My Germlang: Sperenjas Razzo

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My Germlang: Sperenjas Razzo

Post by Creyeditor »

I figured it might be a good time to post this. Here is a thread on my one and only Germlang:
Sperenjas Razzo
This post is just meant to give a short overview of the language with its different stages and general properties.

1. Diachronic Phonology
This section supplies a summary of the phonological changes and the phonological inventory at different stages.

Phonological changes from Proto-Germanic to Proto-Sperenjas
The most interesting things going on this period are massive fricative mergers, strict monophthongization and loss of labiovelars. Also word-final nasals are strengthened, a unique feature of this lang (AFAIK).
b→v !#_
d→z !#_
g→ɣ !#_
Proto Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/f s x/
/v z ɣ/
/r l j w/

/i iː y u uː/
/e̞ e̞ː ø̞ ø̞ː o̞ o̞ː/
/a aː/
Phonological changes from Proto-Sperenjas to Late Proto-Sperenjas
The length distinction in vowel is changed into a tenseness distinction. Also some changes in fricatives.
V[+tense] → V[-tense] !_ː
Late Proto Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/f s h/
/v z/
/r l j w/

/ɪ i ʏ ʊ u/
/ɛ e œ ø ɔ o/
/ɐ a/
Phonological changes from Late Proto-Sperenjas to Early Old Sperenjas
Front rounded vowels are lost and lax high vowels merge with tense mid vowels. Some consonant clusters are reduced and /h/ is deleted, triggering compensatory lengthening whenever possible.
Early Old Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/f s/
/v z/
/r l j w/

/i u/
/ɛ e ə ɔ o/
Phonological changes from Early Old Sperenjas to Old Sperenjas
There is fortition of /w/ to /v/ and mid lax vowels merge with mid tense vowels.
Old Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/f s/
/v z/
/r l j/

/i u/
/e ə o/
Phonological changes from Old Sperenjas to Late Old Sperenjas
/j/ is deleted between non-round vowels, the emerging vowel sequences result in long vowels. The length distinction is further elaborated by shortening unstressed long vowels and lengthening stressed vowels in open syllables. Stress is assumed to be on the first syllable.
Late Old Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/f s/
/v z/
/r l j/

/i iː u uː/
/e eː ə o oː/
/a aː/
Phonological changes from Late Old Sperenjas to Very Early Middle Sperenjas
There is Schwa deletion in several contexts and some of the resulting consonant clusters fuse. Word final devoicing takes place for obstruents.


Phonological changes from Very Early Middle Sperenjas to Early Middle Sperenjas
Front vowels become allophonically rounded before labial consonants. Dorsal and coronal obstruents become undergo palatalization before /j/ and the high front vowel.
{t d k g s z}→{ʦ ʣ ʦ ʣ ʃ ʒ}/_{i,j}
Early Middle Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t ʦ k/
/b d ʣ g/
/f s ʃ/
/v z ʒ/
/r l j/

/i iː y yː u uː/
/e eː ø øː ə o oː/
/a aː/
Phonological changes from Early Middle Sperenjas to Middle Sperenjas
Front rounded vowels are backed and the schwa undergoes some kind of vowel assimilation. Unstressed vowels are centralized.


Middle Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t ʦ k/
/b d ʣ g/
/f s ʃ/
/v z ʒ/
/r l j/

/i iː u uː/
/e eː ɜ ɘ ə ɞ ɵ o oː/
/a aː/
Phonological changes from Middle Sperenjas to Late Middle Sperenjas
Centralised vowels merge into schwa and voiced fricatives become plosives after nasals.
ɘ→ ə
ɜ→ ə
ɞ→ ə
ɵ→ ə
Late Middle Sperenjas Segmental Inventory
/m n ŋ/
/p t ʦ k/
/b d ʣ g/
/f s ʃ/
/v z ʒ/
/r l j/

/i iː u uː/
/e eː ə o oː/
/a aː/
2. Orthography
I will use the following romanization conventions for Old and Middle Sperenjas. Sometimes I will use a romanization based on an older stage for etymological reasons. Stress is not indicated.
/ə/ <a>
/ŋ/ <ng>
/ʦ/ <tj>
/ʣ/ <dj>
/ʃ/ <sj>
/ʒ/ <zj>

3. Morphology
Sperenjas only distinguishes past and non-past forms of all verbs from a very early stage. Dual forms were also lost. It keeps however most of the conjugation classes, except for those, that became indistinguishable due to phonological changes. The infinitive is marked with -<ang>, some forms of the language also use a present participle.The following examples instantiate three different conjugations in Old Sperenja: the first strong conjugation, the first weak conjugation and the present-preterite.
infinitive: risanang 'to move up; to hike'
1.SG riso
2.SG riseze
3.SG riseze
1.PL risamez
2.PL risez
3.PL risanze

1.SG res
2.SG rest
3.SG res
1.PL rezom
2.PL rezoz
3.PL rezon

weak 1
infinitiv: lanang 'to put'
present indicative
1.SG lajo
2.SG lasi
3.SG lasi
1.PL lamaz
2.PL las
3.PL lanse

past indicative
1.SG lazong
2.SG lazez
3.SG laze
1.PL lazezom
2.PL lazezoz
3.PL lazezon

pp: motanang 'to be allowed'
1.SG mot
2.SG most
3.SG mot
1.PL motom
2.PL motoz
3.PL moton

1.SG mosong
2.SG mosez
3.SG mose
1.PL mosezom
2.PL mosezoz
3.PL mosezon


Sperenja lost the nominative singular marker -<az> very early on, and similar nominative singukar suffixes were lost in analogy. Often the vocative singular form was substituted. Pronouns and article show special declension different from regular nouns. However, only four cases were kept, some of them merging in certain paradigms. Here are three examples from the a-declension of Old Sperenja with a masculine, feminine and neuter noun.
konjenja - a-stem, m 'king'
konenja konenjos NOM
konenjang konenjanz ACC
konenjas konenjong GEN
konenje konenjam DAT

konjang - a-stem, n 'family'
konjang konjo NOM
konjang konjo ACC
konjas konjong GEN
konje konjam DAT

konenjong - a-stem, f 'queen'
konenjong konenjonez NOM
konenjonong konenjononz ACC
konenjonez konenjonong GEN
konenjone konenjom DAT
4. Syntax
Syntax is usually SOV, with a relatively free word order in the noun phrase. The default position for articles and possessors is in front of the noun, whereas adjectives often follow the noun. Object clitics in Middle Serenja precede the verb. The same position is taken by certain sentential clitics.

5. Vocabulary
Here is a list of vocabulary for Middle Sperenjas. Note the threefold distinction in motion verbs based on the direction and the locative copula which is cognate to English 'to lie'.
laanang - *lagjaną - to put, to set, to lay down
ezelaanang - - to sow
leenang - *ligjaną - to be in a place, sit, stand, lie
leenare - placeholder, substitution
stopponang - v.intr - *stuppōną - to stop, to finish
stoppare - hitch-hiker; police officer
avenzez - away, out of control
konjang - n.m - *kunją - family
koonenja(z) - n.m. - *kuningaz - king
koonenjong - queen
kokk - *kukkaz - cock, rooster
aano - *hanô - chicken, Huhn
aanelong - Küken
aasalang - *aþalą - nobility; prince
aasel - *aþalaz - noble, highborn
volf - wolf
volfelong - baby wolf
volji - she-wolf
bert - clear
berte - clearly, transparently
bertenang - to make clear
bertare - someone who makes someting clear, name of god
eeseng - heather; swampland
kel - *keulaz - ship, boat
keelelong - boat
skum - *skūmaz - yeast
fem - *faimaz - foam
ketvang - *kwetwą - meat, flesh
dreepanang - *drepaną - to strike, to hit
ezedreepanang - to hit someone repeatedly
tozdreepanang - to destroy something, to defeat someone
dreepare - fighter
deejol - *digulaz - pot
erso - *erþō - earth, world
fuut - *funhtijaz - wet
fuutenang - *funhtijaną - to make wet
ezefuutenang - to water
fuutare - - rain (archaic, poetic)
sorn(oz) - *þurnuz - thorn, spike
sornelong - thorn on a rose
meekel - *mikilaz - much, many
pooko - *pukô - bag, pouch
pookelong - a small bag
skeenang - *skehaną - to jump; to happen
skeenang - to cause
rijsanang - *rīsaną - to move up
rijsenang - to raise
rijsare - hiker
mootanang - *mōtaną - to be allowed/permitted to
mootare - entitled, authorized person
no - *nu - now
skoolanang - *skulaną - to be obliged to
vaatvenang - *wahtwijaną - to protect, to defend
vaatvare - - guard
vaatvo - *wahtwō - watch, guard (archaic, poetic)
vaaronang - *warōną - to defend, to cover
vaarare - - watch
varjanang -*warjaną- to keep watch; to defend
varjare - watchman, guard
eemen - *himinaz - sky, heaven, paradise
eemelong - paradise on earth
eemel - *himinaz - sky, not heaven
eezo - *aizō - honour, respect
eezelong - a respectful gift
eezonang - to honour, to respect
eelenang - *hailijaną - to greet, to salute in a polite/respectful manner
nazjanang - *nazjaną - to rescue, to save, to heal
azjanang - *hazjaną - to praise, to shout out
loovonaŋ - *lubōną - to praise, to compliment
loovang - *lubą - a praise, a compliment
loovelong - a compliment
maat - *mahtiz - ability; strenth
valzang - *waldą - might, authority
stranja - *strangaz - tight, strict
stranje - tightly, strictly
stranjonang - to tighten
stranje - *strangiz - strand, cord, thread, line
stranjelong - Garn
stranjeso - *strangiþō - power, force
maakonang - *makōną - to create, to build
maktjanang - to construct
maktjang - construction
maakare - creator; carpenter, craftsman
skapjanang - *skapjaną - to shape, to form
skapjare - designer

rik - *rīks - head of something, chief
riikenja - the heir of the king
riikelong - prince, child of a king
riikenonang - to rule, to govern
riknanang - to become king
riikonang - to crown someone king
riikeng - *rīkiją - kingdom, realm, imperium
riike - *rīkijaz - rich, noble
riikenes - richness, wealth
riikeso - treasure, riches

meenenang - *mainijaną - to mean, to signify, to have a purpose
meenomme - meaning, purpose, goal
ja - *jahw - and
speero - *speru - spear
speerenja - spear people
speeror - spear land
speerelong - small spear, (Spieß)

ar - *hwar - where
er - *hēr - here
sar - *þar - there
a(z) - *hwaz - what
e(z) - this
sa - that

liisanang -*līþaną- to go, to pass
leevenang -*laibijaną - to go, to leave
keemanang - *kwemaną - to go, to come
keemenang - to fetch someone
gaanang - *gāną - to go, to walk (by feet)
gaare - pedestrian

veeng - *wigją - horse
veengenja - horse people
stiinang - * stīganą - to ride (a horse)
stiire - rider
stiirelong - someone riding on a donkey
stiiranang - to make someone become a rider
stirnanang - to become a rider

geevanang - *gebaną - to give, to transfer (has to be a completed action)
geevenang - to take (has to be a completed action)
geevare - someone who gives something (has to be a completed action)
saljanang - *saljaną - to give, to offer (usually only the intention to give something)
saljenang - to take (usually only the intention to take something)
saljare - someone who offers something

at - pp.acc - *at - to, into the direction of
gan - pp.dat - *gagin - towards, into the direction of
onz - pp.acc - *und - until, up to
ta - pp.acc - *ta - to
vesrang - pp.acc - *wiþrą - against
en - pp.dat - in, inside of
be - pp.dat - near, at, in, by, close to, next to

res - *wraiþaz - angry, furious
reese - angrily, furiously
arja - *argaz - fearful, anxious
arje - fearfully, anxiously
bos - *bausuz - swollen, infected
kez - *kwēdaz - bad, mean, evil
keeze - in an evil manner
torn - *turnaz - embittered, bitter, resentful
blijvang - *blīwą - colour, hue
blijvelong - hue, shade
blijvonang - to colour, to paint
anzeblijvonang - to decolour
blijvnanang - to become colourful, to become coloured, to brighten
eno - *ēnu - without
gron - *grōniz - green
sat -*þanhtaz - thought, idea
saatelong - a little thought, a small idea
los - *lausaz - loose; false
loose - loosely, wrong
loosonang - to make wrong
sveefanang - *swefaną - to sleep, to nap
sveefare - someone who often sleeps
sveefatjanang - to sleep like a stone
sveefanz - asleep
sveefenang - to make someone fall asleep; to kill
sleepanang - *slēpaną - to be unconscious
sleepenang - to knock someone out
sleepomme - unconsciousness
slepnez - unconsciousness
sleepanz - unconscious
sleepanze - subconsciously, not on purpose
aa - f.n - *ahwō - water

monzo - n.f - *mundō - hand
razzo - n.f. - *razdō - language

vaator - *watōr - liquid, fluid
alvi - n.f - *albī - river, brook
strom - n.m - *straumaz - river, stream
bak - n.f. -*bakiz - beach
floz - n.m. - *flōduz - flood

en(z) - num - *ainaz - one
tve(e) - num - *twai - two
sri(i/z) - num - *þrīz - three
fezvor - num - *fedwōr - four
femf - num - *fimf - five
sees - num - *sehs - six
seevon - num - *sebun - seven
aatu - num - *ahtōu - eight
neevon - num - *newun - nine
ten - num - *tehun - ten
eenalef - num - *ainalif - eleven
tvaalef - num - *twalif - twelve
sreeten - num - *þritehun - thirteen
feezorten - num - *fedurtehun - fourteen
femften - num - *fimftehun - fifteen
seesten - num - *sehstehun - sixteen
seevonten - num - *sebuntehun - seventeen
aatuten - num - *ahtōutehun - eighteen
neevonten - num - *newuntehun - nineteen
-tenzang - num - *-tēhundą - -ty (60-90)
-tev - num - *tigiwiz - -ty (20-50)
onzang - num - *hundą - hundred
onzarzang - num - *hundaradą - hundred and twenty (archaic)
suusonzi - num - *þūsundī - thousand

-are - - agent nominalization
-esonang *-isōną - creates verbs from nouns and adjectives
-enonang - *-inōną - creates verbs from nouns denoting persons, to do the duty of someone
-tjanang - *-atjaną - creates intensive verbs from verbs, to do something in an intensive manner
-anang - *-āną - creates factive verbs from nouns, to make something something
-onang - *-ōną - creates factive verbs from adjctives, to make something something
-nanang - *-naną - creates fientive verbs from nouns, to become something
-nang (triggers vowel change (unstressed a->e) ) - *-janą - creates causative verbs from verbs, to cause something
-elong -*-ilǭ - diminutive, a small something
-enja -*-ingaz - belonging to, descending from
-svo - *-þwō - deverbal/deadjectival abstract nominalization
-nez -*-niz - deverbal abstract nominalization
-slang -*-slą - deverbal nominalization
-omme -*umnijō - deverbal action nominalization
-onjo - *ungō - deverbal gerund nominalization
-zus - *dūþiz - deverbal/nominal/deadjectival abstract nominalization
-inez - *-īniz - deverbal abstract nominalization (weak class 1)
-eso - *iþō - deverbal/nominal/deadjectival abstract nominalization
-e - *ê - deadjectival manner adverbalization

anze- - *andi - indicates the undoing of an action
ve- - *bi - indicates movement/an action at a certain place, locative applicative
fer- - *fer- - indicates movement through something, locative applicative; perfective action
fra- - *fra- - indicates movement away from something, locative applicative; completive action
fore- - *furai- - indicates movement before/in front of something, locative applicative; inchoative action
ja- - *ga- - indicates an action that is done together
eze- - *idi- - indicates a repetitive action
mess- - *missa- - indicates an action done wrong
toz- - *tuz- - indicates an action that destroy/splits/seperates something
oz- - *uz- - indicates movement upwards/up/out of something

Apart from the usual begging for feedback, I want to ask a specific question. Since the next step will be importing loan words from latin at several stages, I would like to know the following: How long do you think would the sound changes take? When would Old Sperenja and Middle Sperenja be spoken?
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
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