obstruents and palatalized alveolar sibilants merge as post-alveolar sibilants while alveolo-palatal sibilants become alveolar ([ˈcʼinzu] > [ˈt͡ʃʼinzu], [ˈcit͡sʲʼaˌɓe] > [ˈt͡ʃit͡ʃʼaˌɓe], [ˈt͡ɕʼinɦad] > [ˈt͡sʼinɦad])
-[z] > [r] ([ˈt͡ʃʼinzu] > [ˈt͡ʃʼinru])
-[nr nɦ] > [ndr ŋŋ] ([ˈt͡ʃʼinru] > [ˈt͡ʃʼindru], [ˈt͡sʼinɦad] > [ˈt͡sʼiŋŋad])
-Labialized labials are delabialized ([goˈt͡θʼɛmʷa] > [goˈt͡θʼɛma])
-Dental non-sibilant fricatives become labiodental ([haˈðoʔpɔ] > [haˈvoʔpɔ])
-Coda voiced stops become nasals ([ˈt͡sʼiŋŋad] > [ˈt͡sʼiŋŋan])
-[Vʔ$] > [Vː$] ([haˈvoʔpɔ] > [haˈvoːpɔ])


CD
[ˈt͡sʼinɔsu] - [goˈt͡θʼɛwma] - [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓe] - [haˈθoʔepɔ] - [ˈt͡sʼinɛhaje]
-Velars are palatalized before front vowels ([ˈkʼiːnɔˌsuː] > [ˈcʼiːnɔˌsuː], [ˈkiːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈciːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː])
-Palatal obstruents become alveolar sibilants ([ˈcʼiːnɔˌsuː] > [ˈt͡sʼiːnɔˌsuː], [ˈciːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈt͡siːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː], [ˈcʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡sʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ])
-Long vowels are shortened ([ˈt͡sʼiːnɔˌsuː] > [ˈt͡sʼinɔˌsu], [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmwa] > [gʊˈt͡θʼɛmwa], [ˈt͡siːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈt͡sit͡sʼjaˌɓe], [haˈθoːʔɪˌpɔː] > [haˈθoʔɪˌpɔ], [ˈt͡sʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛˌharɪ])
-[ɪ ʊ] > [e o] ([gʊˈt͡θʼɛmwa] > [goˈt͡θʼɛmwa], [haˈθoʔɪˌpɔ] > [haˈθoʔeˌpɔ], [ˈt͡sʼinɛˌharɪ] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛˌhare])
-[r] > [j] ([ˈt͡sʼinɛˌhare] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛˌhaje])
-[Cj Cw] > [jC wC] ([goˈt͡θʼɛmwa] > [goˈt͡θʼɛwma], [ˈt͡sit͡sʼjaˌɓe] > [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaˌɓe])
-Loss of secondary stress ([ˈt͡sʼinɔˌsu] > [ˈt͡sʼinɔsu], [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaˌɓe] > [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓe], [haˈθoʔeˌpɔ] > [haˈθoʔepɔ], [ˈt͡sʼinɛˌhaje] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛhaje])

C
[ˈt͡sʼinɔs] - [goˈt͡θʼœːma] - [ˈt͡siːt͡sʼaʔ] - [haˈfoʔef] - [ˈt͡sʼinɛççe]
-Every second unstressed vowel from the stress is lost ([ˈt͡sʼinɔsu] > [ˈt͡sʼinɔs], [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓe] > [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓ], [haˈθoʔepɔ] > [haˈθoʔep], [ˈt͡sʼinɛhaje] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛhje])
-Non-glottal pulmonic stops and affricates become fricatives postvocalically ([haˈθoʔep] > [haˈθoʔef])
-[ɓ$] > [ʔ$] ([ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓ] > [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaʔ])
-Dental non-sibilant fricatives become labiodental ([haˈθoʔef] > [haˈfoʔef])
-[hj] > [çç] ([ˈt͡sʼinɛhje] > [ˈt͡sʼinɛççe])
-[ij iw uj uw ej ew oj ow ɛj ɛw ɔj ɔw aj aw] > [iː yː yː uː eː øː øː oː ɛː œː œː ɔː ɛː ɔː] ([goˈt͡θʼɛwma] > [goˈt͡θʼœːma], [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaʔ] > [ˈt͡siːt͡sʼaʔ])

D
[ˈt͡sʼinsu] - [goˈtʼɛwm] - [ˈt͡səjt͡sʼwe] - [haˈtoːpɔ] - [ˈt͡sʼin̥n̥aj]
-Every other unstressed vowel following the stress is lost ([ˈt͡sʼinɔsu] > [ˈt͡sʼinsu], [goˈt͡θʼɛwma] > [goˈt͡θʼɛwm], [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼaɓe] > [ˈt͡sijt͡sʼɓe], [haˈθoʔepɔ] > [haˈθoʔpɔ], [ˈt͡sʼinɛhaje] > [ˈt͡sʼinhaj])
-[ij uw ej ow ɛj ɔw] > [əj əw əj əw aj aw] ([ˈt͡sijt͡sʼɓe] > [ˈt͡səjt͡sʼɓe])
-[Cɓ] > [Cw] ([ˈt͡səjt͡sʼɓe] > [ˈt͡səjt͡sʼwe])
-[Vʔ$] > [Vː$] ([haˈθoʔpɔ] > [haˈθoːpɔ])
-[nh] > [n̥n̥] ([ˈt͡sʼinhaj] > [ˈt͡sʼin̥n̥aj])
-Dental non-sibilant fricatives and affricates become stops ([goˈt͡θʼɛwm] > [goˈtʼɛwm], [haˈθoːpɔ] > [haˈtoːpɔ])


EF
[ˈkʼiːnsuː] - [ˈkt͡θʼɛːmu] - [ˈkiːt͡sʼiˌɓeː] - [ˈθθo̰jpɔː] - [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnhaːʒ]
-Palatal obstruents become post-alveolar sibilants ([ˈcʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ])
-[r] > [ʒ] ([ˈt͡ʃʼiːnɛˌhaːrɪ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnɛˌhaːʒɪ])
-[ˈV(ː)ʔ(ɪ,ɛ) ˈV(ː)ʔ(ʊ,ɔ) ˈV(ː)ʔa] > [ˈV̰j ˈV̰w ˈV̰ː] ([haˈθoːʔɪˌpɔː] > [haˈθo̰jpɔː])
-Unstressed short vowels are lost ([ˈkʼiːnɔˌsuː] > [ˈkʼiːnsuː], [gʊˈt͡θʼɛːmwa] > [ˈgt͡θʼɛːmw], [ˈkiːt͡sʼjaˌɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡sʼjɓeː], [haˈθo̰jpɔː] > [ˈhθo̰jpɔː], [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnɛˌhaːʒɪ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnhaːʒ])
-[CjC Cj# #jC CwC Cw# #wC] > [CiC Ci# #iC CuC Cu# #uC] ([ˈgt͡θʼɛːmw] > [ˈgt͡θʼɛːmu], [ˈkiːt͡sʼjɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡sʼiˌɓeː])
-Regressive voicing assimilation in clusters of obstruents ([ˈgt͡θʼɛːmu] > [ˈkt͡θʼɛːmu])
-[h] fully assimilates to adjacent obstruents ([ˈhθo̰jpɔː] > [ˈθθo̰jpɔː])

E
[ˈkʼiːnt͡su] - [ˈxtʼɛːmə] - [ˈkiːt͡sʼəˌɓeː] - [ˈsto̰jpɔ] - [ˈt͡ʃʼiːn̥n̥aʒ]
-[nh] > [n̥n̥] ([ˈt͡ʃʼiːnhaːʒ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼiːn̥n̥aːʒ])
-Fricatives become affricates after nasals ([ˈkʼiːnsuː] > [ˈkʼiːnt͡suː])
-Dental non-sibilant fricatives and affricates become stops ([ˈkt͡θʼɛːmu] > [ˈktʼɛːmu], [ˈθθo̰jpɔː] > [ˈtto̰jpɔː])
-Stops and affricates become fricatives before other stops and affricates ([ˈktʼɛːmu] > [ˈxtʼɛːmu], [ˈtto̰jpɔː] > [ˈsto̰jpɔː])
-Unstressed short vowels merge as [ə] and unstressed long vowels shorten ([ˈkʼiːnt͡suː] > [ˈkʼiːnt͡su], [ˈxtʼɛːmu] > [ˈxtʼɛːmə], [ˈkiːt͡sʼiˌɓeː] > [ˈkiːt͡sʼəˌɓeː], [ˈsto̰jpɔː] > [ˈsto̰jpɔ], [ˈt͡ʃʼiːn̥n̥aːʒ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼiːn̥n̥aʒ])

F
[ˈkʼʊ̃jsy] - [t͡θʼəˈkɔjmʊ] - [ˈkʊjt͡sʼɪˌmoj] - [ˈθo̰jpœ] - [ˈt͡ʃʼʊ̃jhɔʒ]
-[i iː u uː ɪ ʊ eː oː ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː a aː] > [ɪ ʊj ʊ y e o oj ø ɛ ɔj ɔ œ a ɔ] ([ˈkʼiːnsuː] > [ˈkʼʊjnsy], [ˈkt͡θʼɛːmu] > [ˈkt͡θʼɔjmʊ], [ˈkiːt͡sʼiˌɓeː] > [ˈkʊjt͡sʼɪˌɓoj], [ˈθθo̰jpɔː] > [ˈθθo̰jpœ], [ˈt͡ʃʼiːnhaːʒ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼʊjnhɔʒ])
-[V(j,w)N$] > [Ṽ(j,w)$] ([ˈkʼʊjnsy] > [ˈkʼʊ̃jsy], [ˈt͡ʃʼʊjnhɔʒ] > [ˈt͡ʃʼʊ̃jhɔʒ])
-[kt͡θʼ] > [t͡θʼək] ([ˈkt͡θʼɔjmʊ] > [t͡θʼəˈkɔjmʊ])
-Geminates are shortened ([ˈθθo̰jpœ] > [ˈθo̰jpœ])
-Implosives become nasals ([ˈkʊjt͡sʼɪˌɓoj] > [ˈkʊjt͡sʼɪˌmoj])



G-M
[ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌʂəʊ̯] - [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxəɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] - [xaˈsuːʔɨˌfoː] - [ˈkʼəɪ̯nhaːʀ]
-[i iː ɨ ɨː u uː e eː o oː ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː a aː] > [ɨ əɪ̯ ɨ əɪ̯ ʉ əʊ̯ i iː u uː e eː o oː a aː] ([ˈkʼɨːŋoˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯ŋuˌs̺əʊ̯], [guˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmɔ] > [gʉˈt͡s̻ʼeːmo], [ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] > [ˈqəɪ̯t͡s̺ʼeˌɓiː], [xaˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] > [xaˈs̻uːʔɨˌpoː], [ˈkʼiːneˌhaːrɨ] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯niˌhaːrɨ])
-[p b ɓ g q ŋ r] > [f v b ɣ x ɣ ʀ] ([ˈkʼəɪ̯ŋuˌs̺əʊ̯] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌs̺əʊ̯], [gʉˈt͡s̻ʼeːmo] > [ɣʉˈt͡s̻ʼeːmo], [ˈqəɪ̯t͡s̺ʼeˌɓiː] > [ˈxəɪ̯t͡s̺ʼeˌbiː], [xaˈs̻uːʔɨˌpoː] > [xaˈs̻uːʔɨˌfoː], [ˈkʼəɪ̯niˌhaːrɨ] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯niˌhaːʀɨ])
-Apical sibilants become retroflex ([ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌs̺əʊ̯] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌʂəʊ̯], [ɣʉˈt͡s̻ʼeːmo] > [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːmo], [ˈxəɪ̯t͡s̺ʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxəɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː], [xaˈs̻uːʔɨˌfoː] > [xaˈsuːʔɨˌfoː])
-Unstressed short vowels are lost following sonorants ([ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːmo] > [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈkʼəɪ̯niˌhaːʀɨ] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯nhaːʀ])


GHI
[ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌxeʊ̯] - [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼiˌβiː] - [xəˈsṵːfoː] - [ˈkʼoɪ̯nhoːʀ]
-[ˈV(ː)ʔ(i,e) ˈV(ː)ʔ(u,o) ˈV(ː)ʔ(ɨ,ʉ,a)] > [ˈV̰ɪ̯ ˈV̰ʊ̯ ˈV̰ː] ([xaˈsuːʔɨˌfoː] > [xaˈsṵːfoː])
-[ɨ ʉ aː əɪ̯ əʊ̯] > [ə ə oː oɪ̯ eʊ̯] ([ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌʂəʊ̯] > [ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌʂeʊ̯], [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxəɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː], [ˈkʼəɪ̯nhaːʀ] > [ˈkʼoɪ̯nhoːʀ])
-Unstressed [e o a] > [i u ə] ([ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼiˌbiː], [xaˈsṵːfoː] > [xəˈsṵːfoː])
-[b] > [β] intervocalically ([ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼiˌbiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼiˌβiː])
-Retroflex fricatives become velar while retroflex affricates become post-alveolar ([ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌʂeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌxeʊ̯], [ˈxoɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼiˌβiː])

G
[ˈkʼojxxew] - [ˈxt͡sʼĩː] - [ˈxojt͡ʃʼwaj] - [ˈxsa̰wfuː] - [ˈkʼõjhuɐ̯]
-Unstressed short vowels are lost ([ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌxeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣxeʊ̯], [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ˈɣt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼβiː], [xəˈsṵːfoː] > [ˈxsṵːfoː])
-[Cβ] > [Cw] ([ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼβiː] > [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼwiː])
-Regressive voicing assimilation in clusters of obstruents ([ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣxeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼoɪ̯xxeʊ̯], [ˈɣt͡sʼeːm] > [ˈxt͡sʼeːm])
-[iː uː eː oː eʊ̯ oɪ̯] > [aj aw iː uː ew oj] ([ˈkʼoɪ̯xxeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼojxxew], [ˈxt͡sʼeːm] > [ˈxt͡sʼiːm], [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼwiː] > [ˈxojt͡ʃʼwaj], [ˈxsṵːfoː] > [ˈxsa̰wfuː], [ˈkʼoɪ̯nhoːʀ] > [ˈkʼojnhuːʀ])
-[V(ː)ʀ$] > [Vɐ̯$] ([ˈkʼojnhuːʀ] > [ˈkʼojnhuɐ̯])
-[V(ː)(j,w)N$] > [Ṽ(ː)(j,w)$] ([ˈxt͡sʼiːm] > [ˈxt͡sʼĩː], [ˈkʼojnhuɐ̯] > [ˈkʼõjhuɐ̯])

H
[ˈkʼwewxjo] - [uˈt͡sʼem] - [ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌvi] - [xəˈsṵfo] - [ˈkʼwennoɐ̯]
-[eʊ̯ oɪ̯] > [jo we] ([ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌxeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼweɣuˌxjo], [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxwet͡ʃʼiˌβiː], [ˈkʼoɪ̯nhoːʀ] > [ˈkʼwenhoːʀ])
-[h] fully assimilates to adjacent consonants ([ˈkʼwenhoːʀ] > [ˈkʼwennoːʀ])
-[ɣ] > [w] before non-front vowels and [ɣ] > [j] before front vowels ([ˈkʼweɣuˌxjo] > [ˈkʼwewuˌxjo], [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [wəˈt͡sʼeːm])
-Unstressed short vowels merge as [ə] ([ˈkʼwewuˌxjo] > [ˈkʼwewəˌxjo], [ˈxwet͡ʃʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌβiː])
-[Vjə$ Vwə$ (#,C)jə$ (#,C)wə$] > [Vj$ Vw$ (#,C)i$ (#,C)u$] in unstressed syllables ([ˈkʼwewəˌxjo] > [ˈkʼwewxjo], [wəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [uˈt͡sʼeːm])
-Long vowels shorten ([uˈt͡sʼeːm] > [uˈt͡sʼem], [ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌβiː] > [ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌβi], [xəˈsṵːfoː] > [xəˈsṵfo], [ˈkʼwennoːʀ] > [ˈkʼwennoʀ])
-[Vʀ$] > [Vɐ̯$] ([ˈkʼwennoʀ] > [ˈkʼwennoɐ̯])
-[β] > [v] ([ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌβi] > [ˈxwet͡ʃʼəˌvi])

I
[ˈkʼøːxuˌxøː] - [xəˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌfiː] - [xəˈsuːfoː] - [ˈkʼøːnɒː]
-[eʊ̯ oɪ̯] > [øː øː] ([ˈkʼoɪ̯ɣuˌxeʊ̯] > [ˈkʼøːɣuˌxøː], [ˈxoɪ̯t͡ʃʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌβiː], [ˈkʼoɪ̯nhoːʀ] > [ˈkʼøːnhoːʀ])
-Vowels are lowered before uvulars ([ˈkʼøːnhoːʀ] > [ˈkʼøːnhɒːʀ])
-[h ʀ] are deleted ([ˈkʼøːnhɒːʀ] > [ˈkʼøːnɒː])
-Creaky voice is lost ([xəˈsṵːfoː] > [xəˈsuːfoː])
-Voiced fricatives are devoiced ([ˈkʼøːɣuˌxøː] > [ˈkʼøːxuˌxøː], [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [xəˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌβiː] > [ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌɸiː])
-[ɸ] > [f] ([ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌɸiː] > [ˈxøːt͡ʃʼiˌfiː])


JK
[ˈkʼaɪ̯xuˌʂaʊ̯] - [xʏˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː] - [xaˈsuɨ̯foː] - [ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʁ]
-[ʔ h] are deleted ([xaˈsuːʔɨˌfoː] > [xaˈsuːɨˌfoː], [ˈkʼəɪ̯nhaːʀ] > [ˈkʼəɪ̯naːʀ])
-[V(ː)(i,ɨ,ʉ,u)] > [V(i̯,ɨ̯,ʉ̯,u̯)] ([xaˈsuːɨˌfoː] > [xaˈsuɨ̯foː])
-[ʉ əɪ̯ əʊ̯] > [ʏ aɪ̯ aʊ̯] ([ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌʂəʊ̯] > [ˈkʼaɪ̯ɣuˌʂaʊ̯], [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ɣʏˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxəɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː], [ˈkʼəɪ̯naːʀ] > [ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʀ])
-Voiced obstruents are devoiced ([ˈkʼaɪ̯ɣuˌʂaʊ̯] > [ˈkʼaɪ̯xuˌʂaʊ̯], [ɣʏˈt͡sʼeːm] > [xʏˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː])
-[ʀ] > [ʁ] ([ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʀ] > [ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʁ])

J
[ˈkʼɑjxxæw] - [xʏˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxɑjpʈ͡ʂʼiː] - [xaˈsuːfoː] - [ˈkʼɑjnɑː]
-[Vɨ̯ aɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [Vː ɑj æw] ([ˈkʼaɪ̯xuˌʂaʊ̯] > [ˈkʼɑjxuˌʂæw], [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː] > [ˈxɑjʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː], [xaˈsuɨ̯foː] > [xaˈsuːfoː], [ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʁ] > [ˈkʼɑjnaːʁ])
-Vowels are lowered and/or backed before uvulars ([ˈkʼɑjnaːʁ] > [ˈkʼɑjnɑːʁ])
-[ʁ] is deleted ([ˈkʼɑjnɑːʁ] > [ˈkʼɑjnɑː])
-Retroflex fricatives become velar ([ˈkʼɑjxuˌʂæw] > [ˈkʼɑjxuˌxæw])
-Intertonic vowel loss ([ˈkʼɑjxuˌxæw] > [ˈkʼɑjxxæw], [ˈxɑjʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː] > [ˈxɑjʈ͡ʂʼpiː])
-[ʈ͡ʂʼp] > [pʈ͡ʂʼ] ([ˈxɑjʈ͡ʂʼpiː] > [ˈxɑjpʈ͡ʂʼiː])

K
[ˈkʼæjxəˌʂɑw] - [xəˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈxæjʈ͡ʂʼəˌpiː] - [xəˈswɨfoː] - [ˈkʼæjnaːx]
-[iV̯ uV̯ aɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [jV wV æj ɑw] ([ˈkʼaɪ̯xuˌʂaʊ̯] > [ˈkʼæjxuˌʂɑw], [ˈxaɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː] > [ˈxæjʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː], [xaˈsuɨ̯foː] > [xaˈswɨfoː], [ˈkʼaɪ̯naːʁ] > [ˈkʼæjnaːʁ])
-[ʁ] > [x] ([ˈkʼæjnaːʁ] > [ˈkʼæjnaːx])
-Unstressed short vowels merge as [ə] ([ˈkʼæjxuˌʂɑw] > [ˈkʼæjxəˌʂɑw], [xʏˈt͡sʼeːm] > [xəˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxæjʈ͡ʂʼeˌpiː] > [ˈxæjʈ͡ʂʼəˌpiː], [xaˈswɨfoː] > [xəˈswɨfoː])


LM
[ˈkʼejjəˌroʊ̯] - [xəˈtʼeːm] - [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌviː] - [xəˈzuwwəˌvoː] - [ˈkʼeɪ̯nneːʀ]
-[əɪ̯ əʊ̯ aː] > [eɪ̯ oʊ̯ eː] ([ˈkʼəɪ̯ɣuˌʂəʊ̯] > [ˈkʼeɪ̯ɣuˌʂoʊ̯], [ˈxəɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː], [ˈkʼəɪ̯nhaːʀ] > [ˈkʼeɪ̯nheːʀ])
-[iː(ʔ,ɣ,h)V uː(ʔ,ɣ,h)V eɪ̯(ʔ,ɣ,h)V oʊ̯(ʔ,ɣ,h)V] > [ijjV uwwV ejjV owwV] ([ˈkʼeɪ̯ɣuˌʂoʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejjuˌʂoʊ̯], [xaˈsuːʔɨˌfoː] > [xaˈsuwwɨˌfoː])
-[h] fully assimilates to adjacent consonants ([ˈkʼeɪ̯nheːʀ] > [ˈkʼeɪ̯nneːʀ])
-Unstressed short vowels merge as [ə] ([ˈkʼejjuˌʂoʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejjəˌʂoʊ̯], [ɣʉˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼeˌbiː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼəˌbiː], [xaˈsuwwɨˌfoː] > [xəˈsuwwəˌfoː])
-Voiced fricatives are devoiced word-initially and voiceless fricatives are voiced intervocalically ([ˈkʼejjəˌʂoʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejjəˌʐoʊ̯], [ɣəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [xəˈt͡sʼeːm], [xəˈsuwwəˌfoː] > [xəˈzuwwəˌvoː])
-Affricates become stops ([xəˈt͡sʼeːm] > [xəˈtʼeːm], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈ͡ʂʼəˌbiː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌbiː])
-Voiced stops become fricatives intervocalically ([ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌbiː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌβiː])
-[β ʐ] > [v r] ([ˈkʼejjəˌʐoʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejjəˌroʊ̯], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌβiː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌviː])

L
[ˈkʼeɟəˌroː] - [xəˈtʼiːm] - [ˈxeːʈʼəˌviː] - [xəˈzugʷəˌvuː] - [ˈkʼeːᵈniɐ̯]
-[mm nn jj ww] > [ᵇm ᵈn ɟ gʷ] ([ˈkʼejjəˌroʊ̯] > [ˈkʼeɟəˌroʊ̯], [xəˈzuwwəˌvoː] > [xəˈzugʷəˌvoː], [ˈkʼeɪ̯nneːʀ] > [ˈkʼeɪ̯ᵈneːʀ])
-[eː oː eɪ̯ oʊ̯] > [iː uː eː oː] ([ˈkʼeɟəˌroʊ̯] > [ˈkʼeɟəˌroː], [xəˈtʼeːm] > [xəˈtʼiːm], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌviː] > [ˈxeːʈʼəˌviː], [xəˈzugʷəˌvoː] > [xəˈzugʷəˌvuː], [ˈkʼeɪ̯ᵈneːʀ] > [ˈkʼeːᵈniːʀ])
-[V(ː)ʀ$] > [Vɐ̯$] ([ˈkʼeːᵈniːʀ] > [ˈkʼeːᵈniɐ̯])

M
[ˈkʼejiˌroʋ] - [ˈxtʼeːm] - [ˈxejʈʼʋiː] - [ˈgzuʋuˌʋoː] - [ˈkʼejneɐ̯]
-Unstressed short vowels are lost ([ˈkʼejjəˌroʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejjroʊ̯], [xəˈtʼeːm] > [ˈxtʼeːm], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼəˌviː] > [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼviː], [xəˈzuwwəˌvoː] > [ˈxzuwwvoː])
-[ɪ̯ ʊ̯ CjC Cj# #jC CwC Cw# #wC] > [j w CiC Ci# #iC CuC Cu# #uC] ([ˈkʼejjroʊ̯] > [ˈkʼejiˌrow], [ˈxeɪ̯ʈʼviː] > [ˈxejʈʼviː], [ˈxzuwwvoː] > [ˈxzuwuˌvoː], [ˈkʼeɪ̯nneːʀ] > [ˈkʼejnneːʀ])
-Regressive voicing assimilation in clusters of non-ejective obstruents ([ˈxzuwuˌvoː] > [ˈɣzuwuˌvoː])
-[ɣ] > [g] ([ˈɣzuwuˌvoː] > [ˈgzuwuˌvoː])
-Geminates are shortened ([ˈkʼejnneːʀ] > [ˈkʼejneːʀ])
-[V(ː)ʀ$] > [Vɐ̯$] ([ˈkʼejneːʀ] > [ˈkʼejneɐ̯])
-[v w] > [ʋ ʋ] ([ˈkʼejiˌrow] > [ˈkʼejiˌroʋ], [ˈxejʈʼviː] > [ˈxejʈʼʋiː], [ˈgzuwuˌvoː] > [ˈgzuʋuˌʋoː])



N-T
[ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsyː] - [hɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] - [ˈqiːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] - [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌhøː] - [ˈqʼiːnæːnɯ]
-[i iː ɨ ɨː u uː e eː o oː ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː a aː] > [ɪ iː ɯ iː ɯ yː ɛ eː ɤ øː ɛ eː ɤ øː ɐ æː] ([ˈkʼɨːŋoˌs̺uː] > [ˈkʼiːŋɤˌs̺yː], [guˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmɔ] > [gɯˈt͡s̻ʼeːmɤ], [xaˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] > [xɐˈs̻øːʔɪˌpøː], [ˈkʼiːneˌhaːrɨ] > [ˈkʼiːnɛˌhæːrɯ])
-[h] is deleted ([ˈkʼiːnɛˌhæːrɯ] > [ˈkʼiːnɛˌæːrɯ])
-[kʼ] merges with [qʼ] ([ˈkʼiːŋɤˌs̺yː] > [ˈqʼiːŋɤˌs̺yː], [ˈkʼiːnɛˌæːrɯ] > [ˈqʼiːnɛˌæːrɯ])
-[p g] > [h h] ([gɯˈt͡s̻ʼeːmɤ] > [hɯˈt͡s̻ʼeːmɤ], [xɐˈs̻øːʔɪˌpøː] > [xɐˈs̻øːʔɪˌhøː])
-[ɓ r ʔ] > [m n ŋ] ([ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] > [ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌmeː], [xɐˈs̻øːʔɪˌhøː] > [xɐˈs̻øːŋɪˌhøː], [ˈqʼiːnɛˌæːrɯ] > [ˈqʼiːnɛˌæːnɯ])
-Apical and laminal sibilants merge ([ˈqʼiːŋɤˌs̺yː] > [ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsyː], [hɯˈt͡s̻ʼeːmɤ] > [hɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ], [ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqiːt͡sʼɛˌmeː], [xɐˈs̻øːŋɪˌhøː] > [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌhøː])
-Unstressed short vowels are lost before other vowels ([ˈqʼiːnɛˌæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼiːnæːnɯ])


NO
[ˈqʼeːŋsyː] - [ˈt͡sʼeːm] - [ˈqeːt͡sʼmeː] - [ˈksøːŋøː] - [ˈqʼeːneːn]
-High vowels become mid when adjacent to uvulars ([ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqʼeːŋɤˌsyː], [ˈqiːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqeːt͡sʼɛˌmeː], [ˈqʼiːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼeːnæːnɯ])
-[h] is deleted ([hɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [ɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ], [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌhøː] > [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌøː])
-Unstressed short vowels are lost ([ˈqʼeːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqʼeːŋsyː], [ɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [ˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈqeːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqeːt͡sʼmeː], [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌøː] > [ˈxsøːŋøː], [ˈqʼeːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼeːnæːn])
-[æː] > [eː] ([ˈqʼeːnæːn] > [ˈqʼeːneːn])
-Non-sibilant fricatives become stops before sibilant fricatives ([ˈxsøːŋøː] > [ˈksøːŋøː])

N
[ˈqʼø̃ːsy] - [ˈt͡sʼẽː] - [ˈqẽːt͡sʼe] - [ˈskøːŋø] - [ˈqʼeːner]
-[nVn] > [nVr] ([ˈqʼeːneːn] > [ˈqʼeːneːr])
-[ɪ iː ɯ ɛ eː ɤ ɐ] > [ʏ yː u œ øː o ɔ] when followed by a rounded vowel in the next syllable ([ˈqʼeːŋsyː] > [ˈqʼøːŋsyː])
-Unstressed long vowels shorten ([ˈqʼøːŋsyː] > [ˈqʼøːŋsy], [ˈqeːt͡sʼmeː] > [ˈqeːt͡sʼme], [ˈksøːŋøː] > [ˈksøːŋø], [ˈqʼeːneːr] > [ˈqʼeːner])
-Clusters of obstruents followed by nasals and stops followed by sibilants undergo metathesis ([ˈqeːt͡sʼme] > [ˈqeːmt͡sʼe], [ˈksøːŋø] > [ˈskøːŋø])
-[V(ː)N$] > [Ṽ(ː)$] ([ˈqʼøːŋsy] > [ˈqʼø̃ːsy], [ˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ˈt͡sʼẽː], [ˈqeːmt͡sʼe] > [ˈqẽːt͡sʼe])

O
[ˈqʼexsiː] - [ˈt͡sʼem] - [ˈqet͡sʼmeː] - [ˈt͡søːŋeː] - [ˈqʼeːren]
-[nVn] > [rVn] ([ˈqʼeːneːn] > [ˈqʼeːreːn])
-Unstressed front rounded vowels are unrounded ([ˈqʼeːŋsyː] > [ˈqʼeːŋsiː], [ˈksøːŋøː] > [ˈksøːŋeː])
-Long vowels are shortened in closed syllables ([ˈqʼeːŋsiː] > [ˈqʼeŋsiː], [ˈt͡sʼeːm] > [ˈt͡sʼem], [ˈqeːt͡sʼmeː] > [ˈqet͡sʼmeː], [ˈqʼeːreːn] > [ˈqʼeːren])
-Heterorganic clusters of stops followed by sibilants become affricates ([ˈksøːŋeː] > [ˈt͡søːŋeː])
-[ŋ] > [x] before fricatives ([ˈqʼeŋsiː] > [ˈqʼexsiː])


PQR
[ˈqˤɪːŋɤˌsyː] - [ɯˈt͡sˤeːmo] - [ˈqɪːt͡sˤɛˌmeː] - [xɐˈseːŋjeː] - [ˈqˤɪːnaːnɯ]
-[iː yː] > [ɪː ʏː] when adjacent to uvulars ([ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqʼɪːŋɤˌsyː], [ˈqiːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːt͡sʼɛˌmeː], [ˈqʼiːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼɪːnæːnɯ])
-[ʏː øː æː] > [ɪː eː aː] ([xɐˈsøːŋɪˌhøː] > [xɐˈseːŋɪˌheː], [ˈqʼɪːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼɪːnaːnɯ])
-[ɯ ɤ] > [u o] when adjacent to labials ([hɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [hɯˈt͡sʼeːmo])
-[h] is deleted ([hɯˈt͡sʼeːmo] > [ɯˈt͡sʼeːmo], [xɐˈseːŋɪˌheː] > [xɐˈseːŋɪˌeː])
-[Cʼ] > [Cˤ] ([ˈqʼɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqˤɪːŋɤˌsyː], [ɯˈt͡sʼeːmo] > [ɯˈt͡sˤeːmo], [ˈqɪːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːt͡sˤɛˌmeː], [ˈqʼɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈqˤɪːnaːnɯ])
-Unstressed [ɪ ɛ u o] > [j j w w] before vowels ([xɐˈseːŋɪˌeː] > [xɐˈseːŋjeː])

P
[ˈqeŋksyː] - [ˈt͡seːmo] - [ˈqet͡smeː] - [ˈxseɲɲeː] - [ˈqeːnan]
-[Cˤ] > [C] ([ˈqˤɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqɪːŋɤˌsyː], [ɯˈt͡sˤeːmo] > [ɯˈt͡seːmo], [ˈqɪːt͡sˤɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːt͡sɛˌmeː], [ˈqˤɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈqɪːnaːnɯ])
-[ɪː] > [eː] ([ˈqɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqeːŋɤˌsyː], [ˈqɪːt͡sɛˌmeː] > [ˈqeːt͡sɛˌmeː], [ˈqɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈqeːnaːnɯ])
-Unstressed short unrounded vowels are lost ([ˈqeːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqeːŋsyː], [ɯˈt͡seːmo] > [ˈt͡seːmo], [ˈqeːt͡sɛˌmeː] > [ˈqeːt͡smeː], [xɐˈseːŋjeː] > [ˈxseːŋjeː], [ˈqeːnaːnɯ] > [ˈqeːnaːn])
-[ŋj] > [ɲɲ] ([ˈxseːŋjeː] > [ˈxseːɲɲeː])
-Long vowels are shortened in closed syllables ([ˈqeːŋsyː] > [ˈqeŋsyː], [ˈqeːt͡smeː] > [ˈqet͡smeː], [ˈxseːɲɲeː] > [ˈxseɲɲeː], [ˈqeːnaːn] > [ˈqeːnan])
-Voiceless stops are inserted into heterorganic clusters of nasals and sibilant fricatives ([ˈqeŋsyː] > [ˈqeŋksyː])

Q
[ˈʕɪːŋəˌsyː] - [ˈzˤeːmə] - [ˈqɪːzˤəˌmeː] - [xəˈseːŋeː] - [ˈʕɪːnoːnə]
-[tˤ qˤ t͡sˤ] > [dˤ ʕ zˤ] ([ˈqˤɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈʕɪːŋɤˌsyː], [ɯˈt͡sˤeːmo] > [ɯˈzˤeːmo], [ˈqɪːt͡sˤɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːzˤɛˌmeː], [ˈqˤɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈʕɪːnaːnɯ])
-Unstressed short vowels are lost in syllables without onsets ([ɯˈzˤeːmo] > [ˈzˤeːmo])
-Remaining unstressed short vowels merge as [ə] ([ˈʕɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈʕɪːŋəˌsyː], [ˈzˤeːmo] > [ˈzˤeːmə], [ˈqɪːzˤɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːzˤəˌmeː], [xɐˈseːŋjeː] > [xəˈseːŋjeː], [ˈʕɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈʕɪːnaːnə])
-[aː] > [oː] ([ˈʕɪːnaːnə] > [ˈʕɪːnoːnə])
-[j w] are lost after consonants ([xəˈseːŋjeː] > [xəˈseːŋeː])

R
[ˈħɪŋɤˌsy] - [ʔɯˈsˤemo] - [ˈqɪsˤɛˌme] - [xɐˈsejŋe] - [ˈħɪnnɯ]
-[tˤ qˤ t͡sˤ] > [tˤ ħ sˤ] ([ˈqˤɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈħɪːŋɤˌsyː], [ɯˈt͡sˤeːmo] > [ɯˈsˤeːmo], [ˈqɪːt͡sˤɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪːsˤɛˌmeː], [ˈqˤɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈħɪːnaːnɯ])
-Long vowels are shortened ([ˈħɪːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈħɪŋɤˌsy], [ɯˈsˤeːmo] > [ɯˈsˤemo], [ˈqɪːsˤɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɪsˤɛˌme], [xɐˈseːŋjeː] > [xɐˈseŋje], [ˈħɪːnaːnɯ] > [ˈħɪnanɯ])
-Unstressed vowels are lost between two identical consonants ([ˈħɪnanɯ] > [ˈħɪnnɯ])
-[Cj Cw] > [jC wC] ([xɐˈseŋje] > [xɐˈsejŋe])
-[ʔ] is inserted word-initially before vowels ([ɯˈsˤemo] > [ʔɯˈsˤemo])


ST
[ˈqʼɨ̃ːsiː] - [hɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] - [ˈqɨːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] - [qaˈsẽjheː] - [ˈqʼɨːnɛːnɨ]
-Front rounded vowels unround ([ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsyː] > [ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsiː], [xɐˈsøːŋɪˌhøː] > [xɐˈseːŋɪˌheː])
-Front vowels are centralized when adjacent to uvulars ([ˈqʼiːŋɤˌsiː] > [ˈqʼɨːŋɤˌsiː], [ˈqiːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɨːt͡sʼɛˌmeː], [ˈqʼiːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼɨːnæːnɯ])
-[x] > [q] ([xɐˈseːŋɪˌheː] > [qɐˈseːŋɪˌheː])
-[ɯ ɐ æː] > [ɨ a ɛː] ([hɯˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [hɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ], [qɐˈseːŋɪˌheː] > [qaˈseːŋɪˌheː], [ˈqʼɨːnæːnɯ] > [ˈqʼɨːnɛːnɨ])
-[ˈV(ː)ŋ(ɪ,ɛ) ˈV(ː)ŋ(ɨ,ɤ,a)] > [ˈṼj ˈṼː] ([ˈqʼɨːŋɤˌsiː] > [ˈqʼɨ̃ːsiː], [qaˈseːŋɪˌheː] > [qaˈsẽjheː])

S
[ˈqʼɨ̃si] - [hɨˈt͡sʼem] - [ˈqɨt͡sʼɛˌme] - [qaˈsẽççe] - [ˈqʼɨlɛn]
-[nVn] > [lVn] ([ˈqʼɨːnɛːnɨ] > [ˈqʼɨːlɛːnɨ])
-Final short vowels are lost ([hɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [hɨˈt͡sʼeːm], [ˈqʼɨːlɛːnɨ] > [ˈqʼɨːlɛːn])
-Long vowels are shortened ([ˈqʼɨ̃ːsiː] > [ˈqʼɨ̃si], [hɨˈt͡sʼeːm] > [hɨˈt͡sʼem], [ˈqɨːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] > [ˈqɨt͡sʼɛˌme], [qaˈsẽjheː] > [qaˈsẽjhe], [ˈqʼɨːlɛːn] > [ˈqʼɨlɛn])
-[jh] > [çç] ([qaˈsẽjhe] > [qaˈsẽççe])

T
[ˈqʼɨ̃ːsiː] - [ˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] - [ˈqɨːt͡sʼɛˌmeː] - [ˈqsẽɲeː] - [ˈqʼɨːnɛːlɨ]
-[nVn] > [nVl] ([ˈqʼɨːnɛːnɨ] > [ˈqʼɨːnɛːlɨ])
-[h] is deleted ([hɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [ɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ], [qaˈsẽjheː] > [qaˈsẽjeː])
-[j] > [ɲ] when adjacent to a nasal vowel ([qaˈsẽjeː] > [qaˈsẽɲeː])
-Pretonic vowel loss ([ɨˈt͡sʼeːmɤ] > [ˈt͡sʼeːmɤ], [qaˈsẽɲeː] > [ˈqsẽɲeː])



U-Z
[kʼɨ́ŋos̺ú] - [kut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ] - [ʔít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] - [has̻ôjpɔ́] - [kʼínjǎːlɨ]
-[Vː] > [V́] ([ˈkʼɨːŋoˌs̺uː] > [kʼɨ́ŋos̺ú], [guˈt͡s̻ʼɛːmɔ] > [gut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ], [ˈqiːt͡s̺ʼɛˌɓeː] > [qít͡s̺ʼɛɓé], [xaˈs̻oːʔiˌpɔː] > [xas̻óʔipɔ́], [ˈkʼiːneˌhaːrɨ] > [kʼínehárɨ])
-[ʔ h] are deleted ([xas̻óʔipɔ́] > [xas̻óipɔ́], [kʼínehárɨ] > [kʼíneárɨ])
-Voiced pulmonic obstruents are devoiced ([gut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ] > [kut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ])
-[q x r] > [ʔ h l] ([qít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] > [ʔít͡s̺ʼɛɓé], [xas̻óipɔ́] > [has̻óipɔ́], [kʼíneárɨ] > [kʼíneálɨ])
-[(i,e,ɛ)V́ (u,o,ɔ)V́ (ɨ,a)V́ V́(i,e,ɛ) V́(u,o,ɔ) V́(ɨ,a)] > [jV̌ː wV̌ː V̌ː V̂j V̂w V̂ː] ([has̻óipɔ́] > [has̻ôjpɔ́], [kʼíneálɨ] > [kʼínjǎːlɨ])


UV
[kʼɨ́ŋosú] - [kut͡sʼɛ́ma] - [jít͡sʼɛɓé] - [jasôjpá] - [kʼîːnǎːlɨ]
-[Cj Cw] > [jC wC] ([kʼínjǎːlɨ] > [kʼíjnǎːlɨ])
-[ij íj uw úw] > [iː îː uː ûː] ([kʼíjnǎːlɨ] > [kʼîːnǎːlɨ])
-Apical and laminal sibilants merge ([kʼɨ́ŋos̺ú] > [kʼɨ́ŋosú], [kut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ] > [kut͡sʼɛ́mɔ], [ʔít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] > [ʔít͡sʼɛɓé], [has̻ôjpɔ́] > [hasôjpɔ́])
-[ʔ h] > [j j] before unrounded vowels and [ʔ h] > [w w] before rounded vowels ([ʔít͡sʼɛɓé] > [jít͡sʼɛɓé], [hasôjpɔ́] > [jasôjpɔ́])
-[ɔ] > [a] ([jasôjpɔ́] > [jasôjpá])

U
[kʼɨ́ŋosú] - [kut͡sʼɛ́ma] - [d͡ʒít͡sʼɛɓé] - [d͡ʒɛsôʃpá] - [t͡ʃʼîːnɛ̌ːlɨ]
-[ja aː] > [jɛ ɛː] ([jasôjpá] > [jɛsôjpá], [kʼîːnǎːlɨ] > [kʼîːnɛ̌ːlɨ])
-[#j Vj] > [#d͡ʒ Vʒ] ([jít͡sʼɛɓé] > [d͡ʒít͡sʼɛɓé], [jɛsôjpá] > [d͡ʒɛsôʒpá])
-Regressive voicing assimilation in clusters of obstruents ([d͡ʒɛsôʒpá] > [d͡ʒɛsôʃpá])
-Velar stops are palatalized to post-alveolar affricates before front vowels ([kʼîːnɛ̌ːlɨ] > [t͡ʃʼîːnɛ̌ːlɨ])

V
[kɨ́ŋuhú] - [kʰut͡sɛ́ma] - [ít͡sɛwé] - [jasø̂ːpá] - [kîːnɔ̌ːlɨ]
-[iw ɨj ɨw uj ej ew oj ow ɛj ɛw aj aw] > [yː iː uː yː eː øː øː oː ɛː œː ɛː ɔː] ([jasôjpá] > [jasø̂ːpá])
-[aː] > [ɔː] ([kʼîːnǎːlɨ] > [kʼîːnɔ̌ːlɨ])
-[ji wu] > [i u] ([jít͡sʼɛɓé] > [ít͡sʼɛɓé])
-Non-ejective voiceless obstruents are aspirated before high vowels ([kʼɨ́ŋosú] > [kʼɨ́ŋosʰú], [kut͡sʼɛ́ma] > [kʰut͡sʼɛ́ma])
-[sʰ] > [h] ([kʼɨ́ŋosʰú] > [kʼɨ́ŋohú])
-[e(ː) ø(ː) o(ː)] > [i(ː) y(ː) u(ː)] when followed by a high vowel in the next syllable ([kʼɨ́ŋohú] > [kʼɨ́ŋuhú])
-[Cʼ ɓ] > [C w] ([kʼɨ́ŋuhú] > [kɨ́ŋuhú], [kʰut͡sʼɛ́ma] > [kʰut͡sɛ́ma], [ít͡sʼɛɓé] > [ít͡sɛwé], [kʼîːnɔ̌ːlɨ] > [kîːnɔ̌ːlɨ])


WX
[ʔkɨ́ŋosú] - [kuʔθɛ́mɔ] - [íʔt͡sɛʔpé] - [ahôːpɔ́] - [ʔkínnǎːwɨ]
-[ʔ h] are deleted ([ʔít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] > [ít͡s̺ʼɛɓé], [has̻ôjpɔ́] > [as̻ôjpɔ́])
-[s̻ s̺ t͡s̻ t͡s̺ t͡s̻ʼ t͡s̺ʼ] > [h s θ t͡s θʼ t͡sʼ] ([kʼɨ́ŋos̺ú] > [kʼɨ́ŋosú], [kut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ] > [kuθʼɛ́mɔ], [ít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] > [ít͡sʼɛɓé], [as̻ôjpɔ́] > [ahôjpɔ́])
-[Cʼ ɓ] > [ʔC ʔp] ([kʼɨ́ŋosú] > [ʔkɨ́ŋosú], [kuθʼɛ́mɔ] > [kuʔθɛ́mɔ], [ít͡sʼɛɓé] > [íʔt͡sɛʔpé], [kʼínjǎːlɨ] > [ʔkínjǎːlɨ])
-[l] > [w] ([ʔkínjǎːlɨ] > [ʔkínjǎːwɨ])
-[C(j,w) V(j,w)] > [CC Vː] ([ahôjpɔ́] > [ahôːpɔ́], [ʔkínjǎːwɨ] > [ʔkínnǎːwɨ])

W
[kkɨ́nosú] - [kùθθɛ́ma] - [îtt͡sɛ̀ppé] - [awôːpá] - [kkínnɔ̌ːwɨ]
-[Vʔ$ V́ʔ$] > [V̀ʔ$ V̂ʔ$] ([kuʔθɛ́mɔ] > [kùʔθɛ́mɔ], [íʔt͡sɛʔpé] > [îʔt͡sɛ̀ʔpé])
-[ʔ] fully assimilates to adjacent consonants ([ʔkɨ́ŋosú] > [kkɨ́ŋosú], [kùʔθɛ́mɔ] > [kùθθɛ́mɔ], [îʔt͡sɛ̀ʔpé] > [îtt͡sɛ̀ppé], [ʔkínnǎːwɨ] > [kkínnǎːwɨ])
-[h] > [j] before unrounded vowels and [h] > [w] before rounded vowels ([ahôːpɔ́] > [awôːpɔ́])
-[ɔ aː] > [a ɔː] ([kùθθɛ́mɔ] > [kùθθɛ́ma], [awôːpɔ́] > [awôːpá], [kkínnǎːwɨ] > [kkínnɔ̌ːwɨ])
-[ŋ] > [n] ([kkɨ́ŋosú] > [kkɨ́nosú])

X
[ə́kɨ́ŋòsú] - [kǔːtɛ́mɔ̀] - [íːt͡sɛ̌ːpé] - [àhôːpɔ́] - [ə́kíɲɲǎːwɨ̀]
-[V] > [V̀] ([ʔkɨ́ŋosú] > [ʔkɨ́ŋòsú], [kuʔθɛ́mɔ] > [kùʔθɛ́mɔ̀], [íʔt͡sɛʔpé] > [íʔt͡sɛ̀ʔpé], [ahôːpɔ́] > [àhôːpɔ́], [ʔkínnǎːwɨ] > [ʔkínnǎːwɨ̀])
-An epenthetic [ə] is added before initial clusters ([ʔkɨ́ŋòsú] > [əʔkɨ́ŋòsú], [ʔkínnǎːwɨ̀] > [əʔkínnǎːwɨ̀])
-[əʔ$ V́ʔ$ V̀ʔ$] > [ə́$ V́ː$ V̌ː$] ([əʔkɨ́ŋòsú] > [ə́kɨ́ŋòsú], [kùʔθɛ́mɔ̀] > [kǔːθɛ́mɔ̀], [íʔt͡sɛ̀ʔpé] > [íːt͡sɛ̌ːpé], [əʔkínnǎːwɨ̀] > [ə́kínnǎːwɨ̀])
-[nn] > [ɲɲ] after front vowels ([ə́kínnǎːwɨ̀] > [ə́kíɲɲǎːwɨ̀])
-[θ] > [t] ([kǔːθɛ́mɔ̀] > [kǔːtɛ́mɔ̀])


YZ
[kɨ́ŋòʃú] - [kùt͡sɛ́mɔ̀] - [ŋít͡ʃɛ̀bé] - [hàsôjpɔ́] - [kíɲǎːdɨ̀]
-Apical sibilants become post-alveolar ([kʼɨ́ŋos̺ú] > [kʼɨ́ŋoʃú], [kut͡s̻ʼɛ́mɔ] > [kut͡sʼɛ́mɔ], [ʔít͡s̺ʼɛɓé] > [ʔít͡ʃʼɛɓé], [has̻ôjpɔ́] > [hasôjpɔ́])
-Glottalic consonants merge with their pulmonic counterparts ([kʼɨ́ŋoʃú] > [kɨ́ŋoʃú], [kut͡sʼɛ́mɔ] > [kut͡sɛ́mɔ], [ʔít͡ʃʼɛɓé] > [ʔít͡ʃɛbé], [kʼínjǎːlɨ] > [kínjǎːlɨ])
-[ʔ l] > [ŋ d] ([ʔít͡ʃɛbé] > [ŋít͡ʃɛbé], [kínjǎːlɨ] > [kínjǎːdɨ])
-[nj] > [ɲ] ([kínjǎːdɨ] > [kíɲǎːdɨ])
-[V] > [V̀] ([kɨ́ŋoʃú] > [kɨ́ŋòʃú], [kut͡sɛ́mɔ] > [kùt͡sɛ́mɔ̀], [ŋít͡ʃɛbé] > [ŋít͡ʃɛ̀bé], [hasôjpɔ́] > [hàsôjpɔ́], [kíɲǎːdɨ] > [kíɲǎːdɨ̀])

Y
[kɨ́ŋòʃú] - [kùsɛ́mɔ̀] - [ŋíʃɛ̀vé] - [hàsôːpjɔ́] - [kíɲǎːzɨ̀]
-Affricates and voiced stops become fricatives ([kùt͡sɛ́mɔ̀] > [kùsɛ́mɔ̀], [ŋít͡ʃɛ̀bé] > [ŋíʃɛ̀βé], [kíɲǎːdɨ̀] > [kíɲǎːðɨ̀])
-[β ð] > [v z] ([ŋíʃɛ̀βé] > [ŋíʃɛ̀vé], [kíɲǎːðɨ̀] > [kíɲǎːzɨ̀])
-[V(j,w)CV] > [VːC(j,w)V] ([hàsôjpɔ́] > [hàsôːpjɔ́])

Z
[kɨ̃̂wʃú] - [kùt͡sɛ̃̂w] - [ɲít͡ʃɛ̀bé] - [àswîːpɔ́] - [cĩ́jǎːdɨ̀]
-[h] is deleted ([hàsôjpɔ́] > [àsôjpɔ́])
-Velars are palatalized before front vowels ([ŋít͡ʃɛ̀bé] > [ɲít͡ʃɛ̀bé], [kíɲǎːdɨ̀] > [cíɲǎːdɨ̀])
-[ij iw uw uj ej ew oj ow] > [iː juː uː wiː iː juː wi uː] ([àsôjpɔ́] > [àswîːpɔ́]
-[VmV VɲV Vŋ(i,ɨ,e,ɛ,a) Vŋ(u,o,ɔ)] > [ṼwV ṼjV Ṽj(i,ɨ,e,ɛ,a) Ṽw(u,o,ɔ)] ([kɨ́ŋòʃú] > [kɨ̃́wòʃú], [kùt͡sɛ́mɔ̀] > [kùt͡sɛ̃́wɔ̀], [cíɲǎːdɨ̀] > [cĩ́jǎːdɨ̀])
-[V̀j(ì,è,ɛ̀) V́j(í,é,ɛ́) V̀j(í,é,ɛ́) V́j(ì,è,ɛ̀) V̀w(ù,ò,ɔ̀) V́w(ú,ó,ɔ́) V̀w(ú,ó,ɔ́) V́w(ù,ò,ɔ̀)] > [V̀j V́j V̌j V̂j V̀w V́w V̌w V̂w] ([kɨ̃́wòʃú] > [kɨ̃̂wʃú], [kùt͡sɛ̃́wɔ̀] > [kùt͡sɛ̃̂w])
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sangi39
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by sangi39 »

Sorry, I was meant to reply, but, yeah, I'd be okay passing my turn [:)]
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

sangi39 wrote: 30 Sep 2021 13:14 Sorry, I was meant to reply, but, yeah, I'd be okay passing my turn [:)]
No worries! Thanks for the confirmation.

If possible, could you please merge this thread into this original one? I assume ɶʙ ɞʛ would like to use the same challenge that they posted there for their turn here.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

Ok, here is the new challenge.

1 /n͡dáfísḭ̂/
/m͡bét͡sḭ̂/

2 /n͡dáɸūsḭ̀/
/m͡bét͡sḭ̂/

3 /n͡dá̤ēɕì/
/m͡bét͡ɕì/

4 /oˈɾ̃at͡sə̰/
/ˈmaʈ͡ʂə̰/

5 /oˈɾat͡s'ə/
/ˈmɛʈ͡ʂ'ə/

6 /aˈnat͡s'i/
/ˈmjaʈ͡ʂ'i/

7 /aˈnwac'i/
/ˈmjaʈ͡ʂ'ɨ/

8 /oˈnɔ:t͡ɕḭ:/
/ˈmɨ:kʰɨ̰:/

9 /ˈnaɕɕigɨ/
/ˈmi:d͡ʑigɨ/

10 /ˈnɛʑigu/
/ˈme:ʑigu/

11 /ˈnɛsɪk/
/ˈme:ðɪk/

12 /ɔˈdɔn͡zɪk/
/ˈbʌn̪͡d̪ɪk/

13 /uˈdõx/
/ˈɓãx/

14 /ˈodãʃ/
/ˈpɪ̃t'/

15 /ˈhodɛ̃:ʃ/
/ˈɸẽtk/

16 /ˈɸudo:ʃ/
/ˈɸiʃ:/

17 /ˈɸudboʃ/
/ˈpit͡ʃ/

18 /ˈudvosik/
/ˈbiʒ:ik/

19 /ˈudu:ʃic/
/ˈbisac/

20 /ˈuðo:ʒiʃ/
/ˈðiʃiʃ/

21 /ˈulo:ziç/
/ˈd̼isiç/

22 /ˈiluzi:/
/ˈwei̯si:/

23 /ˈʏlrɪk/
/ˈwizɪk/
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

I'm not really sure about a lot of things, especially most of the groupings, but here's my first attempt:
Spoiler:
1 [ⁿdáfísḭ̂] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
2 [ⁿdáɸūsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
3 [ⁿdá̤ēɕì] - [ᵐbét͡ɕì]

1-3 [ⁿdáɸīsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]

4 [oˈɾ̃at͡sə̰] - [ˈmaʈ͡ʂə̰]
5 [oˈɾat͡sʼə] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼə]
6 [aˈnat͡sʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼi]
7 [aˈnwacʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼɨ]
8 [oˈnɔːt͡ɕḭː] - [ˈmɨːkʰɨ̰ː]

4-8 [oˈnɔcʼi] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼɨ]

9 [ˈnaɕɕigɨ] - [ˈmiːd͡ʑigɨ]
10 [ˈnɛʑigu] - [ˈmeːʑigu]
11 [ˈnɛsɪk] - [ˈmeːðɪk]

9-11 [ˈnasigɨ] - [ˈmeːd͡zigɨ]

12 [ɔˈdɔⁿzɪk] - [ˈbʌⁿd̪ɪk]
13 [uˈdõx] - [ˈɓãx]

12-13 [oˈdoⁿzɪk] - [ˈbaⁿd̪ɪk]

14 [ˈodãʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tʼ]
15 [ˈhodɛ̃ːʃ] - [ˈɸẽtk]
16 [ˈɸudoːʃ] - [ˈɸiʃː]
17 [ˈɸudboʃ] - [ˈpit͡ʃ]

14-17 [ˈhodbõʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tk]

18 [ˈudvosik] - [ˈbiʒːik]
19 [ˈuduːʃic] - [ˈbisac]
20 [ˈuðoːʒiʃ] - [ˈðiʃiʃ]
21 [ˈuloːziç] - [ˈd̼isiç]

18-21 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbissek]

22 [ˈiluziː] - [ˈwei̯siː]
23 [ˈʏlrɪk] - [ˈwizɪk]

22-23 [ˈyluzik] - [ˈwei̯sik]


1-3 [ⁿdáɸīsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
4-8 [oˈnɔcʼi] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼɨ]
9-11 [ˈnasigɨ] - [ˈmeːd͡zigɨ]

1-11 [oˈⁿdɔɸcʼigɨ] - [ˈᵐbeːt͡sʼɨgɨ]

12-13 [oˈdoⁿzɪk] - [ˈbaⁿd̪ɪk]
14-17 [ˈhodbõʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tk]

12-17 [ˈhodboⁿzɪk] - [ˈbeⁿd̪ɪk]

18-21 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbissek]
22-23 [ˈyluzik] - [ˈwei̯sik]

18-23 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbei̯sek]



1-11 [oˈⁿdɔɸcʼigɨ] - [ˈᵐbeːt͡sʼɨgɨ]
12-17 [ˈhodboⁿzɪk] - [ˈbeⁿd̪ɪk]
18-23 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbei̯sek]

1-23 [ˈhodwõcʼigɨ] - [ˈbẽːt̪ʼegɨ]
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

shimobaatar wrote: 05 Oct 2021 18:48 I'm not really sure about a lot of things, especially most of the groupings, but here's my first attempt:
Spoiler:
1 [ⁿdáfísḭ̂] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
2 [ⁿdáɸūsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
3 [ⁿdá̤ēɕì] - [ᵐbét͡ɕì]

1-3
3 is slightly divergent from 1 and 2
[ⁿdáɸīsḭ̀] - 1 vowel is not needed here
[ᵐbét͡sḭ̂] - Technically correct

4 [oˈɾ̃at͡sə̰] - [ˈmaʈ͡ʂə̰]
5 [oˈɾat͡sʼə] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼə]
6 [aˈnat͡sʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼi]
7 [aˈnwacʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼɨ]
8 [oˈnɔːt͡ɕḭː] - [ˈmɨːkʰɨ̰ː]

4-8
[oˈnɔcʼi] - 2 incorrect consonants
[ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼɨ] - 1 incorrect consonant

9 [ˈnaɕɕigɨ] - [ˈmiːd͡ʑigɨ]
10 [ˈnɛʑigu] - [ˈmeːʑigu]
11 [ˈnɛsɪk] - [ˈmeːðɪk]

9-11
[ˈnasigɨ] - 1 missing consonant, 1 incorrect consonant, 1 extra vowel
[ˈmeːd͡zigɨ] - 1 incorrect consonant, 1 extra vowel
Again, 11 is slightly divergent from 9 and 10

12 [ɔˈdɔⁿzɪk] - [ˈbʌⁿd̪ɪk]
13 [uˈdõx] - [ˈɓãx]

12-13 [oˈdoⁿzɪk] - [ˈbaⁿd̪ɪk]

14 [ˈodãʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tʼ]
15 [ˈhodɛ̃ːʃ] - [ˈɸẽtk]
16 [ˈɸudoːʃ] - [ˈɸiʃː]
17 [ˈɸudboʃ] - [ˈpit͡ʃ]

14-17 [ˈhodbõʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tk]

18 [ˈudvosik] - [ˈbiʒːik]
19 [ˈuduːʃic] - [ˈbisac]
20 [ˈuðoːʒiʃ] - [ˈðiʃiʃ]
21 [ˈuloːziç] - [ˈd̼isiç]

18-21 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbissek]

/v/ and one instance of /b/ in 17-18 come from fortition of a vowel glide.

22 [ˈiluziː] - [ˈwei̯siː]
23 [ˈʏlrɪk] - [ˈwizɪk]

22-23
[ˈyluzik] - Correct
[ˈwei̯sik] - 1 incorrect vowel


1-3 [ⁿdáɸīsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
4-8 [oˈnɔcʼi] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼɨ]
9-11 [ˈnasigɨ] - [ˈmeːd͡zigɨ]

1-11 [oˈⁿdɔɸcʼigɨ] - [ˈᵐbeːt͡sʼɨgɨ]

12-13 [oˈdoⁿzɪk] - [ˈbaⁿd̪ɪk]
14-17 [ˈhodbõʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tk]

12-17 [ˈhodboⁿzɪk] - [ˈbeⁿd̪ɪk]

18-21 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbissek]
22-23 [ˈyluzik] - [ˈwei̯sik]

18-23 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbei̯sek]



1-11 [oˈⁿdɔɸcʼigɨ] - [ˈᵐbeːt͡sʼɨgɨ]
12-17 [ˈhodboⁿzɪk] - [ˈbeⁿd̪ɪk]
18-23 [ˈudvozik] - [ˈbei̯sek]

1-23 [ˈhodwõcʼigɨ] - [ˈbẽːt̪ʼegɨ]
Groupings 1-3, 4-8, 9-11, 22-23 are correct. Both protowords have 1 too many syllables, and there are several areal changes across group boundaries that result in convergent evolution.
shimobaatar
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

Here's my second attempt. Thanks for all your feedback. Hopefully I've gotten at least slightly closer.

Of course, if you'd prefer not to respond to this until someone else has submitted their first attempt, that's completely understandable.
Spoiler:
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 Groupings 1-3, 4-8, 9-11, 22-23 are correct.
Thanks for the confirmation. I'm assuming 12-13, 14-17, 18-21, 1-11, 12-17, and 18-23 were all incorrect, then.


1 [ⁿdáfísḭ̂] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
2 [ⁿdáɸūsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
3 [ⁿdá̤ēɕì] - [ᵐbét͡ɕì]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 1-3
3 is slightly divergent from 1 and 2
[ⁿdáɸīsḭ̀] - 1 vowel is not needed here
[ᵐbét͡sḭ̂] - Technically correct
1-3 [ⁿdáɸsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]

4 [oˈɾ̃at͡sə̰] - [ˈmaʈ͡ʂə̰]
5 [oˈɾat͡sʼə] - [ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼə]
6 [aˈnat͡sʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼi]
7 [aˈnwacʼi] - [ˈmjaʈ͡ʂʼɨ]
8 [oˈnɔːt͡ɕḭː] - [ˈmɨːkʰɨ̰ː]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 4-8
[oˈnɔcʼi] - 2 incorrect consonants
[ˈmɛʈ͡ʂʼɨ] - 1 incorrect consonant
4-8 [oˈɾ̃ɔt͡sʼi] - [ˈmɛkʼɨ]

9 [ˈnaɕɕigɨ] - [ˈmiːd͡ʑigɨ]
10 [ˈnɛʑigu] - [ˈmeːʑigu]
11 [ˈnɛsɪk] - [ˈmeːðɪk]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 9-11
[ˈnasigɨ] - 1 missing consonant, 1 incorrect consonant, 1 extra vowel
[ˈmeːd͡zigɨ] - 1 incorrect consonant, 1 extra vowel
Again, 11 is slightly divergent from 9 and 10
9-11 [ˈnassik] - [ˈmeːd͡zik]

12 [ɔˈdɔⁿzɪk] - [ˈbʌⁿd̪ɪk]
13 [uˈdõx] - [ˈɓãx]
14 [ˈodãʃ] - [ˈpɪ̃tʼ]
15 [ˈhodɛ̃ːʃ] - [ˈɸẽtk]

12-15 [ˈodɔnsk] - [ˈbʌn̪t̪k]

16 [ˈɸudoːʃ] - [ˈɸiʃː]
17 [ˈɸudboʃ] - [ˈpit͡ʃ]
18 [ˈudvosik] - [ˈbiʒːik]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 /v/ and one instance of /b/ in 17-18 come from fortition of a vowel glide.
16-18 [ˈɸudwosk] - [ˈbit͡ʃk]

19 [ˈuduːʃic] - [ˈbisac]
20 [ˈuðoːʒiʃ] - [ˈðiʃiʃ]
21 [ˈuloːziç] - [ˈd̼isiç]

19-21 [ˈudoːzic] - [ˈbisɪc]

22 [ˈiluziː] - [ˈwei̯siː]
23 [ˈʏlrɪk] - [ˈwizɪk]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 22-23
[ˈyluzik] - Correct
[ˈwei̯sik] - 1 incorrect vowel
22-23 [ˈyluzik] - [ˈwei̯sɪk]


1-3 [ⁿdáɸsḭ̀] - [ᵐbét͡sḭ̂]
4-8 [oˈɾ̃ɔt͡sʼi] - [ˈmɛkʼɨ]

1-8 [oˈⁿdawt͡sʼi] - [ˈᵐbekʼɪ]

9-11 [ˈnassik] - [ˈmeːd͡zik]
12-15 [ˈodɔnsk] - [ˈbʌn̪t̪k]

9-15 [ˈoⁿdɔⁿsik] - [ˈᵐbeⁿd̪ik]

16-18 [ˈɸudwosk] - [ˈbit͡ʃk]
19-21 [ˈudoːzic] - [ˈbisɪc]
22-23 [ˈyluzik] - [ˈwei̯sɪk]

16-23 [ˈɸudwozik] - [ˈbei̯t͡ʃɪk]



1-8 [oˈⁿdawt͡sʼi] - [ˈᵐbekʼɪ]
9-15 [ˈoⁿdɔⁿsik] - [ˈᵐbeⁿd̪ik]
16-23 [ˈɸudwozik] - [ˈbei̯t͡ʃɪk]
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Oct 2021 18:59 Both protowords have 1 too many syllables, and there are several areal changes across group boundaries that result in convergent evolution.
1-23 [ˈɸodɔ̃t͡sʼik] - [ˈbẽt̪ʼɪk]
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