Quick Diachronics Challenge

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shimobaatar
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

In response to Ratsawn's third attempt:
Spoiler:
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 AB: [ˈɣoðiɲ] - [əɳɖaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈkaɳɖəɻ] - [mekˈkuðit͡ɕaɣu] - [iˈðekəm]
Word 1 - The initial consonant is off. Please see below for more details.
Word 2 - Please see my response below.
Word 3 - Please see my response below.
Word 4 - [-kk-] is partially correct, and [-ɣ-] is off. Please see below for more details. 
Word 5 - Please see my response below. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 I’m fairly confident on the initial correspondence of word 1 now.
Your original guess, [gw-] was half correct.
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 Word 2 has the first consonant very tricky, and I briefly considered ɖɳ, though that wouldn’t explain the compensatory lengthening in A. My solution to that seems to explain all the features, but I still feel unsure.
[ɖɳ] would have been closer in that it's a [Cɳ] cluster. Regarding the compensatory lengthening, I'd recommend making comparisons with Word 3. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 The k͡x : ɣ correspondence would best be explained (regarding your comments) by the voicing of B and the MOA of A, yielding gɣ, but in your comments to another player you stated that the consonant in word 5 was in fact a k, so I’m a little confused.
[g͡ɣ] is indeed what I had in mind. 

Could you please direct me to where I said that? I'm having a hard time finding it. In any case, that's almost certainly a typo. 

I put all of my responses under spoilers and in separate posts in hopes of discouraging participants from reading the comments I've left for other players, but there's nothing I can actually do to prevent this, I don't think there's an actual rule against it, and it's really not a big deal. In this case, hopefully it can help me catch and correct a mistake in one of my responses. 

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡so] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - The final vowel is off. Please see below for more details.
Word 5 - Spot-on!
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 
I can’t think of a better reflex for the final vowel in word 4 other than the two reflexes because they are basically the same vowel.
Your previous guess, [ɔ], was correct in terms of quality. 

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Spot-on!
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 I hope I’ve interpreted the incorrect segments correctly.
You have! Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 ABCDEFː [ˈχøːm] - [ranˈd͡zimpəso] - [tuħˈlandɻə] - [ʔempˈkyːt͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelmə]
Word 1 - For the initial consonant, [χ-] and [ħ-] have both been close. They're correct in voicing and MOA. The vowel in your previous guess, [oː], was partially correct. The issue with [-m] is a matter of secondary articulation. 
Word 2 - All of the segments are correct, but [ə] is in the wrong place. I'd recommend comparing AB and EF.
Word 3 - Please see my response below.
Word 4 - [ʔempˈk-t͡saʊ̯] is correct. The stressed vowel in your previous guess, [uː], was partially correct in the same way as [oː] in Word 1. It may be helpful to think about the nucleus of the final syllable of this word, which you've now reconstructed correctly. 
Word 5 - Please see my response below. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 
I hope here I’ve interpreted the “structural inaccuracy” of the final syllable in words 3 and 5.
First of all, [tuħˈland-] and [iˈd͡ʒel-] are correct, and for Word 5, [m] is partially correct.

At this point, I'm going to tell you that Words 3 and 5 end in syllabic consonants. So, Word 5 is [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]. However, [ɻ] is not the correct rhotic.  


Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [jəˈgeːlmə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Two segments do not need to be there. I'd recommend comparing the pretonic syllables of Words 4 and 5 and the stressed syllables of Words 3 and 5.

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollarən] - [ˈwiŋkeːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Very close! The third vowel is off in quality.
Word 4 - There is a [w], but it's in the wrong place. The first vowel is off, but all the other segments are correct. 
Word 5 - Spot-on!
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 In word 1, I propose a final vowel that could produce the diphthong seen in J. Whether that is i or another vowel, I don’t know.
You're correct!
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 For word 3, I’ve chosen to interpret the missing intervocallic consonant as an r because of many of these words’ reflexes, but I could also see it as another approximate. It seems plausible then to postulate a chain shift in J where t > d and d > Ø.
[r] is correct! 

I don't believe there's a [-d-] in any of these words in IJ, but yes, something like [t d] > [d ð~Ø] intervocalically is accurate for J. 

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [ħɪˈxeɪ̯lin]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Please see my comments below.
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 The pretonic vowel in word 2 seems to be an a or a schwa, but I’m not sure which.
[a] is correct!
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 For word 5, I have no idea how a consonant can be unvoiced and a fricative, yet be off in some way other than POA. I’m assuming that that was supposed to say MOA. If it was not a typo, please enlighten me.
As far as I can tell, there aren't any typos in the relevant portion of my previous response, but it could have been worded far, far more clearly. I'll do my best to correct that here.

For the initial consonant of Word 5, I'd be willing to accept any of [x~χ~ħ~h], really, although in my notes I have either [x] or [h]. This is partially what I meant by "it's not POA that's the problem" in my response to your previous reconstruction, [ˈχeɪ̯lin]. The problem, instead, was that the structure of the word is [xiˈCeɪ̯lin], not [ˈCeɪ̯lin], as I tried to clarify in the following paragraph of my last response. 

Hopefully this clears things up.

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 GHIJKLː [ˈsome] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬarin] - [jeŋˈkyːtaː] - [hiˈgelim]
Word 1 - [ˈsom-] is correct, and [-e] is very close. Please see below for more details.
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - The third vowel is off in terms of quality. Please see below for more details.
Word 4 - [jeŋˈk-t-] is correct. [-aː] is partially correct. Your previous guess for the stressed vowel, [-uː-], was partially correct in more or less the same way. 
Word 5 - The third vowel is off in terms of quality. Please see below for more details.
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 In word 1, I assume it ends with some front vowel, but which one, I don’t know.
"some front vowel" is correct. [-e] isn't what I have, but I may end up treating it as essentially correct. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 The vowels in word 3 and 5 are complex. I’m assuming they lowered in IJ and became schwa in GH.
You're generally correct about vowel reduction in GH, I'd say, but there's a reason some vowels became [ə] while others were completely lost. There was lowering in Word 3 in IJ, but it wasn't unconditioned. 


Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 MNː [ˈzwaʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tyːˈnɛːɻu] - [ʒiːˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jiɣˈɣeɪ̯mu]
Word 1 - [ˈz-ʒu] is correct. Please see below for more details.
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - [t-ˈ-ɛːɻu] is correct. There is a nasal in the onset of the stressed syllable, but neither M nor N preserves its POA. Please see below for more details.
Word 4 - [ʒ-ˈguʒʒaʊ̯] is correct. [iː] is partially correct. Please see below for more details.
Word 5 - Please see my response below. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 I don’t even have a clue for the stressed vowel in word 1. It seems like a French change, like a rising diphthong became a falling one in MN, and then monophthongized in N.
You're looking for falling diphthongs [VV̯] in the stressed syllable of Word 1 and the pretonic syllables of Words 3 and 4.  
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 I’m still unsure about the identity of the geminate in word 5.
The geminate in your previous guess, [-ww-], was correct in terms of MOA. I'd recommend keeping in mind that it becomes [-ʒʒ-] in N. 

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Spot-on!

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Spot-on!

Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rõːˈdĩːzo] - [tuˈɫãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈgudt͡sav] - [giˈɣemə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!
Word 2 - [r-ˈ-ĩːzo] is correct. The quality of the pretonic vowel and the MOA of the second consonant are off.
Word 3 - All of the segments you've reconstructed are correct, but there's a consonant missing. 
Word 4 - [ʒẽːˈgu-av] is correct. Please see below for more details. 
Word 5 - [-iˈɣe-mə] is correct. Please see below for more details. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 I’m very unsure about the cluster in word 4. It appears that it should be d plus some palatal value. Ts here is mostly a filler.
The cluster is [-Cd-], so you're partially correct. The other consonant isn't palatal in the way that, for example, [c ç j] are, but it's definitely one of the more "palatal" coronals, I guess I'd say. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 The first syllable in word 5 is incomprehensible to me. Any help would be appreciated.
You're very close! [Ci-] is correct, but the initial consonant is off in the same way that [-d-] is off in Word 2 (MOA). There's another consonant missing from a different syllable, however. 


Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 A-Rː [ˈsømʒə] - [ranˈdimso] - [tuhˈlantɻə] - [jemˈkydt͡sav] - [hiˈgelmə]
Word 1 - Two correct segments
Word 2 - Eight correct segments
Word 3 - Six correct segments
Word 4 - Five correct segments
Word 5 - Five correct segments
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 Word 1 is a structural nightmare. I’m thinking either sV[+round][+mid]mʒV or sV[+round][+mid]ʒmV, but neither of them really “feel right”.
Something about the structure of Word 1 in A-R is "unstable", I guess I'd say, and each of the three descendants resolve this in a different way. 

[ˈsV[+round,mid]m-] is correct. 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 In word 2, I’m thinking that the mk cluster in 4 has an analogy ms, which led to the same sorts of reflexes in AF and GL.
Good thinking! [ranˈdimso] is exactly right! 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 For the others, I hope I’m at least a little closer.
For Word 3, two of the correct segments are in the incorrect order.

For Word 4, you changed one of the five correct segments you had last time, but also made the correct change to one of your previously incorrect segments. 

For Word 5, I'm torn on whether to count a sixth segment as correct or not. The issue is related to the "structural" problems in A-F.
Ratsawn
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Before I start again, after a quick glance at your comments, I have one question. Did I get the proto-form for word 2 right, or am I missing segments? You said 8 correct segments (there are only 8) but didn't say it was correct explicitly.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Also I'd like to apologize for reading others' comments. I was not aware of that rule, and I will not do that for the remainder of this challenge, or any future one. Whoops.
shimobaatar
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 04:33 Before I start again, after a quick glance at your comments, I have one question. Did I get the proto-form for word 2 right, or am I missing segments? You said 8 correct segments (there are only 8) but didn't say it was correct explicitly.
I believe I did:
Spoiler:
shimobaatar wrote: 09 Nov 2020 03:42
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 A-Rː [ˈsømʒə] - [ranˈdimso] - [tuhˈlantɻə] - [jemˈkydt͡sav] - [hiˈgelmə]
Word 1 - Two correct segments
Word 2 - Eight correct segments
Word 3 - Six correct segments
Word 4 - Five correct segments
Word 5 - Five correct segments

[…]
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 00:28 In word 2, I’m thinking that the mk cluster in 4 has an analogy ms, which led to the same sorts of reflexes in AF and GL.
Good thinking! [ranˈdimso] is exactly right! 
Ratsawn wrote: 09 Nov 2020 04:39 Also I'd like to apologize for reading others' comments. I was not aware of that rule, and I will not do that for the remainder of this challenge, or any future one. Whoops.
No worries. As I said, I don't think there's a formal rule about it. I know how I do things, but I don't know how anyone else feels about reading the comments that have been left for others. [:)]
Last edited by shimobaatar on 09 Nov 2020 04:42, edited 1 time in total.
Ratsawn
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Just wanted to make sure. Thanks!
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Alright, here's my fourth response (followed the rules this time):
Spoiler:
A: [ˈgoðɛ̃ː] - [əːɖɔ̃ːˈðĩə̯̃spo] - [tʼaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː] - [bɛ̃ˈkʼuðiθagu] - [iˈðek͡xə̃ː]
B: [ˈvoziɲ] - [ɳɳaˈziməff] - [paˈɣaɳɳəɻ] - [mexˈxuzit͡ɕav] - [ˈzeɣəm]
AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [ərɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [meˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]

As for where you said k was correct in word 5, I think I may have misread and gotten a bit of karma for breaking the rules.

In word 2, I have used cognates to postulate an rɳ cluster, which would yield sound changes in A: Cɳ > Cɖ > ːɖ and in B: Cɳ > ɳɳ. The fortification of ɳ to ɖ makes me a bit lost, but we already know ɖ isn’t part of the cluster, so this is the best we can do.

Is there supposed to be a coda consonant in the first syllable of word 4?

C: [ˈħem] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈland͡ʒɨ] - [jemˈpʼiːt͡sɔ] - [ˈd͡ʒlemɨ]
D: [ˈħyə̯m] - [ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪɱfa] - [taħˈɫand͡z] - [ʔɛmˈpəʏ̯so] - [ʔɪˈzɛɫm]
CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]

E: [ˈʔun] - [ɹaˈzaɪ̯fs] - [tʊˈɫað] - [ʔɛfˈkaʊ̯sa] - [ˈzɛɫ]
F: [ˈwoŋ] - [jerˈd͡ziffe] - [tuˈloːde] - [jeˈk͡puːt͡sa] - [jeˈd͡zeːle]
EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]

AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [ərɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [meˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]
CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]
EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]
ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranˈd͡ziəmpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]

My vowel in word 1 seems tricky, but I can see an epenthetic consonant breaking the diphthong in AB and two different types of monophthongization in CD and EF. This also holds in word 4, so I’m feeling more confident.

The schwa in word 2 can’t be between the mp or ps clusters, so I’m thinking it must be part of a falling diphthong. I assume if this is correct, the lengthening in EF is a result of that as well as the deleted nasal. Knowing the proto-form, this means that the diphthong is a new development in ABCDEF.

G: [ˈhuːŋ] - [retˈt͡sisse] - [sexˈxɔːreŋ] - [jekˈkyːtɔ] - [jeˈgiːleŋ]
H: [ˈhom] - [r̩ˈd͡zɪs] - [ˈsxarn] - [ɪˈcuːðɐ] - [ˈʝeʊ̯m]
GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]

I hope I’ve interpreted the “extra segments” correctly.

I: [ˈsum] - [ˈrɛnʒes] - [ˈsoʎən] - [ˈwɪŋketæ] - [ˈsiʎəm]
J: [ˈsõɪ̯̃] - [ˈrjɛ̃dĩzo] - [ˈtolɔ̃ɐ̯̃] - [ˈŋõʊ̯̃pæda] - [ˈŋiə̯ɮã]
IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈewŋkeːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]

The final vowel in word 3 seems to match the final vowel in 5, with a > schwa in I and a nasalization in J. I assume the intervening r affected the quality in 3.

The first syllable in 4 eludes me.

K: [ˈsũvɛ] - [rɐ̃ˈnĩdɐ] - [tʊˈʃẽɪ̯̃] - [dɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ] - [ħɪˈʕĩː]
L: [ˈsoʊ̯n] - [r̩ˈɲinz] - [ˈt͡ʃæːrin] - [ʒeŋˈgiːto] - [ˈkʰeɪ̯lin]
KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈkeɪ̯lin]

In word 5, your comments were greatly appreciated. For the second consonant, it seems a velar would be appropriate based on cognates.

GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]
IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈewŋkeːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈkeɪ̯lin]
GHIJKLː [ˈsomi] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaren] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelem]

In word 4, I’ve chosen to take the cognate route for those vowels and interpret them as diphthongs.

M: [ˈzwaʒu] - [ɳɛˈnaɪ̯ʒo] - [twiˈɲɛɻu] - [ʒjaˈguʃaʊ̯] - [jiˈwemʲu]
N: [ˈzuːʒo] - [ˈnaːneːzo] - [ˈtyːnaːʒo] - [ˈʒiːguʒʒoː] - [ˈjeʒʒeːmo]
MNː [ˈzauʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈɳɛːɻu] - [ʒaiˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]

I hope these vowels are correct in words 1, 3, and 4.

In word 5, you said it is an approximate, and I should keep in mind its reflex in N. I’m analyzing it as a j, but its rounded equivalent also seems likely.

O: [ˈzʌːʒe] - [ˈd͡ʒʌːlɯːzo] - [ˈtubbʌːje] - [ˈʒʌːgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈd͡ʒoːme]
P: [ˈzaʒa] - [jɛˈlɯzo] - [tuˈwɔje] - [ʒaˈgut͡ʃa] - [ˈjeːma]
OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]

Q: [ˈrɔɪ̯z] - [ɦɔˈjeɪ̯ra] - [taxˈxɔɐ̯] - [zɛˈgʏtta] - [gaˈɣeɐ̯m]
R: [ˈzwɛʃ] - [ɣəjˈjez] - [ˈtxwɛx] - [ʒəˈguddə] - [ˈɣɣem̥x]
QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]

MNː [ˈzauʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈɳɛːɻu] - [ʒaiˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]
OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]
QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈnĩːzo] - [tuɣˈɫãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɣmə]

ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranˈd͡ziəmpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]
GHIJKLː [ˈsomi] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaren] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelem]
MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈnĩːzo] - [tuɣˈɫãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɣmə]
A-Rː [ˈsomj] - [ranˈdimso] - [tuhˈlantr̩] - [jemˈkuitav] - [hiˈgelm̩]

My reconstruction for word 1 seems pretty unstable, but maybe that’s just me. It does seem like a j or i in word 4 caused similar results, so I’m thinking the ʒ in word 1 and 4 in MR is a result of fortification of that j or i.

Word three could use some extra advice, I feel like the final VC I had before should be a syllabic consonant, but that doesn’t really address your concerns, so I dunno.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by sangi39 »

Yeah, I don't think we've ever said reading other people's guesses and feedback is against the rules. It's a pretty free-range game as to whether you build on other people's work or whether you go at it alone (much like in real-world reconstructions, I suppose). Different people play the game in different ways for different reasons, as long as everyone's having fun doing it, that's all that really counts [:)]

(I think spoilers started being used so that if someone does choose to work alone, they don't accidentally read through other guesses while scrolling)
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

sangi39 wrote: 10 Nov 2020 22:07 Yeah, I don't think we've ever said reading other people's guesses and feedback is against the rules. It's a pretty free-range game as to whether you build on other people's work or whether you go at it alone (much like in real-world reconstructions, I suppose). Different people play the game in different ways for different reasons, as long as everyone's having fun doing it, that's all that really counts [:)]

(I think spoilers started being used so that if someone does choose to work alone, they don't accidentally read through other guesses while scrolling)
[+1] I'm glad to have confirmation on this from someone who's been playing the game longer than I have. [:)]

I prepared my response to Ratsawn's latest attempt the day after it was posted, almost two weeks ago. Would anyone like to have another shot at this?
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

For me, probably not.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

In response to Ratsawn's fourth attempt:
Spoiler:
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [ərɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [meˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Essentially correct. Please see my response below. 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - [-k-] is partially correct. Please see my response below. 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 In word 2, I have used cognates to postulate an rɳ cluster, which would yield sound changes in A: Cɳ > Cɖ > ːɖ and in B: Cɳ > ɳɳ. The fortification of ɳ to ɖ makes me a bit lost, but we already know ɖ isn’t part of the cluster, so this is the best we can do.
I have [-ɻɳ-], but I'm not going to treat [-rɳ-] as wrong, especially not at this point. In A, coda [ɻ] is lost, lengthening a preceding vowel. This is also why the final vowel of Word 3 is logn in A. Nasals later merge with oral stops. In B, [ɻɲ ɳɖ] > [ɳɳ]. 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 Is there supposed to be a coda consonant in the first syllable of word 4?
Yes. The structure of the word is [meCˈCuðit͡ɕawu]. CC is a cluster of two voiceless stops, one of which is [k].  

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Again, well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranˈd͡ziəmpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Please see my response below.
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 My vowel in word 1 seems tricky, but I can see an epenthetic consonant breaking the diphthong in AB and two different types of monophthongization in CD and EF. This also holds in word 4, so I’m feeling more confident.
Yes! Excellent work!

In AB, [Vɪ̯ Vʊ̯] > [Vji Vwu]. Although I'm accepting [ð] for AB, I have [j] in Words 1 and 4 in my notes. in CD, [uɪ̯ oɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [yː øː ɔː]. In EF, [V(ɪ̯,ʊ̯)] > [Vː], with long vowels being shortened in unstressed syllables. 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 The schwa in word 2 can’t be between the mp or ps clusters, so I’m thinking it must be part of a falling diphthong. I assume if this is correct, the lengthening in EF is a result of that as well as the deleted nasal. Knowing the proto-form, this means that the diphthong is a new development in ABCDEF.
The schwa is not part of a diphthong. Word 2 is four syllables long in A-F. The lengthening in EF is solely because of the loss of the nasal. I still think that comparing AB and EF should be helpful, though. 


Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 I hope I’ve interpreted the “extra segments” correctly.
You have! Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈewŋkeːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Please see my response below.
Word 5 - Spot-on!  
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 The final vowel in word 3 seems to match the final vowel in 5, with a > schwa in I and a nasalization in J. I assume the intervening r affected the quality in 3.
[-a-] is correct!

Short vowels in final syllables become schwa in I, with long vowels in final syllables shortening.

In J, I suppose the loss of [-r-] indirectly affected the quality of the vowel in that its loss resulted in [-aː-]. So, [ˈt͡sollaran] > [ˈt͡solaan] > [ˈt͡solaːn] > [ˈt͡solãː] > [ˈt͡solɔ̃ɐ̯̃] > [ˈtolɔ̃ɐ̯̃], whereas [ˈhigelam] > [ˈhiɣeɮam] > [ˈhieɮam] > [ˈhiə̯ɮam] > [ˈhiə̯ɮam] > [ˈʔiə̯ɮam] > [ˈʔiə̯ɮã] > [ˈŋiə̯ɮã].
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 The first syllable in 4 eludes me.
I probably should have realized earlier how difficult this may be to reconstruct. The word is [ˈVCCCeːtaː]. [-ŋk-] is correct, there is also a [-w-], and the initial vowel is front and mid. 

As for the placement of [-w-], compare the POA of the first voiceless stop in Word 4 in I with that of the voiceless stop in Word 4 in J.  

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈkeɪ̯lin]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Very close!

Please see below for more details. 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 In word 5, your comments were greatly appreciated. For the second consonant, it seems a velar would be appropriate based on cognates.
I'm glad I could help clear things up!

You're correct that it's a velar stop, but, as in GH and IJ, it's [g]. 

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 GHIJKLː [ˈsomi] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaren] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelem]
Word 1 - Very, very close! I have [-ɪ] for the final vowel. 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - The third vowel is off in terms of quality, although you're now closer in terms of height. 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Please see my comments on Word 3. 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 In word 4, I’ve chosen to take the cognate route for those vowels and interpret them as diphthongs.
Good choice!


Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 MNː [ˈzauʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈɳɛːɻu] - [ʒaiˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]
Word 1 - Please see my response below. 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Only [-ɳ-] is incorrect, but this may be difficult to reconstruct. What I have is [-ŋ-]. 
Word 4 - Please see my response below. 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 I hope these vowels are correct in words 1, 3, and 4.
[-uɪ̯-] is correct in Word 3!

[ja wa] in M and [iː uː] come from [iV̯ uV̯] in MN. 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 In word 5, you said it is an approximate, and I should keep in mind its reflex in N. I’m analyzing it as a j, but its rounded equivalent also seems likely.
Yes, [-jj-] is correct! 

The [-w-] in M is not a reflex of [-jj-], so it's not necessary to reconstruct [-ɥɥ-] instead. 

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Again, well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Again, well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈnĩːzo] - [tuɣˈɫãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɣmə]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - [-n-] is off in terms of MOA, but everything else is correct. Please see below for more details. 
Word 3 - All of the segments you've reconstructed are correct, but two are in the wrong order. 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - The third instance of [-ɣ-] is not correct, but there is indeed a consonant in that position. 

Last time, you reconstructed [-d-] in Word 2 and [g-] in Word 5. I said that these were both off in the same way, in terms of MOA. That's true, but I should have made myself more clear. The correct segments have the same MOA, and changing [g-] to [ɣ-] in Word 5 was the correct choice. 


Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 A-Rː [ˈsomj] - [ranˈdimso] - [tuhˈlantr̩] - [jemˈkuitav] - [hiˈgelm̩]
Word 1 - Four correct segments 
Word 2 - Eight correct segments 
Word 3 - Seven correct segments 
Word 4 - Eight correct segments 
Word 5 - Six correct segments 

Words 1, 2, and 5 are all spot-on!  
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 My reconstruction for word 1 seems pretty unstable, but maybe that’s just me. It does seem like a j or i in word 4 caused similar results, so I’m thinking the ʒ in word 1 and 4 in MR is a result of fortification of that j or i.
Yes, that's exactly right! Excellent work! 
Ratsawn wrote: 10 Nov 2020 04:22 Word three could use some extra advice, I feel like the final VC I had before should be a syllabic consonant, but that doesn’t really address your concerns, so I dunno.
The syllabic consonant is correct. 

As for what I said last time, about two segments being correct but in the wrong order, the issue here is the same as the problem I've mentioned with Word 3 in M-R. 

As for the one segment that's wholly incorrect, it might help to note how frequently epenthesis occurs in A-F. 

Also, regarding Word 4, the issue is regarding something that two of the three branches have in common. The third branch has something different, which is an innovation, but you've reconstructed it as the original form here. 

If Ratsawn or anyone else would like to make one last attempt, I'd be alright with that. If not, though, I think I'm ready to give this round to Ratsawn for correctly reconstructing 3/5 of the original words.
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

I'll do one last attempt, let's see if I can't get the last two, and maybe some intermediary forms along the way.
Spoiler:
A: [ˈgoðɛ̃ː] - [əːɖɔ̃ːˈðĩə̯̃spo] - [tʼaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː] - [bɛ̃ˈkʼuðiθagu] - [iˈðek͡xə̃ː]
B: [ˈvoziɲ] - [ɳɳaˈziməff] - [paˈɣaɳɳəɻ] - [mexˈxuzit͡ɕav] - [ˈzeɣəm]
AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [əɻɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [mepˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]

C: [ˈħem] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈland͡ʒɨ] - [jemˈpʼiːt͡sɔ] - [ˈd͡ʒlemɨ]
D: [ˈħyə̯m] - [ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪɱfa] - [taħˈɫand͡z] - [ʔɛmˈpəʏ̯so] - [ʔɪˈzɛɫm]
CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]

E: [ˈʔun] - [ɹaˈzaɪ̯fs] - [tʊˈɫað] - [ʔɛfˈkaʊ̯sa] - [ˈzɛɫ]
F: [ˈwoŋ] - [jerˈd͡ziffe] - [tuˈloːde] - [jeˈk͡puːt͡sa] - [jeˈd͡zeːle]
EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]

AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [əɻɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [mepˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]
CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]
EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]
ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranəˈd͡zimpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]

So my only problem in word 2 is the location (right?) of the schwa. I’ve tried between the mp cluster, between the ps cluster, and it must be a four syllable word. The only other option I can think of would be where I’ve placed it here, but I’m not sure it would be so early in the word.

G: [ˈhuːŋ] - [retˈt͡sisse] - [sexˈxɔːreŋ] - [jekˈkyːtɔ] - [jeˈgiːleŋ]
H: [ˈhom] - [r̩ˈd͡zɪs] - [ˈsxarn] - [ɪˈcuːðɐ] - [ˈʝeʊ̯m]
GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]

I: [ˈsum] - [ˈrɛnʒes] - [ˈsoʎən] - [ˈwɪŋketæ] - [ˈsiʎəm]
J: [ˈsõɪ̯̃] - [ˈrjɛ̃dĩzo] - [ˈtolɔ̃ɐ̯̃] - [ˈŋõʊ̯̃pæda] - [ˈŋiə̯ɮã]
IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈøŋkweːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]

Your comments were invaluable for word 4. Hope I got it right.

K: [ˈsũvɛ] - [rɐ̃ˈnĩdɐ] - [tʊˈʃẽɪ̯̃] - [dɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ] - [ħɪˈʕĩː]
L: [ˈsoʊ̯n] - [r̩ˈɲinz] - [ˈt͡ʃæːrin] - [ʒeŋˈgiːto] - [ˈkʰeɪ̯lin]
KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈgeɪ̯lin]

GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]
IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈøŋkweːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈgeɪ̯lin]
GHIJKLː [ˈsomɪ] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaran] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelam]

For the final vowels in 3 and 5, you said my guess of e was closer than my guess of i, so I’ve lowered to a, though I’m not sure because I can’t think of why this would raise to i in KL. Possibly ɛ?

M: [ˈzwaʒu] - [ɳɛˈnaɪ̯ʒo] - [twiˈɲɛɻu] - [ʒjaˈguʃaʊ̯] - [jiˈwemʲu]
N: [ˈzuːʒo] - [ˈnaːneːzo] - [ˈtyːnaːʒo] - [ˈʒiːguʒʒoː] - [ˈjeʒʒeːmo]
MNː [ˈzuaʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈŋɛːɻu] - [ʒiaˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]

O: [ˈzʌːʒe] - [ˈd͡ʒʌːlɯːzo] - [ˈtubbʌːje] - [ˈʒʌːgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈd͡ʒoːme]
P: [ˈzaʒa] - [jɛˈlɯzo] - [tuˈwɔje] - [ʒaˈgut͡ʃa] - [ˈjeːma]
OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]

Q: [ˈrɔɪ̯z] - [ɦɔˈjeɪ̯ra] - [taxˈxɔɐ̯] - [zɛˈgʏtta] - [gaˈɣeɐ̯m]
R: [ˈzwɛʃ] - [ɣəjˈjez] - [ˈtxwɛx] - [ʒəˈguddə] - [ˈɣɣem̥x]
QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]

MNː [ˈzuaʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈŋɛːɻu] - [ʒiaˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]
OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]
QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈzĩːzo] - [tuɫˈɣãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɰmə]

In word 2, the second consonant is likely either z or ð. Let me know if I’ve notated the incorrect option.

Based on its reflexes in MN and OP, the second to last consonant in 5 seems like an approximate. Because it fortifies in QR, and because it fronts in MN, I’ve chosen an unlabialized velar approximant, but its labialized equivalent seems almost as likely.

ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranəˈd͡zimpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]
GHIJKLː [ˈsomɪ] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaran] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelam]
MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈzĩːzo] - [tuɫˈɣãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɰmə]
A-Rː [ˈsomj] - [ranˈdimso] - [tulˈhanr̩] - [jemˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelm̩]

I hope I’ve interpreted your comments on epenthetic consonants correctly in word 3.
shimobaatar
korean
korean
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Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

In response to Ratsawn's fifth/final attempt:
Spoiler:
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 AB: [ˈwoðiɲ] - [əɻɳaˈðiməspo] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [mepˈkuðit͡ɕawu] - [iˈðeg͡ɣəm]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on!
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 CDː [ˈħøːm] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈɫand͡ʒɨ] - [ʔemˈp’yːt͡sɔː] - [ʔiˈd͡ʒelmɨ]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done again!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 EFː [ˈʔoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːfsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [ʔepˈkuːt͡sa] - [ʔəˈd͡zelə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done again!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 ABCDEFː [ˈhoimʲ] - [ranəˈd͡zimpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [ʔempˈkuit͡sau] - [iˈd͡ʒelm̩]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Please see my response below.
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 So my only problem in word 2 is the location (right?) of the schwa. I’ve tried between the mp cluster, between the ps cluster, and it must be a four syllable word. The only other option I can think of would be where I’ve placed it here, but I’m not sure it would be so early in the word.
The location/placement of the schwa is indeed the only issue. It's word-initial, so [əranˈd͡zimpso]. Compare the development of a prothetic [a-] before historically word initial [-r-] in some Romance languages (Aranese and Aromanian, for example). 


Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 GHː [ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done again!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 IJː [ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈøŋkweːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on!
Word 5 - Spot-on!  
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 Your comments were invaluable for word 4. Hope I got it right.
You did! Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 KL: [ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃæːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtoː] - [xiˈgeɪ̯lin]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 GHIJKLː [ˈsomɪ] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬaran] - [jeŋˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelam]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Please see my response below.
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Please see my response below.
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 For the final vowels in 3 and 5, you said my guess of e was closer than my guess of i, so I’ve lowered to a, though I’m not sure because I can’t think of why this would raise to i in KL. Possibly ɛ?
What I had in mind was [ə], so [tuɬˈɬarən] and [hiˈgeləm]. 


Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 MNː [ˈzuaʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnaɪ̯zo] - [tuiˈŋɛːɻu] - [ʒiaˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]
Word 1 - Very close! I have [ˈzuə̯ʒu]. 
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on!
Word 4 - Very close! I have [ʒiə̯ˈguʒʒaʊ̯].
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 OPː [ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːje] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeumə]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done again!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 QRː [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] - [təɣˈɣɔɪ̯ʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
Word 1 - Spot-on!  
Word 2 - Spot-on! 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Spot-on! 

Well done again!

Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 MNOPQRː [ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈzĩːzo] - [tuɫˈɣãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɰmə]
Word 1 - Spot-on! 
Word 2 - Please see my response below. 
Word 3 - Spot-on! 
Word 4 - Spot-on! 
Word 5 - Please see my response below. 
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 In word 2, the second consonant is likely either z or ð. Let me know if I’ve notated the incorrect option.
It's [ð], so [rãːˈðĩːzo]. The [z-] in Word 1 and the [-z-] in Word 2 are both retained in MN, OP, and QR, whereas [-ð-] becomes [-n-] before a nasal vowel in MN, [-l-] in OP, and [-j-] in QR. 
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 Based on its reflexes in MN and OP, the second to last consonant in 5 seems like an approximate. Because it fortifies in QR, and because it fronts in MN, I’ve chosen an unlabialized velar approximant, but its labialized equivalent seems almost as likely.
What I have in my notes is [ɫ], so [ɣiˈɣeɫmə], but I realize that that's difficult to reconstruct. 


Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 A-Rː [ˈsomj] - [ranˈdimso] - [tulˈhanr̩] - [jemˈkuitau] - [hiˈgelm̩]
Word 1 - Four correct segments 
Word 2 - Eight correct segments 
Word 3 - Seven correct segments 
Word 4 - Nine correct segments 
Word 5 - Six correct segments 

All five words are completely spot-on! Excellent work! 
Ratsawn wrote: 30 Nov 2020 01:29 I hope I’ve interpreted your comments on epenthetic consonants correctly in word 3.
You have!
Congratulations to Ratsawn for correctly reconstructing all 5 of the original words, as well as the majority of the intermediary forms! Many thanks to everyone who participated in this round! I hope it was as enjoyable for all of you as it was for me. [:D]

For anyone who's interested, here's a version of what I had in my notes for this round. Admittedly, I put this together in a hurry, so the formatting may not be ideal and there are most likely a few mistakes at least:
Spoiler:
A-R
[ˈsomj] - [ranˈdimso] - [tulˈhanr̩] - [jemˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] - [hiˈgelm̩]



A-F
[ˈhoɪ̯mʲ] - [əranˈdʲimpso] - [tuħˈlandr̩] - [empˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯] - [iˈgʲelm̩]
-[-VCj#] > [-Vɪ̯C#] ([ˈsomj] > [ˈsoɪ̯m])
-[Ch] > [ħC] ([tulˈhanr̩] > [tuħˈlanr̩])
-[#s- #h-] > [#h- #Ø-] ([ˈsoɪ̯m] > [ˈhoɪ̯m], [hiˈgelm̩] > [iˈgelm̩])
-[#ji- #je-] > [#i- #e-] ([jemˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [emˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[#r-] > [#ər-] ([ranˈdimso] > [əranˈdimso])
-[ms mk nr̩] > [mps mpk ndr̩] ([əranˈdimso] > [əranˈdimpso], [tuħˈlanr̩] > [tuħˈlandr̩], [emˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [empˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[Ci Ce Vɪ̯C] > [Cʲi Cʲe Vɪ̯Cʲ] ([ˈhoɪ̯m] > [ˈhoɪ̯mʲ], [əranˈdimpso] > [əranˈdʲimpso], [empˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [empˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯], [iˈgelm̩] > [iˈgʲelm̩])

Because of later developments in AB, CD, and EF, I accepted [t͡s d͡z d͡ʒ] as variants of [tʲ dʲ gʲ]. 


AB 
[ˈwojiɲ] - [əɻɳaˈɟiməpso] - [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] - [mepˈkujicawu] - [iˈɟeg͡ɣəm]
-[l] > [d͡ɮ] > [g͡ɣ] ([tuħˈlandr̩] > [tuħˈg͡ɣandr̩], [iˈgʲelm̩] > [iˈgʲeg͡ɣm̩])
-[uħ] > [wa] ([tuħˈg͡ɣandr̩] > [twaˈg͡ɣandr̩])
-[hu ho] > [wu wo] ([ˈhoɪ̯mʲ] > [ˈwoɪ̯mʲ])
-[$VN$ $rVN$] > [$NV$ $rnV$] ([əranˈdʲimpso] > [ərnaˈdʲimpso], [empˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯] > [mepˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯])
-[mʲ tʲ dʲ gʲ] > [ɲ c ɟ ɟ] ([ˈwoɪ̯mʲ] > [ˈwoɪ̯ɲ], [ərnaˈdʲimpso] > [ərnaˈɟimpso], [mepˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯] > [mepˈkuɪ̯caʊ̯], [iˈgʲeg͡ɣm̩] > [iˈɟeg͡ɣm̩])
-[ndr̩ rn] > [ɳɖɻ̩ ɻɳ] ([ərnaˈɟimpso] > [əɻɳaˈɟimpso], [twaˈg͡ɣandr̩] > [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖɻ̩])
-[Vɪ̯ Vʊ̯ C̩ CCC] > [Vji Vwu əC CəCC] ([ˈwoɪ̯ɲ] > [ˈwojiɲ], [əɻɳaˈɟimpso] > [əɻɳaˈɟiməpso], [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖɻ̩] > [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ], [mepˈkuɪ̯caʊ̯] > [mepˈkujicawu], [iˈɟeg͡ɣm̩] > [iˈɟeg͡ɣəm])

Because of later developments in A and B, I accepted [-sp- -kp-] in place of [-ps- -pk-]. In addition, there were a number of alternative reconstructions for [c] and [ɟ~j] (I only realized after the round had already started that [ɟ] and [j] merge in both A and B) that I would have accepted, including [θ t͡s t͡ɕ] for [c] and [ð d͡z d͡ʑ] for [ɟ~j].

A
[ˈgoðɛ̃ː] - [əːɖɔ̃ˈðĩə̯̃spo] - [tʼaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː] - [bɛ̃ˈkʼuðiθagu] - [iˈðek͡xə̃ː]
-[j w] > [gʷ ɟ] > [g ɟ] ([ˈwojiɲ] > [ˈgoɟiɲ], [twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] > [tgaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ], [mepˈkujicawu] > [mepˈkuɟicagu])
-[c ɟ] > [t͡s d͡z] > [θ ð] ([ˈgoɟiɲ] > [ˈgoðiɲ], [əɻɳaˈɟiməpso] > [əɻɳaˈðiməpso], [mepˈkuɟicagu] > [mepˈkuðiθagu], [iˈɟeg͡ɣəm] > [iˈðeg͡ɣəm])
-[g͡ɣ] > [k͡x] ([tgaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] > [tgaˈk͡xaɳɖəɻ], [iˈðeg͡ɣəm] > [iˈðek͡xəm])
-[ps pk] > [sp kp] ([əɻɳaˈðiməpso] > [əɻɳaˈðiməspo], [mepˈkuðiθagu] > [mekˈpuðiθagu])
-[VN NV] > [ṼN NṼ] ([ˈgoðiɲ] > [ˈgoðĩɲ], [əɻɳaˈðiməspo] > [əɻɳãˈðĩmə̃spo], [tgaˈk͡xaɳɖəɻ] > [tgaˈk͡xãɳɖəɻ], [mekˈpuðiθagu] > [mẽkˈpuðiθagu], [iˈðek͡xəm] > [iˈðek͡xə̃m])
-[ṼN$ ṼNṼ Vɻ$] > [Ṽː$ ṼṼ̯ Vː$] ([ˈgoðĩɲ] > [ˈgoðĩː], [əɻɳãˈðĩmə̃spo] > [əːɳãˈðĩə̯̃spo], [tgaˈk͡xãɳɖəɻ] > [tgaˈk͡xãːɖəː], [iˈðek͡xə̃m] > [iˈðek͡xə̃ː])
-[m ɳ] > [b ɖ] ([əːɳãˈðĩə̯̃spo] > [əːɖãˈðĩə̯̃spo], [mẽkˈpuðiθagu] > [bẽkˈpuðiθagu])
-[ĩː ẽ ã ãː] > [ɛ̃ː ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ɔ̃ː] ([ˈgoðĩː] > [ˈgoðɛ̃ː], [əːɖãˈðĩə̯̃spo] > [əːɖɔ̃ˈðĩə̯̃spo], [tgaˈk͡xãːɖəː] > [tgaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː], [bẽkˈpuðiθagu] > [bɛ̃kˈpuðiθagu])
-[tg kp] > [tʼ kʼ] ([tgaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː] > [tʼaˈk͡xɔ̃ːɖəː], [bɛ̃kˈpuðiθagu] > [bɛ̃ˈkʼuðiθagu])

B
[ˈvoziɲ] - [ɳɳaˈziməff] - [paˈɣaɳɳəɻ] - [mexˈxuzit͡ɕav] - [ˈzeɣəm]
-[ps pk] > [ff xx] ([əɻɳaˈɟiməpso] > [əɻɳaˈɟiməffo], [mepˈkujicawu] > [mexˈxujicawu])
-[tw] > [p] ([twaˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] > [paˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ])
-[ɳɖ ɻɲ] > [ɳɳ ɳɳ] ([əɻɳaˈɟiməffo] > [əɳɳaˈɟiməffo], [paˈg͡ɣaɳɖəɻ] > [paˈg͡ɣaɳɳəɻ])
-[g͡ɣ] > [ɣ] ([paˈg͡ɣaɳɳəɻ] > [paˈɣaɳɳəɻ], [iˈɟeg͡ɣəm] > [iˈɟeɣəm])
-[#V- -V#] > [#Ø- -Ø#] ([əɳɳaˈɟiməffo] > [ɳɳaˈɟiməff], [mexˈxujicawu] > [mexˈxujicaw], [iˈɟeɣəm] > [ˈɟeɣəm])
-[c ɟ] > [t͡ɕ j] ([ɳɳaˈɟiməff] > [ɳɳaˈjiməff], [mexˈxujicaw] > [mexˈxujit͡ɕaw], [ˈɟeɣəm] > [ˈjeɣəm])
-[j w] > [z v] ([ˈwojiɲ] > [ˈvoziɲ], [ɳɳaˈjiməff] > [ɳɳaˈziməff], [mexˈxujit͡ɕaw] > [mexˈxuzit͡ɕav], [ˈjeɣəm] > [ˈzeɣəm])


CD
[ˈħøːm] - [ərnˈd͡zimpso] - [toħˈland͡ʒə] - [empˈkyːt͡sɔː] - [iˈd͡ʒelmə]
-[uɪ̯ oɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [yː øː ɔː] ([ˈhoɪ̯mʲ] > [ˈhøːmʲ], [empˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯] > [empˈkyːtʲɔː])
-[h] > [ħ] ([ˈhøːmʲ] > [ˈħøːmʲ])-[uħ] > [oħ] ([tuħˈlandr̩] > [toħˈlandr̩])
-[mʲ tʲ dʲ gʲ] > [m t͡s d͡z d͡ʒ] ([ˈħøːmʲ] > [ˈħøːm], [əranˈdʲimpso] > [əranˈd͡zimpso], [empˈkyːtʲɔː] > [empˈkyːt͡sɔː], [iˈgʲelm̩] > [iˈd͡ʒelm̩])
-[C̩] > [Cə] ([toħˈlandr̩] > [toħˈlandrə], [iˈd͡ʒelm̩] > [iˈd͡ʒelmə])
-[dr] > [d͡ʒ] ([toħˈlandrə] > [toħˈland͡ʒə])
-Unstressed non-initial, non-final vowels are lost ([əranˈd͡zimpso] > [ərnˈd͡zimpso])

Because of later developments in C and D, I accepted [ɨ pʰ pʼ #ʔV-] as alternatives to [ə ps pk #V-]. I also accepted [rVn-] in place of [Vrn-] for the initial syllable of Word 2.

C
[ˈħem] - [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo] - [toħˈland͡ʒɨ] - [jemˈpʼiːt͡sɔ] - [ˈd͡ʒlemɨ]
-[ps pk] > [pʰ pʼ] ([ərnˈd͡zimpso] > [ərnˈd͡zimpʰo], [empˈkyːt͡sɔː] > [emˈpʼyːt͡sɔː])
-[yː øː ə] > [iː eː ɨ] ([ˈħøːm] > [ˈħeːm], [ərnˈd͡zimpʰo] > [ɨrnˈd͡zimpʰo], [toħˈland͡ʒə] > [toħˈland͡ʒɨ], [emˈpʼyːt͡sɔː] > [emˈpʼiːt͡sɔː], [iˈd͡ʒelmə] > [iˈd͡ʒelmɨ])
-[$CVl$ $CVr$] > [$ClV$ $CrV$] ([ɨrnˈd͡zimpʰo] > [rɨnˈd͡zimpʰo], [iˈd͡ʒelmɨ] > [iˈd͡ʒlemɨ])
-[Vː] > [V] in closed and/or unstressed syllables ([ˈħeːm] > [ˈħem], [emˈpʼiːt͡sɔː] > [emˈpʼiːt͡sɔ])
-[#V-] > [#Ø-] in open, unstressed syllables ([iˈd͡ʒlemɨ] > [ˈd͡ʒlemɨ])
-[#i- #e-] > [#ji- #je-] ([emˈpʼiːt͡sɔː] > [jemˈpʼiːt͡sɔ])

D
[ˈħyə̯m] - [ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪɱfa] - [taħˈɫand͡z] - [ʔɛmˈpəʏ̯so] - [ʔɪˈzɛɫm]
-[d͡ʒ] > [d͡z] ([toħˈland͡ʒə] > [toħˈland͡zə], [iˈd͡ʒelmə] > [iˈd͡zelmə])
-[Vt͡s Vd͡z] > [Vs Vz] ([empˈkyːt͡sɔː] > [empˈkyːsɔː], [iˈd͡zelmə] > [iˈzelmə])
-[i yː e øː o ə ɔː] > [ɪ əʏ̯ ɛ yə̯ a Ø o] ([ˈħøːm] > [ˈħyə̯m], [ərnˈd͡zimpso] > [rnˈd͡zɪmpsa], [toħˈland͡zə] > [taħˈland͡z], [empˈkyːsɔː] > [ɛmpˈkəʏ̯so], [iˈzelmə] > [ɪˈzɛlm])
-[CnC] > [Cn̩C] ([rnˈd͡zɪmpsa] > [rn̩ˈd͡zɪmpsa])
-[l r] > [ɫ ɹ] ([rn̩ˈd͡zɪmpsa] > [ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪmpsa], [taħˈland͡z] > [taħˈɫand͡z], [ɪˈzɛlm] > [ɪˈzɛɫm])
-[mps mpk] > [ɱf mp] ([ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪmpsa] > [ɹn̩ˈd͡zɪɱfa], [ɛmpˈkəʏ̯so] > [ɛmˈpəʏ̯so])
-[#V-] > [#ʔV-] ([ɛmˈpəʏ̯so] > [ʔɛmˈpəʏ̯so], [ɪˈzɛɫm] > [ʔɪˈzɛɫm])


EF
[ˈoːn] - [əraˈd͡ziːpsə] - [tuˈlaːdə] - [epˈkuːt͡sa] - [əˈd͡zelə]
-[Vɪ̯ Vʊ̯ VC$ VCC$] > [Vː Vː Vː$ VːC$] ([ˈhoɪ̯mʲ] > [ˈhoːmʲ], [əranˈdʲimpso] > [əraːˈdʲiːpso], [tuħˈlandr̩] > [tuːˈlaːdr̩], [empˈkuɪ̯tʲaʊ̯] > [eːpˈkuːtʲaː])
-[h] > [Ø] ([ˈhoːmʲ] > [ˈoːmʲ])
-[mʲ tʲ dʲ gʲ] > [n t͡s d͡z d͡z] ([ˈoːmʲ] > [ˈoːn], [əraːˈdʲiːpso] > [əraːˈd͡ziːpso], [eːpˈkuːtʲaː] > [eːpˈkuːt͡saː], [iˈgʲelm̩] > [iˈd͡zelm̩]) 
-[C̩] > [ə] ([tuːˈlaːdr̩] > [tuːˈlaːdə], [iˈd͡zelm̩] > [iˈd͡zelə])
-[V Vː] > [ə V] in unstressed syllables ([əraːˈd͡ziːpso] > [əraˈd͡ziːpsə], [tuːˈlaːdə] > [tuˈlaːdə], [eːpˈkuːt͡saː] > [epˈkuːt͡sa], [iˈd͡zelə] > [əˈd͡zelə])

Because of later developments in E and F, I would have accepted [#ʔV- fs] as alternatives to [#V- ps]. 

E
[ˈʔun] - [ɹaˈzaɪ̯fs] - [tʊˈɫað] - [ʔɛfˈkaʊ̯sa] - [ˈzɛɫ]
-[Vp Vd Vt͡s Vd͡z] > [Vf Vð Vs Vz] ([əraˈd͡ziːpsə] > [əraˈziːfsə], [tuˈlaːdə] > [tuˈlaːðə], [epˈkuːt͡sa] > [efˈkuːsa], [əˈd͡zelə] > [əˈzelə])
-[iː u uː e oː ə aː] > [aɪ̯ ʊ aʊ̯ ɛ u Ø a] ([ˈoːn] > [ˈun], [əraˈziːfsə] > [raˈzaɪ̯fs], [tuˈlaːðə] > [tʊˈlað], [efˈkuːsa] > [ɛfˈkaʊ̯sa], [əˈzelə] > [ˈzɛl])
-[l r] > [ɫ ɹ] ([raˈzaɪ̯fs] > [ɹaˈzaɪ̯fs], [tʊˈlað] > [tʊˈɫað], [ˈzɛl] > [ˈzɛɫ])
-[#V-] > [#ʔV-] ([ˈun] > [ˈʔun], [ɛfˈkaʊ̯sa] > [ʔɛfˈkaʊ̯sa])

F
[ˈwoŋ] - [jerˈd͡ziffe] - [tuˈloːde] - [jeˈk͡puːt͡sa] - [jeˈd͡zeːle]
-[-n#] > [-ŋ#] ([ˈoːn] > [ˈoːŋ])
-[ə aː] > [e oː] ([əraˈd͡ziːpsə] > [eraˈd͡ziːpse], [tuˈlaːdə] > [tuˈloːde], [əˈd͡zelə] > [eˈd͡zele])
-[ps pk] > [sp kp] > [ff k͡p] ([eraˈd͡ziːpse] > [eraˈd͡ziːffe], [epˈkuːt͡sa] > [eˈk͡puːt͡sa])
-Short vowels in unstressed non-initial, non-final syllables are lost ([eraˈd͡ziːffe] > [erˈd͡ziːffe])
-[ˈV$ VːC$] > [ˈVː$ VC$] ([ˈoːŋ] > [ˈoŋ], [erˈd͡ziːffe] > [erˈd͡ziffe], [eˈd͡zele] > [eˈd͡zeːle])
-[#e- #o-] > [#je- #wo-] ([ˈoŋ] > [ˈwoŋ], [erˈd͡ziffe] > [jerˈd͡ziffe], [eˈk͡puːt͡sa] > [jeˈk͡puːt͡sa], [eˈd͡zeːle] > [jeˈd͡zeːle])



G-L
[ˈsomɪ] - [ranˈdinso] - [tuɬˈɬarən] - [jeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] - [hiˈgeləm]
-[-Cj#] > [-Cɪ#] ([ˈsomj] > [ˈsomɪ])
-[ms mk] > [ns ŋk] ([ranˈdimso] > [ranˈdinso], [jemˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [jeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[nr̩ lh] > [rn̩ ɬɬ] ([tulˈhanr̩] > [tuɬˈɬarn̩])
-[C̩] > [əC] ([tuɬˈɬarn̩] > [tuɬˈɬarən], [hiˈgelm̩] > [hiˈgeləm])


GH
[ˈhoːm] - [rədˈd͡zissə] - [səxˈxaːrn] - [jəkˈkuːta] - [əˈgeːlm]
-[nd ns ŋk] > [dd ss kk] ([ranˈdinso] > [radˈdisso], [jeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [jekˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[V$Cɪ# V$CəC#] > [VːC$# VːCC$#] ([ˈsomɪ] > [ˈsoːm], [tuɬˈɬarən] > [tuɬˈɬaːrn], [hiˈgeləm] > [hiˈgeːlm])
-[Vɪ̯ Vʊ̯] > [Vː Vː] ([jekˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [jekˈkuːtaː])
-[#s- #h-] > [#h- #Ø-] ([ˈsoːm] > [ˈhoːm], [hiˈgeːlm] > [iˈgeːlm])
-[ɬ] > [x] ([tuɬˈɬaːrn] > [tuxˈxaːrn])
-[tu ddi] > [t͡su dd͡zi] > [su dd͡zi] ([radˈdisso] > [radˈd͡zisso], [tuxˈxaːrn] > [suxˈxaːrn])
-[V Vː] > [ə V] in unstressed syllables ([radˈd͡zisso] > [rədˈd͡zissə], [suxˈxaːrn] > [səxˈxaːrn], [jekˈkuːtaː] > [jəkˈkuːta], [iˈgeːlm] > [əˈgeːlm])

G
[ˈhuːŋ] - [retˈt͡sisse] - [sexˈxɔːreŋ] - [jekˈkyːtɔ] - [jeˈgiːleŋ] 
-[dd͡z] > [tt͡s] ([rədˈd͡zissə] > [rətˈt͡sissə])
-[-CC#] > [-CəC#] ([səxˈxaːrn] > [səxˈxaːrən], [əˈgeːlm] > [əˈgeːləm])
-[ə -a#] > [e -ɔ#] ([rətˈt͡sissə] > [retˈt͡sisse], [səxˈxaːrən] > [sexˈxaːren], [jəkˈkuːta] > [jekˈkuːtɔ], [əˈgeːləm] > [eˈgeːlem])
-[uː eː oː aː] > [yː iː uː ɔː] ([ˈhoːm] > [ˈhuːm], [sexˈxaːren] > [sexˈxɔːren], [jekˈkuːtɔ] > [jekˈkyːtɔ], [eˈgeːlem] > [eˈgiːlem])
-[-m# -n#] > [-ŋ# -ŋ#] ([ˈhuːm] > [ˈhuːŋ], [sexˈxɔːren] > [sexˈxɔːreŋ], [eˈgiːlem] > [eˈgiːleŋ])
-[#e-] > [#je-] ([eˈgiːleŋ] > [jeˈgiːleŋ])

H
[ˈhom] - [r̩ˈd͡zɪs] - [ˈsxarn] - [ɪˈcuːðɐ] - [ˈʝeʊ̯m]
-[ˈiC$ ˈVːC$ ˈVːCC$] > [ˈɪC$ ˈVC$ ˈVCC$] ([ˈhoːm] > [ˈhom], [rədˈd͡zissə] > [rədˈd͡zɪssə], [səxˈxaːrn] > [səxˈxarn], [əˈgeːlm] > [əˈgelm])
-[t g CC] > [ð ɣ C] intervocalically ([rədˈd͡zɪssə] > [rəˈd͡zɪsə], [səxˈxarn] > [səˈxarn], [jəkˈkuːta] > [jəˈkuːða], [əˈgelm] > [əˈɣelm])
-[ə] > [Ø] ([rəˈd͡zɪsə] > [rˈd͡zɪs], [səˈxarn] > [ˈsxarn], [jəˈkuːða] > [jˈkuːða], [əˈɣelm] > [ˈɣelm])
-[#jC- #rC-] > [#iC- #r̩C-] ([rˈd͡zɪs] > [r̩ˈd͡zɪs], [jˈkuːða] > [iˈkuːða])
-[ik ɣe] > [ic ʝe] ([iˈkuːða] > [iˈcuːða], [ˈɣelm] > [ˈʝelm])
-[i a] > [ɪ ɐ] in unstressed syllables ([iˈcuːða] > [ɪˈcuːðɐ])
-[Vl$ VlC$] > [Vʊ̯$ Vʊ̯C$] ([ˈʝelm] > [ˈʝeʊ̯m])


IJ
[ˈsomi] - [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] - [ˈt͡sollaran] - [ˈøŋkweːtaː] - [ˈhigelam]
-[tu di] > [t͡su d͡ʒi] ([ranˈdinso] > [ranˈd͡ʒinso], [tuɬˈɬarən] > [t͡suɬˈɬarən])
-[ɬ] > [l] ([t͡suɬˈɬarən] > [t͡sulˈlarən])
-[#je-] > [#e-] ([jeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [eŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[aC$Ci eC$Cuɪ̯] > [ɛC$Ci øC$Cuɪ̯] ([ranˈd͡ʒinso] > [rɛnˈd͡ʒinso], [eŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [øŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[uC$Ca uɪ̯C$Caʊ̯] > [oC$Ca oɪ̯$Caʊ̯] ([t͡sulˈlarən] > [t͡solˈlarən], [øŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [øŋˈkoɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[ɪ ə oɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [i a weː aː] ([ˈsomɪ] > [ˈsomi], [t͡solˈlarən] > [t͡solˈlaran], [øŋˈkoɪ̯taʊ̯] > [øŋˈkweːtaː], [hiˈgeləm] > [hiˈgelam])
-[in$sV] > [ĩː$sV] ([rɛnˈd͡ʒinso] > [rɛnˈd͡ʒĩːso])
-Initial stress ([rɛnˈd͡ʒĩːso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso], [t͡solˈlaran] > [ˈt͡sollaran], [øŋˈkweːtaː] > [ˈøŋkweːtaː], [hiˈgelam] > [ˈhigelam])

I
[ˈsum] - [ˈrɛnʒes] - [ˈsoʎən] - [ˈwɪŋketæ] - [ˈsiʎəm]
-[V Vː] > [Ø V] in unstressed non-final syllables ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩso], [ˈt͡sollaran] > [ˈt͡sollran], [ˈøŋkweːtaː] > [ˈøŋkwetaː], [ˈhigelam] > [ˈhiglam])
-[gl llr] > [ll ll] > [ʎ ʎ] ([ˈt͡sollran] > [ˈt͡soʎan], [ˈhiglam] > [ˈhiʎam])
-[hi] > [çi] > [si] ([ˈhiʎam] > [ˈsiʎam])
-[ĩ aː] > [e æː] ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒeso], [ˈøŋkwetaː] > [ˈøŋkwetæː])
-[øC$Cw o$Ci] > [yC$Cw u$Ci] ([ˈsomi] > [ˈsumi], [ˈøŋkwetæː] > [ˈyŋkwetæː])
-[Cw] > [C] ([ˈyŋkwetæː] > [ˈyŋketæː])
-[-V# -VC# -Vː#] > [-Ø# -əC# -V#] ([ˈsumi] > [ˈsum], [ˈrɛnd͡ʒeso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒes], [ˈt͡soʎan] > [ˈt͡soʎən], [ˈyŋketæː] > [ˈyŋketæ], [ˈsiʎam] > [ˈsiʎəm])
-[t͡s d͡ʒ] > [s ʒ] ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒes] > [ˈrɛnʒes], [ˈt͡soʎən] > [ˈsoʎən])
-[#y-] > [#wɪ-] ([ˈyŋketæ] > [ˈwɪŋketæ])

J
[ˈsõɪ̯̃] - [ˈrjɛ̃dĩzo] - [ˈtolɔ̃ɐ̯̃] - [ˈŋõʊ̯̃pæda] - [ˈŋiə̯ɮã]
-[eː] > [æː] ([ˈøŋkweːtaː] > [ˈøŋkwæːtaː])
-[øC$Cw] > [oC$Cw] ([ˈøŋkwæːtaː] > [ˈoŋkwæːtaː])
-[Vː] > [V] ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩːso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩso], [ˈoŋkwæːtaː] > [ˈoŋkwæta])
-[VgV VmV VrV] > [VɣV ṼβV VV] > [VV ṼV VV] ([ˈsomi] > [ˈsõi], [ˈt͡sollaran] > [ˈt͡sollaan], [ˈhigelam] > [ˈhielam])
-[VtV VsV VlV VllV] > [VdV VzV VɮV VlV] ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩso] > [ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩzo], [ˈt͡sollaan] > [ˈt͡solaan], [ˈoŋkwæta] > [ˈoŋkwæda], [ˈhielam] > [ˈhieɮam])
-[#hV- #V-] > [#ʔV- #ʔV-] > [#ŋV- #ŋV-] ([ˈoŋkwæda] > [ˈŋoŋkwæda], [ˈhieɮam] > [ˈŋieɮam])
-[ˈVN$ VN$] > [ˈṼː$ Ṽ$] ([ˈrɛnd͡ʒĩzo] > [ˈrɛ̃ːd͡ʒĩzo], [ˈt͡solaan] > [ˈt͡solaã], [ˈŋoŋkwæda] > [ˈŋõːkwæda], [ˈŋieɮam] > [ˈŋieɮã])
-[ie õi aã] > [iə̯ õɪ̯̃ ãː] ([ˈsõi] > [ˈsõɪ̯̃], [ˈt͡solaã] > [ˈt͡solãː], [ˈŋieɮã] > [ˈŋiə̯ɮã])
-[õː ɛ̃ː ãː] > [õʊ̯̃ jɛ̃ ɔ̃ɐ̯̃] ([ˈrɛ̃ːd͡ʒĩzo] > [ˈrjɛ̃d͡ʒĩzo], [ˈt͡solãː] > [ˈt͡solɔ̃ɐ̯̃], [ˈŋõːkwæda] > [ˈŋõʊ̯̃kwæda])
-[kw t͡s d͡ʒ] > [p t d] ([ˈrjɛ̃d͡ʒĩzo] > [ˈrjɛ̃dĩzo], [ˈt͡solɔ̃ɐ̯̃] > [ˈtolɔ̃ɐ̯̃], [ˈŋõʊ̯̃kwæda] > [ˈŋõʊ̯̃pæda])


KL
[ˈsoːme] - [ranˈnind͡zo] - [tuʃˈʃaːrin] - [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː] - [xiˈgeːlin]
-[ɬ h] > [ʃ x] ([tuɬˈɬarən] > [tuʃˈʃarən], [hiˈgeləm] > [xiˈgeləm])
-[ˈV$] > [ˈVː$] ([ˈsomɪ] > [ˈsoːmɪ], [tuʃˈʃarən] > [tuʃˈʃaːrən], [xiˈgeləm] > [xiˈgeːləm])
-[ɪ ə] > [e i] ([ˈsoːmɪ] > [ˈsoːme], [tuʃˈʃaːrən] > [tuʃˈʃaːrin], [xiˈgeːləm] > [xiˈgeːlim])
-[#j- -m#] > [#d͡ʒ- -n#] ([jeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [d͡ʒeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯], [xiˈgeːlim] > [xiˈgeːlin])
-[uɪ̯ aʊ̯] > [yː ɔː] ([d͡ʒeŋˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [d͡ʒeŋˈkyːtɔː])
-[nd ŋk ns] > [nd ŋk nt͡s] > [nn ŋg nd͡z] ([ranˈdinso] > [ranˈnind͡zo], [d͡ʒeŋˈkyːtɔː] > [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː])

Because of later developments in K and L, I would have accepted [eɪ̯ oʊ̯ oː æː] as alternatives to [eː oː ɔː aː].

K
[ˈsũvɛ] - [rɐ̃ˈnĩdɐ] - [tʊˈʃẽɪ̯̃] - [dɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ] - [ħɪˈʕĩː]
-[yː eː oː ɔː aː] > [œʏ̯ i u o e] ([ˈsoːme] > [ˈsume], [tuʃˈʃaːrin] > [tuʃˈʃerin], [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː] > [d͡ʒeŋˈgœʏ̯to], [xiˈgeːlin] > [xiˈgilin])
-[ŋg] > [ŋŋ] ([d͡ʒeŋˈgœʏ̯to] > [d͡ʒeŋˈŋœʏ̯to])
-[VN] > [ṼN] ([ˈsume] > [ˈsũme], [ranˈnind͡zo] > [rãnˈnĩnd͡zo], [tuʃˈʃerin] > [tuʃˈʃerĩn], [d͡ʒeŋˈŋœʏ̯to] > [d͡ʒẽŋˈŋœʏ̯to], [xiˈgilin] > [xiˈgilĩn])
-[t g m l r CC] > [d ɣ v Ø Ø C] intervocalically ([ˈsũme] > [ˈsũve], [rãnˈnĩnd͡zo] > [rãˈnĩnd͡zo], [tuʃˈʃerĩn] > [tuˈʃeĩn], [d͡ʒẽŋˈŋœʏ̯to] > [d͡ʒẽˈŋœʏ̯do], [xiˈgilĩn] > [xiˈɣiĩn])
-[ṼN$CV ṼN#] > [Ṽ$CV Ṽ#] ([rãˈnĩnd͡zo] > [rãˈnĩd͡zo], [tuˈʃeĩn] > [tuˈʃeĩ], [xiˈɣiĩn] > [xiˈɣiĩ])
-[iĩ eĩ] > [ĩː ẽɪ̯̃] ([tuˈʃeĩ] > [tuˈʃẽɪ̯̃], [xiˈɣiĩ] > [xiˈɣĩː])
-[i u e ẽ o ã] > [ɪ ʊ ɛ ɛ̃ ɐ ɐ̃] in unstressed syllables ([ˈsũve] > [ˈsũvɛ], [rãˈnĩd͡zo] > [rɐ̃ˈnĩd͡zɐ], [tuˈʃẽɪ̯̃] > [tʊˈʃẽɪ̯̃], [d͡ʒẽˈŋœʏ̯do] > [d͡ʒɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ], [xiˈɣĩː] > [xɪˈɣĩː])
-[d͡z d͡ʒ x ɣ] > [d d ħ ʕ] ([rɐ̃ˈnĩd͡zɐ] > [rɐ̃ˈnĩdɐ], [d͡ʒɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ] > [dɛ̃ˈŋœʏ̯dɐ], [xɪˈɣĩː] > [ħɪˈʕĩː])

L
[ˈsoʊ̯n] - [r̩ˈɲinz] - [ˈt͡ʃæːrin] - [ʒeŋˈgiːto] - [ˈkʰeɪ̯lin]
-[d͡z d͡ʒ] > [z ʒ] ([ranˈnind͡zo] > [ranˈninzo], [d͡ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː] > [ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː])
-[nn] > [ɲɲ] ([ranˈninzo] > [raɲˈɲinzo]) 
-[CC] > [C] ([raɲˈɲinzo] > [raˈɲinzo], [tuʃˈʃaːrin] > [tuˈʃaːrin])
-Short vowels are lost in unstressed open syllables ([ˈsoːme] > [ˈsoːm], [raˈɲinzo] > [rˈɲinz], [tuˈʃaːrin] > [ˈtʃaːrin], [xiˈgeːlin] > [ˈxgeːlin])
-[tʃ xg rɲ] > [t͡ʃ kʰ r̩ɲ] ([rˈɲinz] > [r̩ˈɲinz], [ˈtʃaːrin] > [ˈt͡ʃaːrin], [ˈxgeːlin] > [ˈkʰeːlin])
-[ɔː] > [o] in unstressed syllables ([ʒeŋˈgyːtɔː] > [ʒeŋˈgyːto])
-[yː eː oː aː] > [iː eɪ̯ oʊ̯ æː] ([ˈsoːm] > [ˈsoʊ̯m], [ˈt͡ʃaːrin] > [ˈt͡ʃæːrin], [ʒeŋˈgyːto] > [ʒeŋˈgiːto], [ˈkʰeːlin] > [ˈkʰeɪ̯lin])
-[-m#] > [-n#] ([ˈsoʊ̯m] > [ˈsoʊ̯n]) 



M-R
[ˈzõːʒə] - [rãːˈðĩːzo] - [tuɫˈɣãːrə] - [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] - [ɣiˈɣeɫmə]
-[-CC# -CC̩#] > [-CCə# -CCə#] ([ˈsomj] > [ˈsomjə], [tulˈhanr̩] > [tulˈhanrə], [hiˈgelm̩] > [hiˈgelmə])
-[h] > [x] ([tulˈhanrə] > [tulˈxanrə], [hiˈgelmə] > [xiˈgelmə])
-[VN$] > [Ṽː$] ([ˈsomjə] > [ˈsõːjə], [ranˈdimso] > [rãːˈdĩːso], [tulˈxanrə] > [tulˈxãːrə], [jemˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [jẽːˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯])
-[#s- VsV #x- lxV] > [#z- VzV #ɣ- lɣV] ([ˈsõːjə] > [ˈzõːjə], [rãːˈdĩːso] > [rãːˈdĩːzo], [tulˈxãːrə] > [tulˈɣãːrə], [xiˈgelmə] > [ɣiˈgelmə])
-[VtV VdV VkV VgV] > [VdV VðV VgV VɣV] ([rãːˈdĩːzo] > [rãːˈðĩːzo], [jẽːˈkuɪ̯taʊ̯] > [jẽːˈguɪ̯daʊ̯], [ɣiˈgelmə] > [ɣiˈɣelmə])
-[j w] > [ʒ v] ([ˈzõːjə] > [ˈzõːʒə], [jẽːˈguɪ̯daʊ̯] > [ʒẽːˈguɪ̯daʊ̯])
-[Vɪ̯$ Vʊ̯$ Vl$] > [Vʒ$ Vv$ Vɫ$] ([tulˈɣãːrə] > [tuɫˈɣãːrə], [ʒẽːˈguɪ̯daʊ̯] > [ʒẽːˈguʒdav], [ɣiˈɣelmə] > [ɣiˈɣeɫmə])


MN
[ˈzuə̯ʒu] - [ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯zo] - [tuɪ̯ˈŋɛːɻu] - [ʒiə̯ˈguʒʒaʊ̯] - [jijˈjeɪ̯mu]
-[ʒd r] > [ʒʒ ɻ] ([rãːˈðĩːzo] > [ɻãːˈðĩːzo], [tuɫˈɣãːrə] > [tuɫˈɣãːɻə], [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] > [ʒẽːˈguʒʒav])
-[ðṼ ɻṼ ɣṼ] > [nṼ ɳṼ ŋṼ] ([ɻãːˈðĩːzo] > [ɳãːˈnĩːzo], [tuɫˈɣãːɻə] > [tuɫˈŋãːɻə])
-[ɣi ɣe] > [ji je] ([ɣiˈɣeɫmə] > [jiˈjeɫmə]) 
-[Vv$ Vɫ$] > [Vʊ̯$ Vɪ̯$] ([tuɫˈŋãːɻə] > [tuɪ̯ˈŋãːɻə], [ʒẽːˈguʒʒav] > [ʒẽːˈguʒʒaʊ̯], [jiˈjeɫmə] > [jiˈjeɪ̯mə])
-[ĩː ẽː õː ə ãː] > [əɪ̯ iə̯ uə̯ u ɛː] ([ˈzõːʒə] > [ˈzuə̯ʒu], [ɳãːˈnĩːzo] > [ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯zo], [tuɪ̯ˈŋãːɻə] > [tuɪ̯ˈŋɛːɻu], [ʒẽːˈguʒʒaʊ̯] > [ʒiə̯ˈguʒʒaʊ̯], [jiˈjeɪ̯mə] > [jiˈjeɪ̯mu])
-[iˈjV] > [ijˈjV] ([jiˈjeɪ̯mu] > [jijˈjeɪ̯mu])

Because of later developments in M and N, I accepted [aɪ̯] as an alternative to [əɪ̯]. 

M
[ˈzwaʒu] - [ɳɛˈnaɪ̯ʒo] - [twiˈɲɛɻu] - [ʒjaˈguʃaʊ̯] - [jiˈwemʲu]
-[ʒʒ jj] > [ʃ j] ([ʒiə̯ˈguʒʒaʊ̯] > [ʒiə̯ˈguʃaʊ̯], [jijˈjeɪ̯mu] > [jiˈjeɪ̯mu])
-[Vɪ̯z Vɪ̯m Vɪ̯ŋ] > [Vɪ̯ʒ Vɪ̯mʲ Vɪ̯ɲ] ([ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯zo] > [ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯ʒo], [tuɪ̯ˈŋɛːɻu] > [tuɪ̯ˈɲɛːɻu], [jiˈjeɪ̯mu] > [jiˈjeɪ̯mʲu])
-[eɪ̯] > [oɪ̯] ([jiˈjeɪ̯mʲu] > [jiˈjoɪ̯mʲu])
-[VjV] > [VV] ([jiˈjoɪ̯mʲu] > [jiˈoɪ̯mʲu])
-[iə̯ uɪ̯ uə̯ oɪ̯ əɪ̯ ɛː] > [ja wi wa we aɪ̯ ɛ] ([ˈzuə̯ʒu] > [ˈzwaʒu], [ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯ʒo] > [ɳɛˈnaɪ̯ʒo], [tuɪ̯ˈɲɛːɻu] > [twiˈɲɛɻu], [ʒiə̯ˈguʃaʊ̯] > [ʒjaˈguʃaʊ̯], [jiˈoɪ̯mʲu] > [jiˈwemʲu])

N
[ˈzuːʒo] - [ˈnaːneːzo] - [ˈtyːnaːʒo] - [ˈʒiːguʒʒoː] - [ˈjeʒʒeːmo]
-[iə̯ uɪ̯ uə̯ eɪ̯ əɪ̯ ɛː aʊ̯] > [iː yː uː eː eː aː oː] ([ˈzuə̯ʒu] > [ˈzuːʒu], [ɳɛːˈnəɪ̯zo] > [ɳaːˈneːzo], [tuɪ̯ˈŋɛːɻu] > [tyːˈŋaːɻu], [ʒiə̯ˈguʒʒaʊ̯] > [ʒiːˈguʒʒoː], [jijˈjeɪ̯mu] > [jijˈjeːmu])
-[jj] > [ʒʒ] ([jijˈjeːmu] > [jiʒˈʒeːmu])
-[i u] > [e o] in unstressed syllables ([ˈzuːʒu] > [ˈzuːʒo], [tyːˈŋaːɻu] > [tyːˈŋaːɻo], [jiʒˈʒeːmu] > [jeʒˈʒeːmo])
-[ɳ ŋ ɻ] > [n n ʒ] ([ɳaːˈneːzo] > [naːˈneːzo], [tyːˈŋaːɻo] > [tyːˈnaːʒo])
-Initial stress ([naːˈneːzo] > [ˈnaːneːzo], [tyːˈnaːʒo] > [ˈtyːnaːʒo], [ʒiːˈguʒʒoː] > [ˈʒiːguʒʒoː], [jeʒˈʒeːmo] > [ˈjeʒʒeːmo])


OP
[ˈzʌːʒə] - [jʌːˈlɯːzo] - [tuwˈwʌːjə] - [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈjeʊ̯mə]
-[ĩː ẽː õː ãː] > [ɯː ʌː ʌː ʌː] ([ˈzõːʒə] > [ˈzʌːʒə], [rãːˈðĩːzo] > [rʌːˈðɯːzo], [tuɫˈɣãːrə] > [tuɫˈɣʌːrə], [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] > [ʒʌːˈguʒdav])
-[Vɫ$] > [Vʊ̯$] ([tuɫˈɣʌːrə] > [tuʊ̯ˈɣʌːrə], [ɣiˈɣeɫmə] > [ɣiˈɣeʊ̯mə])
-[ɣi ɣe Vʊ̯ɣʌː] > [ji je Vwwʌː] ([tuʊ̯ˈɣʌːrə] > [tuwˈwʌːrə], [ɣiˈɣeʊ̯mə] > [jiˈjeʊ̯mə])
-[ð r] > [l j] ([rʌːˈðɯːzo] > [jʌːˈlɯːzo], [tuwˈwʌːrə] > [tuwˈwʌːjə])
-[ʒd] > [dd͡ʒ] ([ʒʌːˈguʒdav] > [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒav]) 
-[-v#] > [-f#] ([ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒav] > [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf])
-[jiˈje] > [iˈe] > [ˈje] ([jiˈjeʊ̯mə] > [ˈjeʊ̯mə])

Because of later developments in O and P, I also accepted [-je] as the final syllable of Word 3. 

O
[ˈzʌːʒe] - [ˈd͡ʒʌːlɯːzo] - [ˈtubbʌːje] - [ˈʒʌːgudd͡ʒaf] - [ˈd͡ʒoːme]
-[ww] > [ggʷ] > [bb] ([tuwˈwʌːjə] > [tubˈbʌːjə])
-[eʊ̯ ə] > [oː e] ([ˈzʌːʒə] > [ˈzʌːʒe], [tubˈbʌːjə] > [tubˈbʌːje], [ˈjeʊ̯mə] > [ˈjoːme])
-Initial stress ([jʌːˈlɯːzo] > [ˈjʌːlɯːzo], [tubˈbʌːje] > [ˈtubbʌːje], [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] > [ˈʒʌːgudd͡ʒaf])
-[#j-] > [#d͡ʒ-] ([ˈjʌːlɯːzo] > [ˈd͡ʒʌːlɯːzo], [ˈjoːme] > [ˈd͡ʒoːme])

P
[ˈzaʒa] - [jɛˈlɯzo] - [tuˈwɔje] - [ʒaˈgut͡ʃa] - [ˈjeːma]
-[dd͡ʒ ww] > [t͡ʃ w] ([tuwˈwʌːjə] > [tuˈwʌːjə], [ʒʌːˈgudd͡ʒaf] > [ʒʌːˈgut͡ʃaf])
-[ɯː jə ə jʌː wʌː ʌː] > [ɯ je a jɛ wɔ a] ([ˈzʌːʒə] > [ˈzaʒa], [jʌːˈlɯːzo] > [jɛˈlɯzo], [tuˈwʌːjə] > [tuˈwɔje], [ʒʌːˈgut͡ʃaf] > [ʒaˈgut͡ʃaf], [ˈjeʊ̯mə] > [ˈjeʊ̯ma])
-[eʊ̯] > [eː] ([ˈjeʊ̯ma] > [ˈjeːma])
-[-C#] > [-Ø#] ([ʒaˈgut͡ʃaf] > [ʒaˈgut͡ʃa])


QR
[ˈzɔːʒ] - [ʁɔˈjeːzə] - [təɣˈɣɔːʁ] - [ʒɛˈgudda] - [ɣəˈɣeɣm]
-[ĩː ẽː õː ãː] > [eː ɛː ɔː ɔː] ([ˈzõːʒə] > [ˈzɔːʒə], [rãːˈðĩːzo] > [rɔːˈðeːzo], [tuɫˈɣãːrə] > [tuɫˈɣɔːrə], [ʒẽːˈguʒdav] > [ʒɛːˈguʒdav])
-[-VC#] > [-Vː#] ([ʒɛːˈguʒdav] > [ʒɛːˈguʒdaː]) 
-[ð ʒd ɫ r] > [j dd ɣ ʁ] ([rɔːˈðeːzo] > [ʁɔːˈjeːzo], [tuɫˈɣɔːrə] > [tuɣˈɣɔːʁə], [ʒɛːˈguʒdaː] > [ʒɛːˈguddaː], [ɣiˈɣeɫmə] > [ɣiˈɣeɣmə])
-[ə V Vː] > [Ø ə V] in unstressed syllables ([ˈzɔːʒə] > [ˈzɔːʒ], [ʁɔːˈjeːzo] > [ʁɔˈjeːzə], [tuɣˈɣɔːʁə] > [təɣˈɣɔːʁ], [ʒɛːˈguddaː] > [ʒɛˈgudda], [ɣiˈɣeɣmə] > [ɣəˈɣeɣm])

Because of later developments in Q and R, I also accepted [eɪ̯ ɔɪ̯] in place of [eː ɔː]. 

Q
[ˈrɔɪ̯z] - [ɦɔˈjeɪ̯ra] - [taxˈxɔɐ̯] - [zɛˈgʏtta] - [gaˈɣeɐ̯m] 
-[dd ɣɣ] > [tt xx] ([təɣˈɣɔːʁ] > [təxˈxɔːʁ], [ʒɛˈgudda] > [ʒɛˈgutta])
-[eɣ ɔːʁ eː ɔː] > [eɐ̯ ɔɐ̯ eɪ̯ ɔɪ̯] ([ˈzɔːʒ] > [ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ], [ʁɔˈjeːzə] > [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə], [təxˈxɔːʁ] > [təxˈxɔɐ̯], [ɣəˈɣeɣm] > [ɣəˈɣeɐ̯m])
-[z ʒ #ɣ- ʁ] > [r z #g- ɦ] ([ˈzɔɪ̯ʒ] > [ˈrɔɪ̯z], [ʁɔˈjeɪ̯zə] > [ɦɔˈjeɪ̯rə], [ʒɛˈgutta] > [zɛˈgutta], [ɣəˈɣeɐ̯m] > [gəˈɣeɐ̯m])
-[ˈuC$ ə] > [ˈʏC$ a] ([ɦɔˈjeɪ̯rə] > [ɦɔˈjeɪ̯ra], [təxˈxɔɐ̯] > [taxˈxɔɐ̯], [zɛˈgutta] > [zɛˈgʏtta], [gəˈɣeɐ̯m] > [gaˈɣeɐ̯m])

R
[ˈzwɛʃ] - [ɣəjˈjez] - [ˈtxwɛx] - [ʒəˈguddə] - [ˈɣɣem̥x]
-[eː ɔː] > [je wɛ] ([ˈzɔːʒ] > [ˈzwɛʒ], [ʁɔˈjeːzə] > [ʁɔjˈjezə], [təɣˈɣɔːʁ] > [təɣˈɣwɛʁ])
-[ʁ] > [ɣ] ([ʁɔjˈjezə] > [ɣɔjˈjezə], [təɣˈɣwɛʁ] > [təɣˈɣwɛɣ])
-[-ʒ# -ɣ# -ɣm#] > [-ʃ# -x# -m̥x#] ([ˈzwɛʒ] > [ˈzwɛʃ], [təɣˈɣwɛɣ] > [təɣˈɣwɛx], [ɣəˈɣeɣm] > [ɣəˈɣem̥x])
-[ə V] > [Ø ə] in unstressed syllables ([ɣɔjˈjezə] > [ɣəjˈjez], [təɣˈɣwɛx] > [ˈtɣɣwɛx], [ʒɛˈgudda] > [ʒəˈguddə], [ɣəˈɣem̥x] > [ˈɣɣem̥x])
-[tɣɣ] > [tx] ([ˈtɣɣwɛx] > [ˈtxwɛx])
Ratsawn
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 47
Joined: 31 Aug 2020 23:17

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Thank you for all the sound changes! You have some great diachronic ideas!

Shall I prepare a challenge for the next round?
shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 8462
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 23:09
Location: PA

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

Ratsawn wrote: 01 Dec 2020 21:30 Thank you for all the sound changes! You have some great diachronic ideas!

Shall I prepare a challenge for the next round?
Oh, thank you! And yes, it's now your turn. [:)]
Ratsawn
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 47
Joined: 31 Aug 2020 23:17

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

Alright, so I wanted to make the groupings more difficult than my last challenge, and I, uh, got a little carried away. So... there are 26 languages (oh dear) and four words. It's definitely harder than my last challenge, but there's a lot of source material to work with, so hopefully not too bad.
Spoiler:
A [haə̯ˈlætʃɨ] - [ˈuɸtʃə] - [ˈɥøy̯m] - [ˈei̯tʃə]

B [xae̯ˈdeci] - [ˈuːce] - [ˈɟø̃ỹ̯] - [ˈɪi̯ce]

C [kɑːˈrɐʒi] - [ˈpurdze] - [ˈɟaːm] - [ˈeːre]

D [ɑːˈrædʒi] - [ˈpudre] - [ˈdeə̯m] - [ˈeːdze]

E [anˈtθʲi] - [ˈtθʁa] - [iˈjumʲi] - [iˈkxa]

F [arˈtsiː] - [ˈtχaː] - [iˈjuːmi] - [iˈtsaː]

G [kaˈri] - [ˈtwe] - [ɪˈroi̯m] - [jɪˈɣe]

H [kaːˈθi] - [ˈtwɛj] - [eˈhəi̯m] - [dʒiˈhɛj]

I [ʃɸɑ̰ˈʋɑ̰t] - [ˈʋɒ̰u̯d] - [ˈdzei̯ʎ] - [ˈjə̰ʔ]

J [sɑ̀ːtwɑ̀] - [dwɑ̀u̯] - [zéʎí] - [qə̀ː]

K [ʃnɑːˈŋɑθ] - [ˈɲɒːθ] - [ˈdʑei̯] - [ˈŋəːx]

L [o̰ːˈla] - [ˈɬøw] - [ˈtæl] - [ˈɯ̤ː]

M [ħoˈle] - [ˈlɪwi] - [ˈnæli] - [ˈhɰɯ]

N [aɴˈqχɔdə] - [ˈqadɮə] - [inˈɮɛɬ] - [ˈŋɘgɯ]

O [iχˈχoda] - [ˈqædza] - [ilˈlela] - [ˈʔiga]

P [tʃə̯æi̯ˈjoθə] - [ˈjæi̯dəʒə] - [əˈʒeːə̯] - [ˈɨːə̯]

Q [θəseˈccoj] - [ˈjeɟɟəj] - [dəˈjeçə] - [ˈθɨcc]

R [ʔɑ́ːddʒèːð] - [ɸǿːl] - [ʒèːl] - [χèːð]

S [áːzèi̯dʒí] - [bói̯ɫɯ̀] - [ʒèi̯ɫý] - [ɢèi̯dzí]

T [ʔǽɪ̯zzèdʑí] - [pǿʎɤ̀] - [ʒèʎý] - [qèdʑé]

U [ɑ̀ɣzə̀zâʃsì] - [wówlè] - [ʒàʒlý] - [zə̀zîʃsè]

V [ɑːrràttʃi] - [ówle] - [daʒlú] - [ərrìttʃe]

W [hæːˈzɑh] - [ˈhoh] - [ˈjeɫv̩] - [ˈçiːh]

X [hæːˈzɑːðə] - [ˈhoːʐə] - [ˈeːjɫu] - [ˈhiːɣə]

Y [ʂaːràtə] - [ʙóɻʷə] - [jawú] - [ʀìːcə]

Z [ʐaɐ̯rə̀də] - [ʙóɖɵ] - [jəlú] - [ʀèi̯gɨ]
Good luckǃ
ɶʙ ɞʛ
greek
greek
Posts: 455
Joined: 02 Aug 2019 18:47

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

A [haə̯ˈlætʃɨ] - [ˈuɸtʃə] - [ˈɥøy̯m] - [ˈei̯tʃə]

B [xae̯ˈdeci] - [ˈuːce] - [ˈɟø̃ỹ̯] - [ˈɪi̯ce]

AB: [xa:ˈdeci] – [ˈuhce] – [ˈɟø:m] – [ˈe:ce]
>A: /uh/ > /uɸ/, voiced stops lenite, /c/ > /tʃ/, final front vowels centralize, /e e:/ > /æ ei/
>B: /uh/ > /u:/, vowel nasalization, /h/ > /x/

C [kɑːˈrɐʒi] - [ˈpurdze] - [ˈɟaːm] - [ˈeːre]

D [ɑːˈrædʒi] - [ˈpudre] - [ˈdeə̯m] - [ˈeːdze]

CD: [ka:ˈraʒi] – [ˈpurd(z)e] – [ˈdja:m] – [ˈeːze]
>C: /dj/ > /ɟ/, /z/ > /r/ not in clusters, /d/ > /dz/ next to front vowels
>D: /ja:/ > /eə̯/, /rd/ metathesis, /z ʒ/ > /dz dʒ/

ABCD: [ka:ˈdaCi] – [ˈpurCe] – [ˈdjo:m] – [ˈeːCe]
C is a voiceless palatal, most likely /ts ~ tʃ ~ c/.
>AB: Initial /p k/ > /ɸ x/ > /0 h~x/, /rC/ > /hC/ if C is voiceless, /dj/ > /ɟ/, /aCi/ > /eCi/, /jo:/ > /ø:/
>CD: Intervocalic /d C/ > /r z~ʒ/, /o:/ > /a:/

E [anˈtθʲi] - [ˈtθʁa] - [iˈjumʲi] - [iˈkxa]

F [arˈtsiː] - [ˈtχaː] - [iˈjuːmi] - [iˈtsaː]

EF: [arˈtsiː] – [ˈtsʁa:] – [iˈjuːmi] – [iˈksa:]
>E: Coda /r/ > /n/, /ts/ > /tθ/, loss of vowel length, /ks/ > /kx/
>F: /sʁ/ > /χ/, /ks/ > /ts/

G [kaˈri] - [ˈtwe] - [ɪˈroi̯m] - [jɪˈɣe]

H [kaːˈθi] - [ˈtwɛj] - [eˈhəi̯m] - [dʒiˈhɛj]

GH: [ka:rˈHi] – [twej] – [erˈHojm] – [jiˈHej]
H is a voiceless laryngeal, most likely /x ~ h/
>G: Laxing of unstressed vowels, deletion of /H/ in clusters, /H/ > /ɣ/ intervocalically, /ej/ > /e/
>H: /rH/ > /h/ next to back vowels, /θ/ next to front vowels. /H/ > /h/ otherwise, /oi/ > /əi̯/, initial fortition

EFGH: [ka:rˈtʰi] – [tʰwaj] – [erˈhojmi] – [isˈkʰaj]
>EF: /tʰ/ > /ts/, /sk/ > /ks/, /aj oj/ > /a: u:/, when not adjacent to a coronal /r/ > /j/. /w/ > /ɰ/ > /ʁ/, initial /k/ > /0/ in unstressed syllables
>GH: /isC/ > /içC/ > /i:C/ > /jiC/, /tʰ kʰ h/ merge as /H/ when not before a consonant. /aj/ > /ej/.

A-H: [ka:daˈtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərde] – [rˈhjojmi] – [isˈkʰəj]
>EFGH: /daˈ deˈ/ > /rˈ jˈ/, /ə/ > /a/, deletion of non-syllabic coda /r/, syllabic /r/ > /er/, /hj/ > /ç/ > /h/
>ABCD: loss of final high vowels. Stress shift to first syllable, /tʰwə/ > /pu/, /d/ fortites in clusters, /rhj/ > /rj/ > /dj/, /oj/ > /o/, /t k/ > /C/ before high vowels. /isC/ > /e:C/.

I [ʃɸɑ̰ˈʋɑ̰t] - [ˈʋɒ̰u̯d] - [ˈdzei̯ʎ] - [ˈjə̰ʔ]

J [sɑ̀ːtwɑ̀] - [dwɑ̀u̯] - [zéʎí] - [qə̀ː]

IJ: [sɸa:twat] – [dwaud] – [dzeiʎi] – [qe:ʔ]
>I: Syllables closed by stops gain creaky vowels. /w/ > /ʋ/, /Cʋ/ > /ʋ/, /e:/ > /jə̰/, /q/ > /ʔ/.
>J: /sC/ > /s/, word-final stops deleted leaving tones, /e:/ > /ə:/.

K [ʃnɑːˈŋɑθ] - [ˈɲɒːθ] - [ˈdʑei̯] - [ˈŋəːx]

L [o̰ːˈla] - [ˈɬøw] - [ˈtæl] - [ˈɯ̤ː]

M [ħoˈle] - [ˈlɪwi] - [ˈnæli] - [ˈhɰɯ]

LM: [ʡo:ˈlai] – [ˈlewi] – [ˈdæli] – [hɯ:]
>L: /ʡ h/ > creaky/breathy voice, initials otherwise devoice. /ai/ > /a/, /e/ rounds next to /w/, final /i/ deleted.
>M: /ʡ/ > /ħ/, shortening of unstressed long vowels, voiced stops > nasals, /ai e/ > /e ɪ/

IJLM: [swa:dwad] – [dwewdi] – [dajli] – [qi:ʔ]

A-JLM: [swa:dwadʰi] – [dʰwerde] – [rhjolmi] – [iskʰi:ʔ]

N [aɴˈqχɔdə] - [ˈqadɮə] - [inˈɮɛɬ] - [ˈŋɘgɯ]

O [iχˈχoda] - [ˈqædza] - [ilˈlela] - [ˈʔiga]

NO: [əɴˈχodə] – [ˈqadlə] – [inˈleɬ] – [ˈʔəgə]
N: /ə/ > /a/ next to uvulars, /ɯ/ next to velars, /ɘ/ stressed. /ʔ/ > /ŋ/, /l/ > /ɮ/
O: /NC/ > /CC/, /ə/ > /i/ stressed or /a/ unstressed, /dl/ > /dɮ/ > /dz/, final vowels inserted. Temporary stress shift to first syllable.

P [tʃə̯æi̯ˈjoθə] - [ˈjæi̯dəʒə] - [əˈʒeːə̯] - [ˈɨːə̯]

Q [θəseˈccoj] - [ˈjeɟɟəj] - [dəˈjeçə] - [ˈθɨcc]

PQ [təsajˈjoθə] – [ˈjajdəʒə] – [dəˈʒehə] - [ˈðɨjjə]
>P: Metathesis, /aj/ > /æi/, deletion of initial voiced unstressed consonants, /ð/ > /0/, intervocalic consonants turn into lengthened vowel
>Q: /ð/ > /θ/, /jj/ > /cc/, /jd/ > /ɟɟ/, /ʒ ð/ lenite to /j/ intervocalically

NOPQ: [tənsˈxotə] – [ˈxajdlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [ˈðəgjə]

R [ʔɑ́ːddʒèːð] - [ɸǿːl] - [ʒèːl] - [χèːð]

S [áːzèi̯dʒí] - [bói̯ɫɯ̀] - [ʒèi̯ɫý] - [ɢèi̯dzí]

T [ʔǽɪ̯zzèdʑí] - [pǿʎɤ̀] - [ʒèʎý] - [qèdʑé]

U [ɑ̀ɣzə̀zâʃsì] - [wówlè] - [ʒàʒlý] - [zə̀zîʃsè]

V [ɑːrràttʃi] - [ówle] - [daʒlú] - [ərrìttʃe]

RSTUV: [aɣzzajtsi] – [bo:jlɤ] – [dʒajlu] – [ɢzejtse]
>R: /zz/ > /ddz/, /ts/ > /θ/, voiced stops lenite and devoice initially and intervocalically except for coronals, /aɣ aj ej o:j/ > /a: e: e: ø:/, deletion of final vowel
>S: /aɣ aj ej/ > /a: ei ei/, final vowels raise, /u/ > /y/, /z/ deleted after stops, initial /dʒ/ > /ʒ/
>T: /aɣ aj ej/ > /æi e(i) e(i)/, initial /dʒ/ > /ʒ/, initial stops devoice, /jl/ > /ʎ/
>U: /Gz/ > /zz/, /zz/ breaks, /jt/ > /ʃ/, initial /b dʒ/ > /w ʒ/, /u ɤ/ > /y e/, /e/ > /i/ next to palatals
>V: /Gz/ > /zz/, /z/ > /r/, /aɣ/ > /a:/, /e/ > /i/ next to palatals, /ɤ/ > /e/, epenthetic /ə/ before initial clusters, initial /b dʒ/ > /0 d/, /jC/ > /CC/ for palatal /C/



W [hæːˈzɑh] - [ˈhoh] - [ˈjeɫv̩] - [ˈçiːh]

X [hæːˈzɑːðə] - [ˈhoːʐə] - [ˈeːjɫu] - [ˈhiːɣə]

WX [hæ:ˈzɑθə] – [ˈho:ʂə] – [ˈjeɫu] – [ˈhiːxə]
>W: Deletion of /ə/, final voiceless fricatives > /h/, /u/ > /v̩/, shortening of closed syllable vowels, /e:/ > /je/
>X: Voicing of intervocalic fricatives, /je/ > /e:/ > /e:j/

Y [ʂaːràtə] - [ʙóɻʷə] - [jawú] - [ʀìːcə]

Z [ʐaɐ̯rə̀də] - [ʙóɖɵ] - [jəlú] - [ʀèi̯gɨ]

YZ [ʐaːratə] – [ʙoɖwə] – [jalu] – [ʀi:kə]
>Y: Initials devoice, voiced stops lenite intervocalically, /l/ > /w/
>Z: /ə/ > /ɨ/ next to palatal or velar. /a: a i:/ > /aɐ̯ ə ei/, /wə/ > /ɵ/

WXYZ: [ʂaːˈzatsə] – [ˈpro:ʈwə] – [ˈjalu] – [ˈqriːkə]
>WX: /p q ʂ/ > /h/, intervocalic lenition, /ja/ > /je/, /a a:/ > /ɑ æ:/
>YZ: /pr qr/ > /ʙ ʀ/, /s z/ > /z r/

R-Z: [arha:ˈdzajti] – [ˈtportle] – [ˈjajlwi] – [iqˈse:ke]

A-JLM: [swa:dwadʰi] – [dʰwerde] – [rhjolmi] – [iskʰi:ʔ]
R-Z: [arha:ˈdzajti] – [ˈtportle] – [ˈjajlwi] – [iqˈse:ke]
A-JLMR-Z: [r̩hwa:ˈdzwajtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərtle] – [r̩nˈhjojlmi] – [ikʰˈse:ke]

>A-JLM: Initial /r/ > /r̥/ > /s/, /aj oj/ > /a o/, voicing of aspirates not next to a voiceless consonant, /ks/ > /sk/, /dz/ > /d/, final vowels after single consonants deleted, /ar/ > /er/.
>R-Z: /#rhC/ > /#r̩̥C/ > /#arC̥/ unstressed, but before stressed syllable syllabic consonants are deleted. /ʍ w/ > /h 0/ if not next to a plosive. However, /tw/ > /tp/, /kʰ/ > /q/, /oj wə/ > /aj wo/, /hj/ > /j/ otherwise. Both sets have /rn/ > /r/.

How to get others?

NOPQ: [tənsˈxotə] – [ˈxajdlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [ˈðəgjə]
Final vowels > /ə/: [r̩hwa:ˈdzwajtʰə] – [ˈtʰwərtlə] – [rnˈhjojlmə] – [ikʰˈse:kə]
/a: e:/ > /aʕ ej/ > /ah əj/: [r̩hwahˈdzwajtʰə] – [ˈtʰwərtlə] – [rnˈhjojlmə] – [ikʰˈsəjkə]
/hw hj jl/ > /ʍ ç ʎ/ > /h ɬ/, /dz/ > /z/ > /s/: [r̩hahˈswajtʰə] – [ˈtʰwərtlə] – [rnˈɬoɬmə] – [ikʰˈsəjkə]
/#rC/ > /#təC~#dəC/: [təhahˈswajtʰə] – [ˈtʰwərtlə] – [dənˈɬoɬmə] – [ikʰˈsəjkə]
Coda voiceless stops > 0, deletion of intervocalic /h/, /tw/ > /kw/: [təhˈswajtʰə] – [ˈkʰwərtlə] – [dənˈɬoɬmə] – [iˈsəjkə]
/jt jk/ > /jj/ > /gj/, /ɬ/ > /lh/ with /hN/ > /h/: [təhˈswajtʰə] – [ˈkʰwərtlə] – [dənˈlolhə] – [iˈsəgjə]
/a o/ > /ɒ ø/ > /o e/, approximants devoice adjacent to aspirates or voiceless fricatives with /ʍ/ > /x/: [təhˈsxoçtʰə] – [ˈtʰxərtlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [iˈsəgjə]
Coda /h/ > /N/, /FQ/ > /Q/: [tənˈsxotʰə] – [ˈkʰxərtlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [iˈsəgjə]
Intervocalic /s/ > /z/ > /ð/, initial vowel > /0/, /Cʰ/ > /C/ if not next to another consonant, /ər/ > /ar/, coda /r/ > /j/: [tənˈsxotə] – [ˈxajdlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [ˈðəgjə]

K [ʃnɑːˈŋɑθ] - [ˈɲɒːθ] - [ˈdʑei̯] - [ˈŋəːx] appears to be an outlier of sorts, I’m not yet sure how it fits in.

My first guess:

[r̩hwa:ˈdzwajtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərtle] – [r̩nˈhjojlmi] – [ikʰˈse:ke]
shimobaatar
korean
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Posts: 8462
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Location: PA

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by shimobaatar »

I just wanted to confirm that I've seen this and have been working on it, although it's certainly a challenge. I've also been busy with real life things, which is slowing me down.
Ratsawn
hieroglyphic
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Posts: 47
Joined: 31 Aug 2020 23:17

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

In response to ɶʙ ɞʛ:
Length counts as a separate segment, and so does the non-syllabic part of a diphthong. So a word like [ˈɥøy̯m] would have 4 segments.
Spoiler:
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 A [haə̯ˈlætʃɨ] - [ˈuɸtʃə] - [ˈɥøy̯m] - [ˈei̯tʃə]

B [xae̯ˈdeci] - [ˈuːce] - [ˈɟø̃ỹ̯] - [ˈɪi̯ce]

AB: [xa:ˈdeci] – [ˈuhce] – [ˈɟø:m] – [ˈe:ce]
Word 1: one consonant and one vowel are correct
Word 2: one incorrect segment
Word 3: two incorrect segments
Word 4: only the final vowel is correct
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >A: /uh/ > /uɸ/, voiced stops lenite, /c/ > /tʃ/, final front vowels centralize, /e e:/ > /æ ei/
>B: /uh/ > /u:/, vowel nasalization, /h/ > /x/
None of these rules are valid.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 C [kɑːˈrɐʒi] - [ˈpurdze] - [ˈɟaːm] - [ˈeːre]

D [ɑːˈrædʒi] - [ˈpudre] - [ˈdeə̯m] - [ˈeːdze]

CD: [ka:ˈraʒi] – [ˈpurd(z)e] – [ˈdja:m] – [ˈeːze]
Word 1: two of the consonants and a vowel are correct
Word 2: if we're counting the z, then correct!
Word 3: the initial consonant(s) is/are wrong
Word 4: the consonant is incorrect
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >C: /dj/ > /ɟ/, /z/ > /r/ not in clusters, /d/ > /dz/ next to front vowels
>D: /ja:/ > /eə̯/, /rd/ metathesis, /z ʒ/ > /dz dʒ/
/ja:/ > /eə̯/ is on the right track and /rd/ metathesis is correct
The others are wrong, you have a few rules that are backwards, should help find the original forms.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 ABCD: [ka:ˈdaCi] – [ˈpurCe] – [ˈdjo:m] – [ˈeːCe]
depending on your choice for the realization of C, it might be right. I'm counting it as wrong in my responses for clarity.
Word 1: two correct vowels
Word 2: the vowels and one consonant are correct
Word 3: one correct segment
Word 4: the final vowel is correct
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >AB: Initial /p k/ > /ɸ x/ > /0 h~x/, /rC/ > /hC/ if C is voiceless, /dj/ > /ɟ/, /aCi/ > /eCi/, /jo:/ > /ø:/
>CD: Intervocalic /d C/ > /r z~ʒ/, /o:/ > /a:/
/rC/ > /hC/ if C is voiceless: the h result is incorrect and there's no voiced/voiceless contrast, but basically a correct rule
The rest are wrong.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 E [anˈtθʲi] - [ˈtθʁa] - [iˈjumʲi] - [iˈkxa]

F [arˈtsiː] - [ˈtχaː] - [iˈjuːmi] - [iˈtsaː]

EF: [arˈtsiː] – [ˈtsʁa:] – [iˈjuːmi] – [iˈksa:]
Word 1: two extra segments
Word 2: two extra segments
Word 3: one extra segment
Word 4: two extra segments
All your extra segments are due to two sound changes which occurred in one language, but you thought they were the proto-form.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >E: Coda /r/ > /n/, /ts/ > /tθ/, loss of vowel length, /ks/ > /kx/
>F: /sʁ/ > /χ/, /ks/ > /ts/
Coda /r/ > /n/ is correct
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 G [kaˈri] - [ˈtwe] - [ɪˈroi̯m] - [jɪˈɣe]

H [kaːˈθi] - [ˈtwɛj] - [eˈhəi̯m] - [dʒiˈhɛj]

GH: [ka:rˈHi] – [twej] – [erˈHojm] – [jiˈHej]
Word 1: the vowels and one consonant are correct
Word 2: one extra segment
Word 3: two correct segments, one extra segment
Word 4: H might be correct depending on your choice of realization (it's wrong everywhere else you used it though), the initial is incorrect and there's one extra segment
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >G: Laxing of unstressed vowels, deletion of /H/ in clusters, /H/ > /ɣ/ intervocalically, /ej/ > /e/
>H: /rH/ > /h/ next to back vowels, /θ/ next to front vowels. /H/ > /h/ otherwise, /oi/ > /əi̯/, initial fortition
Laxing of unstressed vowels is correct
/rH/ > /h/ next to back vowels, /θ/ next to front vowels. /H/ > /h/ otherwise: these "differing contexts" are actually because they all come from different origins.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 EFGH: [ka:rˈtʰi] – [tʰwaj] – [erˈhojmi] – [isˈkʰaj]
Word 1: one extra segment, one incorrect segment, and one partially incorrect segment
Word 2: missing a segment, one extra segment, one incorrect segment, and one partially incorrect segment (only one fully correct segment)
Word 3: one correct segment, two of the remaining segments are extra
Word 4: the structure of this word is not right, one correct vowel and one partially correct consonant
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >EF: /tʰ/ > /ts/, /sk/ > /ks/, /aj oj/ > /a: u:/, when not adjacent to a coronal /r/ > /j/. /w/ > /ɰ/ > /ʁ/, initial /k/ > /0/ in unstressed syllables
>GH: /isC/ > /içC/ > /i:C/ > /jiC/, /tʰ kʰ h/ merge as /H/ when not before a consonant. /aj/ > /ej/.
None of these are correct, but I don't have any good comments for them.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 A-H: [ka:daˈtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərde] – [rˈhjojmi] – [isˈkʰəj]
Word 1: the stress is off, the vowels are correct and one consonant is partially correct
Word 2: so the structure is not correct, but only two segments are incorrect and one is partially incorrect
Word 3: again with the structure, three correct segments
Word 4: structural problems, one partially correct segment, on fully correct segment, stress is off
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >EFGH: /daˈ deˈ/ > /rˈ jˈ/, /ə/ > /a/, deletion of non-syllabic coda /r/, syllabic /r/ > /er/, /hj/ > /ç/ > /h/
>ABCD: loss of final high vowels. Stress shift to first syllable, /tʰwə/ > /pu/, /d/ fortites in clusters, /rhj/ > /rj/ > /dj/, /oj/ > /o/, /t k/ > /C/ before high vowels. /isC/ > /e:C/.
None of these sound changes occurred, but for some the reverse occurred in the other branch.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 I [ʃɸɑ̰ˈʋɑ̰t] - [ˈʋɒ̰u̯d] - [ˈdzei̯ʎ] - [ˈjə̰ʔ]

J [sɑ̀ːtwɑ̀] - [dwɑ̀u̯] - [zéʎí] - [qə̀ː]

IJ: [sɸa:twat] – [dwaud] – [dzeiʎi] – [qe:ʔ]
IJ is not a valid grouping.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 L [o̰ːˈla] - [ˈɬøw] - [ˈtæl] - [ˈɯ̤ː]

M [ħoˈle] - [ˈlɪwi] - [ˈnæli] - [ˈhɰɯ]

LM: [ʡo:ˈlai] – [ˈlewi] – [ˈdæli] – [hɯ:]
Word 1: the initial consonant is incorrect (it may be difficult to reconstruct, so I'll accept a few alternatives. This isn't one of them), and there's a segment that doesn't need to be there
Word 2: the stressed vowel is off
Word 3: Correct!
Word 4: Correct!
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >L: /ʡ h/ > creaky/breathy voice, initials otherwise devoice. /ai/ > /a/, /e/ rounds next to /w/, final /i/ deleted.
>M: /ʡ/ > /ħ/, shortening of unstressed long vowels, voiced stops > nasals, /ai e/ > /e ɪ/
/ʡ h/ > creaky/breathy voice: you're on to something here, think about what consonantal differences might have led to the creaky vs. breathy distinction.
initials otherwise devoice: Correct!
final /i/ deleted: this technically applied to all unstressed short vowels, but only the final Is were affected.
/ʡ/ > /ħ/: this will be a valid rule once you get the proto-form of the consonant correct
shortening of unstressed long vowels: this came with an additional feature, which was lost in word 1 due to something additional in the previous change I commented on.
voiced stops > nasals: correct!
/ai e/ > /e ɪ/: the proto-forms are wrong here, but the rule did happen
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 IJLM: [swa:dwad] – [dwewdi] – [dajli] – [qi:ʔ]
IJLM is not a valid grouping
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 A-JLM: [swa:dwadʰi] – [dʰwerde] – [rhjolmi] – [iskʰi:ʔ]
This is not a valid grouping
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 N [aɴˈqχɔdə] - [ˈqadɮə] - [inˈɮɛɬ] - [ˈŋɘgɯ]

O [iχˈχoda] - [ˈqædza] - [ilˈlela] - [ˈʔiga]

NO: [əɴˈχodə] – [ˈqadlə] – [inˈleɬ] – [ˈʔəgə]
Word 1: the first three segments are incorrect
Word 2: two incorrect segments
Word 3: missing a segment, two of the consonants are incorrect
Word 4: only the stressed vowel is incorrect
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 N: /ə/ > /a/ next to uvulars, /ɯ/ next to velars, /ɘ/ stressed. /ʔ/ > /ŋ/, /l/ > /ɮ/
O: /NC/ > /CC/, /ə/ > /i/ stressed or /a/ unstressed, /dl/ > /dɮ/ >/ dz/, final vowels inserted. Temporary stress shift to first syllable.
/ɯ/ next to velars: this is the only correct part of your rule regarding schwa in NO. Perhaps the others don't fit because schwa was never there to begin with...
/ʔ/ > /ŋ/: Correct!, but this rule has more parts that may aid in reconstructing words 1 and 3.
/ə/ > /i/ stressed or /a/ unstressed: stress isn't a part of this rule, the a and i come from different original vowels
/dl/ > /dɮ/ >/ dz/: only the second half of this rule is correct.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 P [tʃə̯æi̯ˈjoθə] - [ˈjæi̯dəʒə] - [əˈʒeːə̯] - [ˈɨːə̯]

Q [θəseˈccoj] - [ˈjeɟɟəj] - [dəˈjeçə] - [ˈθɨcc]

PQ [təsajˈjoθə] – [ˈjajdəʒə] – [dəˈʒehə] - [ˈðɨjjə]
Word 1: one incorrect vowel, two incorrect consonants, a third consonant is not what I had but I'll count it as essentially correct
Word 2: the syllabic part of the diphthong is incorrect
Word 3: Essentially correct! You've picked some alternative reconstructions here, but I'm accepting them
Word 4: the stressed vowel is off in length, and the final vowel is correct. Both consonants are incorrect
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >P: Metathesis, /aj/ > /æi/, deletion of initial voiced unstressed consonants, /ð/ > /0/, intervocalic consonants turn into lengthened vowel
>Q: /ð/ > /θ/, /jj/ > /cc/, /jd/ > /ɟɟ/, /ʒ ð/ lenite to /j/ intervocalically
There is no metathesis in P, but there is in Q
/ð/ > /0/: this happened, but not in the place you think, /ð/ was an intermediate stage for a sound change that resulted in a lost phoneme.

/ʒ ð/ lenite to /j/ intervocalically: this is correct, but only for ʒ.

NOPQ: [tənsˈxotə] – [ˈxajdlə] – [dənˈlelhə] – [ˈðəgjə]
Word 1: the final syllable and one other vowel are correct
Word 2: the final vowel is correct, but every other segment is only slightly off
Word 3: You have one too many syllables in this word, two of the vowels are correct, and the consonants that belong aren't too far off
Word 4: only the final vowel is correct
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 R [ʔɑ́ːddʒèːð] - [ɸǿːl] - [ʒèːl] - [χèːð]

S [áːzèi̯dʒí] - [bói̯ɫɯ̀] - [ʒèi̯ɫý] - [ɢèi̯dzí]

T [ʔǽɪ̯zzèdʑí] - [pǿʎɤ̀] - [ʒèʎý] - [qèdʑé]

U [ɑ̀ɣzə̀zâʃsì] - [wówlè] - [ʒàʒlý] - [zə̀zîʃsè]

V [ɑːrràttʃi] - [ówle] - [daʒlú] - [ərrìttʃe]

RSTUV: [aɣzzajtsi] – [bo:jlɤ] – [dʒajlu] – [ɢzejtse]
This is a valid groupings, but there are some subgroups you missed that take place first.

Word 1: you're missing a consonant, and there is one incorrect segment
Word 2: one extra consonant, and the initial consonant is off
Word 3: only the final vowel is off
Word 4: the first syllable is incorrect

All these words are missing something. It's retained in all the daughter langs so I'm not sure why you didn't include it.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 W [hæːˈzɑh] - [ˈhoh] - [ˈjeɫv̩] - [ˈçiːh]

X [hæːˈzɑːðə] - [ˈhoːʐə] - [ˈeːjɫu] - [ˈhiːɣə]

WX [hæ:ˈzɑθə] – [ˈho:ʂə] – [ˈjeɫu] – [ˈhiːxə]
Word 1: Correct!
Word 2: there is an extra segment
Word 3: Correct!
Word 4: Correct!
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >W: Deletion of /ə/, final voiceless fricatives > /h/, /u/ > /v̩/, shortening of closed syllable vowels, /e:/ > /je/
>X: Voicing of intervocalic fricatives, /je/ > /e:/ > /e:j/
shortening of closed syllable vowels: this did not happen, hopefully that will help you figure out which segment doesn't belong in word 2.
/je/ > /e:/ > /e:j/: this was actually just simple metathesis, the length arose by other means.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 Y [ʂaːràtə] - [ʙóɻʷə] - [jawú] - [ʀìːcə]

Z [ʐaɐ̯rə̀də] - [ʙóɖɵ] - [jəlú] - [ʀèi̯gɨ]

YZ [ʐaːratə] – [ʙoɖwə] – [jalu] – [ʀi:kə]
Word 1: the initial consonant is slightly off, the rest of the consonants and the final vowel are correct
Word 2: Sorta correct (I'll explain below)! It's not quite what I had, but I'm accepting it as an alternate reconstruction
Word 3: the second consonant is missing something, think about its reflexes. the first vowel is incorrect as well
Word 4: Sorta correct again! the k has an extra feature that may help with determining sound changes

All these words are missing something, and it was retained in both daughter langs so it should be easy to find. If you include it, the two that I said were sorta correct will be totally correct.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >Y: Initials devoice, voiced stops lenite intervocalically, /l/ > /w/
>Z: /ə/ > /ɨ/ next to palatal or velar. /a: a i:/ > /aɐ̯ ə ei/, /wə/ > /ɵ/
voiced stops lenite intervocalically: basically a correct rule
/l/ > /w/: /l/ had some feature that made it predisposed to become /w/
/ə/ > /ɨ/ next to palatal or velar: only around palatal(ized) consonants
/a: a i:/ > /aɐ̯ ə ei/: correct, though a: and a are not the proto-forms
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 WXYZ: [ʂaːˈzatsə] – [ˈpro:ʈwə] – [ˈjalu] – [ˈqriːkə]
Word 1: two vowels and ts are off
Word 2: the initial is incorrect, it should be a single consonant, and another consonant is also superfluous
Word 3: the stressed vowel is off
Word 4: same problem with the initial as word 2

These words are all missing a feature, the same one as in YZ
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 >WX: /p q ʂ/ > /h/, intervocalic lenition, /ja/ > /je/, /a a:/ > /ɑ æ:/
>YZ: /pr qr/ > /ʙ ʀ/, /s z/ > /z r/
/p q ʂ/ > /h/: you're right that initial consonants became /h/, but why did they? (hint: only two of those are correct proto-forms)
intervocalic lenition: Correct!
/ja/ > /je/: the vowel in WXYZ is incorrect, but otherwise spot-on
/a a:/ > /ɑ æ:/: the proto forms are still incorrect, but you're right that an initial length contrast became a quality difference as well.
There are three trills in YZ. They all came from the same source, but with different POAs
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 R-Z: [arha:ˈdzajti] – [ˈtportle] – [ˈjajlwi] – [iqˈse:ke]
Word 1: the final syllable is correct
Word 2: the stressed vowel is correct
Word 3: one vowel and one consonant are correct
Word 4: the final syllable is correct

All four words are missing a feature. I've discussed its presence in many of my earlier comments.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 A-JLM: [swa:dwadʰi] – [dʰwerde] – [rhjolmi] – [iskʰi:ʔ]
R-Z: [arha:ˈdzajti] – [ˈtportle] – [ˈjajlwi] – [iqˈse:ke]
A-JLMR-Z: [r̩hwa:ˈdzwajtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərtle] – [r̩nˈhjojlmi] – [ikʰˈse:ke]
This is not a valid grouping.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 K [ʃnɑːˈŋɑθ] - [ˈɲɒːθ] - [ˈdʑei̯] - [ˈŋəːx] appears to be an outlier of sorts, I’m not yet sure how it fits in.
Ks most "outlier-y" feature came from a single source. Finding this source will help you find its origins.
ɶʙ ɞʛ wrote: 07 Dec 2020 19:56 My first guess:

[r̩hwa:ˈdzwajtʰi] – [ˈtʰwərtle] – [r̩nˈhjojlmi] – [ikʰˈse:ke]
Word 1: the vowels are all correct, the consonants are all either wrong or extra
Word 2: one correct segment
Word 3: two correct segments
Word 4: technically 4.5 correct segments, but it's all way out of order
ɶʙ ɞʛ
greek
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Posts: 455
Joined: 02 Aug 2019 18:47

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

Ks most "outlier-y" feature seems to be /ɲ/ in word 2.
Ratsawn
hieroglyphic
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Posts: 47
Joined: 31 Aug 2020 23:17

Re: Quick Diachronics Challenge

Post by Ratsawn »

That's part of it, but the picture isn't complete until you consider the other words as well.
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