Boral scratchpad

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Jackk
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Re: Boral scratchpad - romlang

Post by Jackk »

And another random example sentence which I rather liked:
Y preu vig por un detonment de bomb sougl fis loy vars y denou dell'Abat Nazir.
The first detonation of a nuclear bomb occurred near the end of the Nadir War.
(audio)
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Re: Boral scratchpad - romlang

Post by gestaltist »

You already know that but I’d like to say for the record: Boral is my favorite aposteriori conlang. I absolutely adore the aesthetic and syntax.
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Re: Boral scratchpad - romlang

Post by Jackk »

gestaltist wrote: 07 Jan 2019 19:59 You already know that but I’d like to say for the record: Boral is my favorite a posteriori conlang. I absolutely adore the aesthetic and syntax.
[<3] Jo l'appreç fort.
Y verb « fir »

Thereotically the (rather irregular) verb fir < Lat. fīgō, fīgere just means "put down". However it has a wide range of senses in practice, such as:
  • fix, fasten, place, stand, complete, attach, halt
Further, it appears in collocations such as loy fir " to take place". Some examples of the verb's usage:
  • J'ay y lait fis ny tabr. I've put the milk down on the table.
  • Fighað l'ig pegnur ag mur. Hang the painting on the wall.
  • Nos som sy picraug fient. We're gonna stop him whining.
  • Jo's fis a l'eç problem de contað souvr. I'm done solving these number problems.
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Re: Boral scratchpad - romlang

Post by Jackk »

Veni Emmanuel


Advien, Advien, Emmanuel
Denou l'hostag Israel
Oc assient a gemir nell'exigl
Jusc ag Retor privað dy Figl
Joeð, joeð, Emmanuel
Nascra por tey, o Israel


Veni, veni Emmanuel!
Captivum solve Israel!
Qui gemit in exilio,
Privatus Dei Filio,
Gaude, gaude, Emmanuel
nascetur pro te, Israel.


O come, O come, Emmanuel,
And ransom captive Israel,
That mourns in lonely exile here,
Until the Son of God appear.
Rejoice! Rejoice! Emmanuel
Shall come to thee, O Israel.

AUDIO HERE

The verse above has several archaicisms in it to match the English's:
advenir for "come"
denouar as "free", now usually "resolve"
assient as "dwell", now only "sit"
imperative joeð, now often joað
verb nascr "be born", now usually nað star
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Boral and Boralverse: weekly posts

Post by Jackk »

Three years since I posted in this thread, wow [O.O]
Going forward, here's the schedule for what Boral and Boralverse content I'll be posting:
  • One Boral translation with context (100 words of Boral or more)
  • Three Boral lexicon entries, with etymology and at least one glossed example sentence each
  • One in-setting Boralverse excerpt with context (250 words or more)
I hope anyone who reads has fun doing so :)
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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Jet and Diamond

excerpt in translation from the early chapters of masquira trevold Jet and Diamond, published (originally in Welsh as Dynnon o Vuhuð a Diamont) by Hasinick Welshman Cadougan Torriour in 1890, shortly after he graduated from the University of Nadacou as a scholar of diplomacy.

Posc un demy hour, vastel scoclettað magn demay eð un acquetta de limon scencað auvorn, Zoe descenoy y novel leyour peripaton quaucant e gazau y gið embrostað.
Half an hour, far too much shockled cake and a generous glass of limmon acquetta later, Zoe strode out of the new unmanned lifter and peered at the ornate signposts.

Y cla ne man aye inscaunç sarvent d'un auçel fylau eð un catr keren ne lettranç net, e donc aulau i lonc y colloir combinant fin a sy port yembr, stant impos ny mur cos soutil.
The key in her hand was helpfully inscribed with a fullaw bird and the number four in neat script, so she turned down the corresponding corridor until she found her door, set discreetly into the wall.

Entarn, y bevey a cambr (vertaðer, noc magn may a picq salon e quelt n'un eðegl) sta apprestað lonc y barstant novessem de Morac, toð pieðry revelað con tapeçment e vriðel penent.
Inside, the set of rooms (really, not much more than a small parlour and a bed in an alcove) was decorated in the latest Morrack fashions, all exposed stonework draped in tapestries and curtains.

L'auger ag cogn aye meðes ans ne form de naðr.
The ewer in the corner even had a handle in the shape of a viper.

bolegs "tidy"

bolegs /boˈlijz/ [bʊˈlɪjz]
- tidy, neat, arranged in order and not messily;
- (figuratively) having no unintended side-effects or consequences, proceeding as planned;
- (archaic) plentiful, enough, adequate, in a sufficient quantity for one's purposes

Etymology: first attested in 10C Old Boral as boleȝse /boˈleɣsə/ "abundant, copious, generous" and similar forms. Very likely borrowed from a northern dialect form derived from Latin prōlixē "largely, abundantly"; for the shift of initial pr- > b- compare the word bogr "not at all", definitely also of northern origin and thought to come from Latin procul "far away".

The shift to meaning "tidy, neat" is entirely complete by the eighteenth century, though older senses are retained in poetry for some time. The word's meaning seems to have passed via "polite, tactful, diplomatic"—that is, knowing what to say and when to say it—although the paucity of references suggests this usage was short-lived.

Y cambr hur noscon dað avars stan bolegs e capaç.
/i ˈkam.br̩ hɪr noˈxɔn daθ aˈvarz stan boˈlijz e kaˈpats/
[i ˈkam.bɐ hɪː noˈxɔn da‿ðɐˈvɑːz stam bʊˈlɪjz e kɐˈpats]
def room rent 1p.dem give-ptcp.pst towards be-imp.3p tidy and roomy
The rooms that we rented were tidy and spacious.

idoneïsar "adjust"

idoneïsar /ˌi.doˌni.iˈzar/ [ˌi.dʊˌnɪ.jɪˈzɑː]
- to adapt, adjust, tailor, to alter or modify something to conform better to a situation or for a particular use;
- to rectify, fix, redress, to correct a mistake/misstep or more generally an undesirable state of affairs

Etymology: nineteenth-century derivation unique to Boral from adjective idone /ˌi.doˈne/ "suitable, appropriate, fit, apt, proper", itself borrowed directly from Latin idoneus "suitable, convenient".

Cal voun il por lourell'erraç idoneïsar?
/kal vun ɪl pɔr luˌrɛ.lɛˈrats ˌi.doˌni.iˈzar/
[kaw ˈvu.nɪw pɔː lʊˌʀɛ.lɪˈʀats ˌi.dʊˌnɪ.jɪˈzɑː]
what will-3p 3p for 3p.gen=def=mistake adjust
What will they do to fix their mistakes?

storcment "blackmail"

storcment /stɔrkˈmɛnt/ [stʊːkˈmɛnt]
- blackmail, extortion, making someone give you money or other property by means of threats;
- a piece of blackmail material, something incriminating with which one might extort money from someone

Etymology: nominal derivation first attested in legal proceedings of the Middle Boral period from verb storcr "to extort, blackmail". The verb may be borrowed from Norman estorquer or may be native; either way it descends (or is an early reborrowing) from Latin extorqueō "I extort, tear away, wrench out".

Eð hour alcot es caint y storcment?
/ɛθ ur alˈkɔt ɛz kent i stɔrkˈmɛnt/
[e‿ðʊː‿ʀɐˈgɔt ɪz kent i stʊːkˈmɛnt]
and time how.much be.3s fall-ptcp.prs def blackmail
And for how long has the blackmail been going on?

Children's Curriculum

excerpted from the supplementary notes from the 1981 Report towards a Normal Teaching for Children at Mantelschool, published (originally in Borlish as Contris vars Aðelenç Normal por Ivan a Schol Lajarn) by the contemporary Borland anthracite government's Ministry for Schools, and intended to serve to standardise the education of children up to the age of twelve. This section is taken from the recommendations with respect to insular history.

…have at least a mozate [high-level] understanding of the development from prehistory until the time of the Second Tetrarchy, although individual schools are encouraged to include more recent material as it relates to vicine [local] matters. This may include the traditions of the local village or quarter, or else notable events (battles, discoveries, etc) which occurred nearby.

Taken in order, pupils should have the opportunity to learn about:
- waves of migration into Borland up to and including the Albick Kelts
- - early farming and the stoneware found in the Revel mounds (compared to the better-preserved Orkney site at Scarreth [Skara Brae])
- - travel, transport and technology, including the trade necessary for bronze, the later introduction of iron, and the construction of the Çadrosc labyrinth
- - the internecine system of hill forts in the pre-Classical period and the culture around authority, with reference to extant art, sculpure and jewellery

- classical/imperial Borland and the Romanisation of the island
- - the growth of diplomatic and trade links with Albion and Rome, between Julius Caesar's expeditions to Albion in 55 aN and the beginning of the invasion of the Northern Isles in 42 N
- - remaining Kelt kingdoms and their resistance to Roman rule through the rest of the first century (including a comparison between Buthick of the Iceni and her later imitators on Borland)
- - the ambitions of Emperor Hadrian on the Isles and the establishment of a separate Borlish province (which after the Diocletian reforms became the Boral diocese)
- - Roman culture and language as it spread across the island, including the surviving architecture (e.g. the baths in Axbane), and the urbanisation of the south and east coasts
- - the arrival of Roman Christianity on Borland and the destruction or repurposing of pagan sites, both Kelt and pantheic
- - migration of Romans from Germania Inferior, Belgica and Brittania during the decline of Roman control…
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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Waging World Peace

excerpt taken from 1880s-set trevold Paç Mondial Accommettent (Waging World Peace), written by Neuvort writer Dion Becolla and published in 1968 during the General Italian Fervour, although it owes more to the masquira genre in most respects.

"Façau follanç all'area fruy pre un douçur cascun triar ou?" dis Benjamin. Luy e Martha aurn toð y desc delið, e futil enter sta y residu dy collocq attendr a prolongar—lonc y bustr ig, y concið de Lucas parisce cos implausibr s'accommettr megl a sell'un. Yvet sta toð cas sona luyent de cur dar ag monolog de Lucas.
"Let's take a spin on the dance floor before dessert, shall we?” Benjamin said. He and Martha had cleared their plates, and there was no point prolonging what remained of the conversation—in that respect Lucas’ date seemed impossibly to be going better than his. Yvette was at least pretending to pay attention to Lucas' monologue.

Martha accordau, stant clar yent an conclujon cosvour.
Martha agreed, having clearly come to a similar conclusion.

Le souprenent, y domn surcou fort fruyour, ant pas lejar e gournanç d'hour scur.
To his surprise, she proved a good dancer, with light steps and a good sense of timing.

Tandic ençau y cançon sevent, i vis ig Yvet oncau Lucas all'area fruy. Benjamin parceveu n'approvant ig i luy tenoy man distr con pogn fatuous e skassant—y compromis seyon fait accougl dec Lucas refusau y pie d'Yvet piestar. Surcas au y fait ig degnant i volois pront e allagr se fornir d'aer issugt, i spornau skisteç mancar.
As the next song started, he saw Yvette dragging Lucas onto the dance floor. Benjamin noted with approval that he held her right hand in an awkward, crushing grip—the compromise they’d reached over Lucas’ unwillingness to tread on her feet. Apparently, while he had no objection to being dull, he drew the line at clumsy.

Benjamin apponoy ja oc eus. Defait de skisteç volois noc un aer de vertað por toð gent seyon vis ne combat.
Benjamin supposed it was just as well. Feigned clumsiness wouldn’t have been believable to anyone who had seen him fight.

Un complet boncop eð un camis fossettað noc obstroint, Lucas farau fort ne fruyant—ligs e graçous. Parcanç aðief ig Yvet cossiraus valir sy collocq souvar par toð y tædium.
Despite the cheap suit and the wrinkled shirt, Lucas fit in on the dance floor—sleek and graceful. Maybe enough so that Yvette would consider it worth suffering through his conversation.

fleus "velvet"

fleus /flawz/
- velvet, closely woven fabric with a thick short pile on one side
- any particularly smooth texture, especially as associated with luxury
- an orange liqueur similar in preparation to triple sec
- (cooking) coated in flour, of meat
- (slang) money, cash, when acquired illegally or dishonestly
- (child talk) teddy, stuffed animal

Etymology: the cloth sense is original, descending from Old Boral fleos et al. "fleece, wool pile", a borrowing from Old English flēos "fleece". Usage for velvet in particular seen from the fourteenth century, and extension to any luxurious texile or texture from the sixteenth.

The liqueur is a genericisation, originally used for the Fleus d'Arcabil mixer first manufactured in the early 19th century, which has entered common use in various languages. The criminal usage is roughly contemporaneous, apparently from Cappatian naval cant. The twentieth-century sense of "stuffed animal" is likely a loan translation from New Provincial vellut, which acquired that meaning some decades earlier.

Y sartour er un fleus neir embrostant.
/i sarˈtur ɛr ɪn flawz nir ˌɛm.broˈstant/
[i sɐːˈtʊː‿ʀɛː‿ʀɪɱ ˈflawz nɪː ˌɛm.bʀʊˈstan(t)]
def dressmaker be.ipf indef velvet black embroider-ptcp.prs
The dressmaker was embroidering a black velvet.

dessoclar "to topple"

dessoclar /ˌde.soˈklar/ [ˌde.sʊˈklɑː]
- to topple, push or throw something over, especially something intentionally erected
- to overthrow a regime; to oust someone from a position of authority

Etymology: from Middle Boral desçoclar "to topple, knock over", a verbal derivation from noun çocle "pedestal, plinth" (cf. modern but archaic çocr "bust, head-and-shoulders statue"). This is a thirteenth-century borrowing either from Vascon çocle "plinth" or perhaps directly from Mozara zocolo, both from Latin socculus "little shoe".

My fraðr dessoclau y castel blader meyon costroit.
/mi ˈfra.ðr̩ ˌde.soˈklo i kaˈstɛl blaˈdɛr miˈjɔn koˈstrɔjt/
[mi ˈfra.ðɐ ˌde.sʊˈklo i kɐˈstɛw blɐˈdɛː mɪˈʝɔŋ kʊˈstʀɔjt]
1s.gen brother topple-pst def castle card-adj 1s.dem build-ptcp.pst
My brother knocked over the house of cards I built.

stancour "tinker"

stancour /stanˈkur/ [stɐŋˈkʊː]
- whitesmith, person who forges things out of tin or pewter;
- tinker, repairman, person (usually itinerant) who mends household objects and appliances;
- meddler, gossip, busybody, matchmaker, one who interferes in something not of their concern

Etymology: from Old Boral istancre "whitesmith", later remodelled by analogy with the agentive -our ending (from Latin -ātōrem). This in turn is presumably—given the Gambrig chronicle's attestion of istincere "tinsmith"—a partial loan translation from Old English tincere which has the same sense, modified to conform to existing istan "tin" < Latin stannum "tin".

The extension to generic "repairman" and eventually "meddler" is ill-attested in the literature but likely around (especially in Damvath and its environs) by the seventeenth century, given the role of the recurring character Olaur in Kisneð's satirical plays.

Façað plu stancour a my nuçal!
/faˈtsað pli stanˈkur a mi niˈtsal/
[fɐˈdzah pli stɐŋˈkʊː a mi nɪˈdzaw]
do-imp.p no.longer tinker tp 1s.gen wedding
Stop meddling in my wedding!

Children's Curriculum, part 2

continued excerpt from the Report towards a Normal Teaching for Children at Mantelschool, produced in 1981 by the Ministry for Schools in the Borland government.

…of Romans from Germania Inferior, Belgica and Brittania during the decline of Roman control in the fourth century Nascentiæ

- Borland in the sub-Roman and early mediæval period (400–800 N)
- - Germanic migrations of the Angles and Saxons into the west and south of the island; the formation of the petty kingdoms of Southbar and Angland [in Borlish wriiten Sothbar, Anglont] with comparison to the Heptarchy on Albion
- - changes in the self-conception of Roman Borland, with particular reference to Prase Victor Rossetus' reforms of the Boral Diocese and the subsequent formation of the first Kingdom of Boral
- - influence of Germanic culture and technologies; common regional patterns in place names across the island
- - Roman Borland as a springboard for Christianisation of the region; the missionary focus of the Gulfhaven sanctuary and the influence of Grecian heresy among the early monasteries
- - the emergence of the vulgar language in writing as distinct from Latin, as exemplified by the Gambrig chronicle
- - impact of migration to and from the island due to conquest (the tripartite wars and the Markish subjugation of Anglia in the late eighth century)

- the impact on Borland of the Dane Supremacy and its subsequent decline (800–1029 N)
- - the Battle of Fendal, the unification of Boral and Anglont and the fealty of Sothbar
- - Danish raids on coastal settlements along the north and east coasts of Borland; factors influencing the increase of Viking expeditions
- - Resistance of King Jothegh to Danish incursion; his subsequent exile in Sothbar and the establishment of Damvath as the capital of Dane-ruled Borland
- - early attestations of literature written in Old Boral and what they…
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Boral and Boralverse: weekly posts

Post by All4Ɇn »

Jackk wrote: 07 Jan 2022 23:41 Three years since I posted in this thread, wow [O.O]
Going forward, here's the schedule for what Boral and Boralverse content I'll be posting:
  • One Boral translation with context (100 words of Boral or more)
  • Three Boral lexicon entries, with etymology and at least one glossed example sentence each
  • One in-setting Boralverse excerpt with context (250 words or more)
I hope anyone who reads has fun doing so :)
Very glad to see more of this! I was a big fan of it when you were posting [:D]
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Jan 2022 03:40 Very glad to see more of this! I was a big fan of it when you were posting [:D]
Thank you! [<3] Feel free to ask about anything that I don't give enough context for :)
Agricultural Innovations

excerpt taken from Tarrouçon Saðer dy Theorist Heredical Romagn e Napollesc ny Doutr-Alp (Agricultural Innovations of the Romaine and Napolitan Heredical Theorists in the Utter Alpine), written in 1865 by farm alchemist Thaubrett of Crowmarsh, affiliated with the Institute for Supply in Axbane.

Pu y majortað (catr part ne cinq, accordant lonc y narrað annual recentessem des l'Edifiç meðes) a zucar consunt n'Istr Boral es recoglt cos vecintaðer.
But the majority (four parts in five, in accordance with the latest annual reports from the Institute itself) of sugar consumed on Borland is produced in the vicinity.

Toll'eç preu bustr tesmogn de gent scarob betraver nastiscent son ag siecr seç; a veir particuler y scaunç in experientia de theorist willemesc Tewis Camigner, y natur douç e colour 'bilrod' seyon svoccað afont.
The first attestations of betraver syrup being produced are all in the sixteenth century; see for example the in experientia writings of Willem theorist Tewis Camigner, wherein the sweetness and 'billrod hue' of beet syrup are noted.

Yað poy evidenç de recoglenç commarcer d'ig noscon nommabr 'betraver tesqual' ne Willem durant l'Abat Romannesc e l'interrouçon cohernt ny sar marcer.
There is little evidence of commercial production of what we might call 'natural betraver' in Willem during the Romantic Wars and the concomitant disruption to the trade mesh.

Qualtað piour a doit ayent cloistau alcun ort a peðenç real vars l'oc matier. Par surcresc, stemn usual a betraf cavibr prell'accensment de Pentros ne dezein 1730 contene parcanç zucar lonc for un part n'ogtant, fort picquessem a doit.
Its inferiority as compared to cane hindered the growth of any real demand for the substance. Moreover, usual varieties of beet before the Pentrose survey of the 1730s would contain perhaps one part in eighty sugar, far lower than cane.

smoutar "riot"

smoutar /smuˈtar/ [zmʊˈtɑː]
- to riot, rise up, to take part in a riot or public disturbance;
- (more generally) to act in an unrestrained or wanton manner, to indulge in excess of feasting or luxury

Etymology: seventeenth-century verbal derivation from now-obsolete smout "riot, public disturbance" (see modern smoutanç "riot", derived from the verb), which is the past participle of verb smovir "to affect, touch emotionally". Probably influenced by similar development in the Norman verb esmoveir, whose participle underwent the same semantic shift.

Y gent n'Ausçagm smoutaurn desig l'occijon.
/i ˈʒɛnt noˈsɛjm smuˈto.rn̩ deˈzaj ˌlɔk.siˈʒɔn/
[i ˈʒɛn(t) nʊˈsɛjm zmʊˈtoːn dɪˈzaj ˌlɔk.sɪˈʒɔn/
def people in=Ausçagm riot-3p.pst due.to def=killing
The Ausçagm public rioted because of the murder.

sovemblar "to outline"

sovemblar /ˌso.vɛmˈblar/ [ˌso.vɪmˈblɑː]
- to sketch, outline, to draw the boundaries of a figure;
- (more generally) to make a rough or rudimentary depiction of something;
- (by extension) to describe something simply or inaccurately;
- to forge, counterfeit, to make a false reproduction of something or act as though you are someone you aren't

also deverbal sovembr /soˈvɛm.br̩/ [sʊˈvɛm.bɐ] sketch, outline; forgery, counterfeit

Etymology: from Middle Boral sowemblar "to imitate, copy (especially badly)", originally from Latin subæmulor "I emulate secretly". Whether the word is a later reborrowing or descends through Old Boral is unclear, as is whether the prefix sou- "under" is retained or a later addition. The use in the context of drawing starts to predominate from the eighteenth century onward, possibly influenced by phonetic similarity to emblem "logo, symbol" < Latin emblēma "mosaic, emblem".

Sell'amig er l'œcumen sovemblant cant nos pascau.
/ˌse.laˈmaj ɛr ˌle.kiˈmɛn ˌso.vɛmˈblant kant no paˈxo/
[ˌse.lɐˈma.jɐ ˌle.kɪˈmɛn so.vɪmˈban(t) kan(t) no pɐˈxo]
3s.gen.def=friend cop.imp def=landscape sketch-ptcp.prs as 1p eat-imp.1p
His friend was sketching the surroundings as we ate.

zygom "valve"

zygom /ziˈgɔm/ [zɪˈgɔm]
- valve, device that controls the flow of a gas or fluid through a pipe
- switch, device that controls the flow of electric current through wires
- (canal) lock, segment of a waterway enclosed by gates used to raise or lower boats
- (by extension) airlock, airtight chamber providing access to a sealed area without allowing air out or water in

also derived verb zygomar /ˌzi.goˈmar/ [ˌzi.gʊˈmɑː] to operate a valve or switch; to act as a valve or switch

Etymology: first attested in Boral from the seventeenth century, a borrowing from Scholastic Latin zygoma "(anatomy) valve, canal lock", which is from Greek ζῠ́γωμᾰ (zúgōma) "bolt, bar, yoke, cheekbone, canal lock". It displaces native sclus "canal lock" outside dialect usage by the early twentieth century. The senses "switch; airlock" are clippings of original compounds zygom baric "electric valve" and cambr zygom "valve room" respectively.

Alcun hom au y lamp fornið con zygom.
/alˈkɪn ɔm o i lamp fɔrˈnɪθ kɔn ziˈgɔm/
[ˌa.gɪˈnɔm o i lamp fʊːˈnɪh kɔn zɪˈgɔm]
no person have-pst def light provide with switch
No-one had installed a switch for the light.

Dane Settlements in the Isles

excerpted from the scitation questions given in January 2014 N for the Tremonow Open School (formerly the Brethin Mesh Institute)'s course in concurrence history titled 844–900: Early Dane Kingdom-Building across the Northwestern Isles, which covers the transition from viking raids along the coasts of Borland, Albion and Ireland to the establishment of permanent Norse communities in those regions.

…writings on language, and discuss to what extent the 'father's name, mother's tongue' hypothesis adequately explains the persistence of Norse names long after the populations of Guithle [Gael] and British Danelands were otherwise speaking the local language.

Question 7 (thirty minutes)
Answer any two of the following three questions.

(i) Was it because of the Dane wayports and settlements between Dublin and Yorwick that the principality of Gwyneth had the resources to consolidate primacy over Powes? Include reference to the partition of Mondwell [Anglesey] agreed between Gwyneth and Sodrick, as mentioned in both the Ulstre and Carlile chronicles.
(ii) What can the life of Owain ap Blethyn—rendered into legend as Owen of Jolliad, sometime-friend sometime-foe of the Arthurians—tell us about the extent to which Welsh-born men participated in viking raids as the Dane settlements became more enmeshed with their vicinities?
(iii) Describe in detail the known actors party to the Reconquest of Legaster in 887 N, along with the political context each found themselves in which led to the idiosyncratic alliances on either side of the battle.

Question 8 (ten minutes)
The recent excavation work near Kilcoughbert [Kirkcudbright, Galloway] has uncovered new evidence of…
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Rise of the Stadbund

excerpted in translation from David Huhn's 1923 textbook Stadstahten: Sichrer Haven, a treatise on the role of independent trade cities in the development of mercantilism, published with funding from the Lunburg Schazhaus.

Y mençon ig remaneus un Empire Theudesc fo sevelið ne grauf jois y cadavr dy preu Reyaum Saxon, l'eiðel y dynasty Hogbrocken appartenent stant diminoit vars lourell'eðegl fondominal amont ne Lepzi e Magdebourg.
The fiction of a surviving German Empire was laid to rest with the corpse of the first Kingdom of Saxony, with the domain of the Hoghbrocken dynasty reduced to their core lands upstream in Lepzi and Magdeburg.

Y nou-redoit Marcgrau Baldr de Saxony, temporane no stant for catr annað eld, cou cos comprensibr par megl manouvr dy Stadbund smargent.
The newly-reduced Margrave Baldur of Saxony, being only 4 years old at the time, was understandably outmanœuvred by the nascent Stadbund.

Pu y ci polity-colluy nommað com y Stadbund, y Samslutning ben y Collijon Norðer cascun (nos veim usual ne scaunç latin collisio theodisc) creurn noc, lon digr, ex nihilo all'aubon dy siecr catorç.
But the guild-states known variously as the Stadbund, the Samslutning or the North Collision (we see in Latin documents usually collisio theodisc) did not, of course, appear fully-formed at the dawn of the fourteenth century.

Nos poum y racin de concort entr citað deut, peðaç eð autr parsoument coyençant furtivir jusc y siecr doç tost.
We can trace the roots of intercivic contracts restricting tariffs, tolls and other fees back to the early twelfth century.

spait "scared"

spait /spet/
- afraid, scared, frightened, feeling fear or apprehension about something;
- shy, timid, nervous, lacking in courage or confidence
- cautious, tentative, (of a person) restrained and not being assertive, (of a result) uncertain and subject to future change

Etymology: past participle of verb spagir "to frighten, to scare", itself descending unmolested from Latin expaveō "I am very afraid, I am terrified of"—although the meaning has tempered significantly over time. Extension to lack of confidence in oneself and lack of certainty in results is in evidence by the later Middle Boral period in the sixteenth century.

Jo sta spait demay a porsief luy fair.
/ʒo sta spet deˈme a pɔrˈsjɛf laj fer/
[ʒo sta spet dɪˈme a pʊːˈsjɛf laj ˈfeː]
1s be-imp afraid too to pursuit 3s.ind do-inf
I was too scared to run after her.

autoschedon "hand-to-hand combat"

autoschedon /ˌo.to.skeˈdɔn/
- sparring, hand-to-hand combat (also seen adjectivally), fighting done within reach rather than at range and especially when un- or unconventially armed;
- martial art, any of several fighting styles which contain systematic methods of training for combat and often practised as sport

Etymology: borrowed into Boral and other languages in the late eighteenth century during a fashion for Classical Greek emulation, including athletic practices; adapted from the adverb αὐτοσχεδόν "hand-to-hand", literally "near themselves".

Gent ern autoschedon faint a dou lonc y torg clojonnað.
/ʒɛnt ɛrn̩ ˌo.to.skeˈdɔn fent a du lɔnk i tɔrg ˌklo.ʒɔnˈnaθ/
[ʒɛnt ɛːn ˌo.tʊ.skɪˈdɔn fent ɐˈdu lɔŋk i tɔːg ˌklo.ʒʊˈnah]
people be.imp-3p sparring do-ptcp.pts at two along def square enclose-ptcp.pst
People were sparring in pairs around the private square.

belem "scene"

belem /beˈlɛm/ [biˈlɛm]
- scene, scenery, décor, setting in which something occurs or circumstances in which a narrative (especially a play or film) takes place
- scene, discrete part of a story taking place over continuous time
- diorama, tableau, mural, model or staged version of an event or location
- (specifically) the Nativity scene, a representation of the birth of the Christchild with figurines

Etymology: borrowed in the last sense from Portingale or Leon belèm "crib, Nativity scene" in the Middle Boral period; this is a metonymic usage of proper noun Belèm "Bethlehem", from Hebrew via Latin Bethlehēmum. The word's extension to more general contexts is mostly particular to Boral, although the "diorama" sense is more widely seen.

Pre finisceu y belem, trey hom ancour forn mort.
/pre ˌfi.niˈxaw i beˈlɛm | tri ɔm anˈkur fɔrn̩ mort/
[pʀe ˌfi.nɪˈxaw i bɪˈlɛm | tʀi‿ʝɔm ɐŋˈkʊː fɔːn mɔːt]
before finish-pst def scene | three person still be.pst-3p dead
By the end of the scene three more people were dead.

Early Borlish Heresy

short extract taken from the 1898 reference work Sunrise in Exile: the Iconomachy in the Northern Dioceses (published originally in Borlish as Aubon n'Exigl: l'Iconomachy ny Dioces Norðer), which details the theological struggle over the veneration of images which embattled Christendom from Aghkill to Yerevan in the early medieval period. Written by former monk Mance Laurent Boneðic, the book is notable for containing discussions of several previously-unstudied primary sources retrieved from the Gulfhaven hoard.

…according to Saint Augustine. Similar argumentation can be seen in the personal writings of Psellos of Crete following his assignment to Gulfhaven in 691 N and the concomitant mission of evangelising to the Saxons (his post, it has been recently argued, manufactured in order to ablegate his influence with the Roman and Antiochine papacies).

But to mention Psellos of Crete is inevitably to discuss the Marmeronist heresy (Psellos having authored one of its foundational texts and being a testament to the theology's rapid and delocalised spread) which so alarmed the patriarchs safely ensconced at the heart of Christendom. Whether we can attribute Marmeronism to the sometimes-tenuous authority Rome held over the peripheral hierarchies—though recall that Psellos was educated in Constantinople and spent the first decades of his ministry almost as centrally-established as anyone could be—or whether the Church's practise of sending its most enthusaistic theologians to the north simply made it inevitable that novel conceptions of divinity should arise there (compare the divergent monastic practices of the insular sanctuaries of contemporary Ireland), it is nonetheless certain that…
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Convoluted Schemes

translation from The Fourth Burning of London, and other Screwups: the Eventful History of Things Going Wrong, a 2014 textbook written by former lovetale writer Galarça fi Molhomé, who studied domain history at the University of Huzatre in Vascony.

Toð ratiocination convoluð com y ci noscon cossirað jusc oy nell'oc capparol arra pres certan doum damnað, for meðes dec—lonc vegl refrain leonesc—un veskit es inkintabr sur un doçan d'aguil.
Any scheme which is as convoluted as the ones we have seen so far in this chapter is almost certainly doomed, if only because—as they say in Leon—one cannot knit a veskit on a dozen needles.

Conjuraçon criminal partenent, nos porreu a plaç l'astuç dy stel original ne masquira Matthias o Grallon sevir: "Vayað noc vars y Lun por un Jorala accarr".
In the case of criminal plots, we might instead heed the advice of the original icon of masquira Matthias o Grallon: "Do not go to the moon to acquire a Jorala".

Casc pas e conjuraçonnour ancour poun un pognt a sfondranç surcair, e nos parceveu nullig alcun illustration parfaitessem dell'oc axiom a ny decadenç dy staddomain awasoucondesc.
Every new step, every added conspirator is a potential collapse point, and nowhere is this principle more perfectly illustrated than the tale of the downfall of the Awasúconda staddomain.

Situað amont (deg meco atorn derim tras y Fastig Camboscung deur y veðerrem treborth nommað Parnaven) sur y banc dy floy Awasou, l'oc region sta un sodal par comparaçon tart a y band d'instançment enajant jogndr lonc y colon de Cappatia auster.
Situated upstream (several miles inland across the Camboshung Ridge from the older seaport town of Parnaven) on the banks of the Awasú, this region was a relatively late member of the band of export-based settlements along the spine of eastern Cappatia.

praxitel "sculptor"

praxitel /ˌprak.siˈtɛl/ [ˌpʀak.sɪˈtɛw]
- sculptor, artist who produces sculptur and especially statuary
- (sensu latu) artist, one who shows great skill and artistry in their craft
- carving knife, as used in carpentry to pare or smooth wood and as used to cut large cooked meat dishes
- ski, one of a pair of long flat runners designed for gliding over snow
- (archaic or ironically) gynophile, lover of women, one who appreciates the female form to an exaggerated extent

Etymology: in the first sense attested from the fourteenth century, a genericisation from renowned Athenian sculptor Praxiteles. First citation of more general use for skilled craftspeople is in the poetry of Dronimir, while the knife sense appears roughly contemporaneously in expository culinary texts.

Meaning "ski" it is a clipping of earlier sci praxitel "sculptor's ski", originally referring to a specific type of ski shaped so as to experience less friction in turns. Finally, the sculptor Praxiteles' work on the nude female body inspired the late eighteenth-century varsity slang term, which spread into more widespread use in the following decades and survives in the language mostly as a self-consciously old-fashioned term.

Saveð vos cal praxitel gravau y Mechanismi di Helio?
/saˈvɛθ vo kal ˌprak.siˈtɛl graˈvo i ˌme.ka.niˈsmi di heˈljo/
[sɐˈvɛh vo kaw ˌpʀak.sɪˈtɛw gʀɐˈvo i ˌme.kɐ.nɪˈzmi di hɪˈljo]
know-2p 2p which sculptor carve-pst def Mechanismi di Helio
Do you know which sculptor carved the Mechanisms of Helios?

deðal "thimble"

deðal /deˈðal/ [dɪˈðaw]
- thimble, cup-shaped cap worn on the tip of a finger and used in sewing to push a needle through material
- thimbleful, traditional unit of liquid volume denoting as much as fits in a thimble and which is equal to roughly half a millilitre
- (by extension) a vague but small amount of liquid, especially of alcoholic spirits

Etymology: From Old Boral deiðal, de(ȝ)dal "thimble" (in various forms), descending from Latin digitālis "belonging to the finger". Coexisted with non-native thumel, an Old English borrowing, before supplanting it outside rural western dialects by the seventeenth century.

Y gant distr a my gamma ayen un deðal pagnt ig.
/i gant ˈdi.str̩ a mi gaˈma ɛˈjɛn ɪn deˈðal pɛjnt aj/
[i gant ˈdɪs.tʀ‿a mi gɐˈma ɪˈʝɛn ɪn dɪˈðaw pɛjnt aj]
def glove right at 1s.gen grandma have-impf-3p indef thimble attach-ptcp.pst there
My grandma's right glove had a thimble built-in.

frigsar "to fry"

frigsar /frajˈzar/ [fʀɐjˈzɑː]
- to fry, to cook food in a pan with oil or similar fat
- to aggravate, provoke, incite, to cause someone or a group of people to become angry or outraged

Etymology: first attested in early Modern Boral, apparently a backformation from noun frigsoir "frying pan" and replacing earlier verb frigr < Latin frīgō "I roast, fry, parch". The noun is an Old Boral derivation with the tool suffix -oir, modelled on the past participle friȝs < Insular Latin frīxus "roasted, fried". Use of the verb in the sense "aggravate" is first seen in the nineteenth century.

J'er pol frigsant je ados cas mey.
/ʒɛr pɔl frajˈzant ʒe aˈdɔz kaz mi/
[ʒɛː pɔw fʀɐjˈzan(t) ʒjɐˈdɔz kaz mi]
1s=cop.ipf chicken fry-ptcp.prs day.of behind home.of 1s.dsj
I was frying chicken at home yesterday.

The Mysarnos Codex

taken from popular narrative history book The Mysarnos Problem: the Enigma of an Inconvenient Codex, by classical historian Theodora Riphæna, a vocative writer who studied at the Autonome University of Thessalonica. Known for compiling centuries-spanning epics about the journey of a single idea, technology or artefact, this book on the Mysarnos Codex was published in 1943 through her alma mater's printers.

…pages rediscovered in the Library of Sobjan [Pécs, Hungary] including the vital clue: the same text—a fictionalised biography of the author—written both in Greek and in the code (as then it was still thought to be) of the manuscript.

But lest we get ahead of ourselves, let us return to the city where our saga begins. The city of Mysarnos is the former capital of the Principality of the Morea [the Peloponnese], a Roman mordether [1] vassal state from the eleventh century until its dissolution as a result of the Romantic Wars in the seventeenth. The name has retrospectively also been applied to the nearby preexisting Greek town (which was later officially incorporated as a municipality of Mysarnos) known in antiquity as Pylos.

At its height in the sixteenth century Mysarnos was a hub for the Revitalist movement, with a population of nearly thirty thousand. Located at the western end of the Athenian Way, the city recieved the majority of all trade imports in Greece. The recent completion of an extended church complex north of the city furthermore led to…

---

[1] A term (from Middle Welsh morteth "sea voyage") denoting various kingdoms and similar states on the Mediterranean founded by sojourners from northern Europe, but usually excluding those established in the Holy Land as integral parts of the contemporaneous crusades.
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A Markish Castle

excerpted in translation from trevold Children of the Battle of Rexam, written in 1931 by schoolteacher Jon Paldreth.

Noc obstroint l'er fait poy martial de character, Andreu ant sy ment indeslocabr a jainç e sepostion nonscalent vars tact naðeu vole dar ig jo fos incaint a carceration souvar entr y mur dy Castel Safford lon tarm, ben fin a i sceus me benoçar megl.
Though he was not particularly martial-minded, Andrew's uncompromising tactical nous and cavalier disregard for simple diplomacy meant I would likely languish as a prisoner at Safford Castle indefinitely, or until he could put me to some better use.

Val poy; y cambr sta calt cos bel degnant y morostað de janver tras port, ant un foy kirtant eudæmon sou tapeçment lonc un victoir markesc ancour descreint—j'appone—tandy y pardastr afont no sta bogr discernibr.
No matter; the room was warm despite the January gloom outside, a merrily-crackling fire under a long tapestry depicting—I assumed—another Markish victory, though it was anyone's guess against whom.

Ag mur atras, jo saveu des y clartað dy ci quarrel ig il forn cos recent affis all'oc ans veil, accas plausibr ne carganç des y hal dy praxitel bavarn.
On the other wall, the clarity of the panes suggested they were a recent addition to this old wing, possibly commissioned from the Bavarn masters.

Allors aye jo plusour fenestr parceut y veðr zajadau dy siecr derran tenent tojorn, un vert obægr surcaint just inequivalibr par y lumner a tijon.
Elsewhere I had noticed many windows still held the jackdaw glass of the previous century, in a sickly green that could not quite be offset with torchlight.

nacleu "slope"

nacleu /naˈklaw/
[noun]
- slope, incline, gradient, an area of ground that tends evenly upward or downward;
- slope, gradient, the extent to which an area of ground tends upward or downward;
- (mathematics) derivative, gradient, the slope of the tangent line to a curve at a point or the function defining the slope at all points;
[adjective]
- sloping, inclined, tending evenly upward or downward;
- oblique, askew, neither in line with nor perpendicular to a given base;
- awry, off-course, crooked, improperly out of place
- (by extension) amiss, fishy, suspicious, having gone wrong or being faulty/othrwise incorrect;
[adverb]
- uphill, downhill, in a direction along a slope or incline;
- off course, in an unintended or unfavourable direction

Etymology: first seen in Old Boral n(e) acliv /n aˈklɪw/ "uphill", an adverb formed by the fusion of preposition ne "in" with acliv < Latin acclīvis "sloped, rising, steep". To explain the early broadening also to "downhill, sloped downward", some have suggested influnce from a word *decliv < dēclīvis "sloping downward", but this is not attested in Old Boral text.

In the Middle Boral period the word quickly gains traction as an adjective (the metaphorical extensions to "awry, off course" occurring in both parts of speech simultaneously). As a noun it only overtakes now-obsolete appent "slope" < appendr "to lean, tilt" in the seventeenth century.

Nostr y majon er costroit sur rout nacleu.
/ˈnɔs.tr̩ i maˈʒɔn ɛr koˈstrɔjt sɪr rut naˈklaw/
[ˈnɔs.tʀ‿i mɐˈʒɔn ɛː kʊˈstʀɔjt sɪː ʀut nɐˈklaw]
1p.gen def house cop.ipf build-ptcp.pst on street sloping
Our house was built on a sloping street.

voncir "wax"

voncir /vɔnˈtsɪr/ [vʊnˈdzɪː]
- wax, any oily solid or semisolid substance and usually long-chain organic compounds;
- (specifically) beeswax, secreted by bees from which they make honeycomb;
- polish, glaze, shiny protective (especially waterproof) coating, traditionally consisting of beeswax

Etymology: the word appears in various forms in Old Boral—voncer, vounceir "beeswax", among others—and while the second syllable descends unprobematically from Latin cēra "wax, beeswax, honeycomb", the first syllable is of unclear etymology.

Most accepted (though rather ad-hoc) is the theory that the first syllable derives from Old Engish bēon "bees", possibly influenced in its first consonant by Old Boral aveȝle "bee" < Latin apicula "little bee". Less likely is compounding with a hypothetical Old Boral word *awon /awˈvɔn/ "beehive", which could descend regularly from a Latin *alvō, alvōnis, an unattested declension variant of alvus/alveus "hollow, cavity, beehive".

L'eç bojay ne voncir acataust vos ou?
/lɛts boˈʒe ne vɔnˈtsɪr ˌa.kaˈtost vo u/
[lɛs bʊˈʒi ne vʊnˈdzɪː‿ˌʁa.kɐˈtos(t) vo ʔu]
def=prx.p candle in beeswax buy-pst.2p 2p q
Was it you who bought these beeswax candles?

zachet "glue"

zachet /zaˈkɛt/
- adhesive, glue, a substance that binds things together
- (especially) mortar, grout, mixture of lime or cement, sand and water used in construction as a binding agent
- solder, easily-melted alloy, often of tin and lead, used to mend or join metal objects

Etymology: from the thirteenth century in Middle Boral zachet "mortar", a borrowing from Barcelon or Mozara zaqueta "mortar, cement". This comes from earlier lazaco, lazaqueta via reanalysis of the first syllable as the definite article, and is a borrowing from Andalus Arabic لَزَاق <lazāq> "adhesive, glue".

The rebroadening of the word to "adhesive" in later Boral has been used to suggest that zaqueta itself was once used more broadly, but there is no textual evidence of this. In its metallurgical sense it is seen from the eighteenth century as a clipping from zachet metal "metal glue".

Y fraðr dou eurn cosogr com zachet.
/i ˈfra.ðr̩ du ˈaw.rn̩ koˈzɔjr̩ kɔm zaˈkɛt/
[i ˈfʀa.ðɐ du ˈa.wɐn kʊˈzɔ.jɐ kɔm zɐˈkɛt]
def brother two go.pst-3p as.a.set as glue
The two brothers stuck together like glue.

The Mysarnos Codex, cont.

further excerpt from history book The Mysarnos Problem: the Enigma of an Inconvenient Codex, written in 1943 by classical historian Theodora Riphæna.

…north of the city furthermore led to a theological flourishing both before and after the Great Fracture which so severely hobbled the Roman Papacy.

The name of the city itself is usually held to refer to the venerable maple trees for which region has been known since Classical times; most suggestive is modern Welsh mysarn "maple wood", but also compare Kentish mazre, Vascon mausòn "maple".

The author of the Mysarnos Codex has never been conclusively identified, and this book will not pretend to have done so; what is relatively certain is that it was composed—or at least first stored—at the Library of Saint George the Martyr, one of the largest buildings within the aforementioned church complex. What is frustrating is that we have access to extant and complete membership records for the various monasteries and other institutions in the area for almost the entire sixteenth century, and biographical information for many among them. Nonetheless, no mention is made by any of the surviving chronicles of the production of the Mysarnos Codex.

Originally comprising over two hundred illustrated vellum folios lined with incomprehensible but clearly meaningful symbols (at most 200 different glyphs—occasionally it can be difficult to tell if two glyphs are merely stylistic variations of each other or different glyphs entirely—appear through the entire codex), the text has baffled historians and linguists for centuries. The illustrations range from the utterly mundane to the fantastical; on either side of a spread one might see both a field of poppies and armoured men on the backs of four-winged dragons. Assuming the text must refer in some way to these depictions, many have tried to…
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Recipes in Review

cutting of part of a recipe book review, in translation to Borlish, out of the 17th March 1996 edition of the weekly Marsella newpaper Fiellas Dimenja (Sunday Sheets).

POR SONDAÇ: Zaquesc Select poll'Avegl Felaver, par Axel fi Magno
IN REVIEW: Selected Refreshments for the Social Bee, by Axel fi Magno

Y capel commet dant ag volum derran de fi Magno des sy rig a livr cocinancer Select nos affirm ig no scey ni festeul, crevoscr eurað ben raðunanç sengr eð amiabr stant inaðelibr par un ouçon sagaç des l'oc gið.
The introduction to fi Magno's newest entry in his renowned Selected series of recipe books assures us that no soirée, no carrow's-eve and no simple friendly get-together cannot be improved with a judicious choice from this volume.

Eð indeniabr es ig l'oc tom a un tagl y stent de sy vangard doblant cos fagl, may a 300 method contenent ant tout entr tatou yarcer e scadom vorpal sur bachet.
And indeed, this tome is easily twice the size of any of its predecessors, containing over 300 recipes with everything from haskent tover to stack-die shadomes.

Vray fos jo my deut fugnt si jo n'aus certan dell'eç method attis a cogr com mey; y kyriel a kynous appos par fi Magno ig vos arreð sou man no's irraçonabr demay, pu meðes ci parmy vous sceindessem derim posn desirar y vanc mar kiglar.
I would have been remiss not to try making a few of these recipes for myself; the range of ingredients that fi Magno supposes you have available is not too unreasonable, although those further inland may wish to avoid the seafood.

yarç "grate"

yarç /jarts/ [ʝɑːts]
- (obsolete or dialect) harrow, device dragged along ploughed land to break up the soil;
- portcullis, gate in the form of a grating which is lowered into place at the entrance to a castle or fort;
- trellis, pergola, grating in the form of walls or a passageway used to support climbing plants;
- (by extension) lattice, grate, grill, frame formed of both horizontal and vertical strip of material often used to allow small objects to pass through while large objects cannot

Etymology: from Old Boral yarce, yerce "harrow, portcullis" (among other attested forms), itself from Medieval Latin hercia "harrow", which presumably derives from Classical hirpex, hirpicis with the same meaning (although the phonetic development is unclear).

Use for portcullises is very early, while extension to gardening and more general usage is only attested from the fifteenth century, particularly with reference to gratings used to catch specific types of fish.

Nos flannaum pall'yarç colloir ant yeðrot parlocant.
/no flaˈnom paˈljarts koˈlɔjr ant jɛðˈrɔt ˌpar.loˈkant/
[no flɐˈnom pɐˈljɑː(t)s kʊˈlɔ.jɐ‿ʀant jɪˈʀɔt ˌpɑː.lʊˈkant]
1p amble-pst.1p through.def=grate corridor with ivy flank-ptcp.prs
We ambled down the pergola with ivy all around us.

vorpal "diced"

vorpal /vɔrˈpal/ [vʊːˈpaw]
- diced, cut into small cubes as a preparation in cooking;
- cubic, boxy, having the shape of a cube
- (of lodgings) cramped, not spacious, uncomfortably restricted in size or space
- pixellated, blocky, of disappointingly low resolution

Etymology: originally in the culinary sense, a borrowing in the late eighteenth century from Normal vourpel "diced", itself from Saxon wurpel "die, cube". This is a native word descending from Classical German vurpilas "die" (compare Bavarn würfil with the same meaning).

To refer to housing it is attested since the nineteenth century, at around the same time as the use for imagery—in that sense, it is an 1821 calque from Provincial icon dau "die image" used to criticise the newly unveiled Steeplepost Tapestry in Ambrosia.

Cu a l'oc ugnlac vorpal laiscað jois ty panner?
/ki a lɔk ajnˈlak vɔrˈpal leˈxaθ ʒɔjz ti paˈnɛr/
[kja lɔg ɐjnˈlak vʊːˈpaw lɪˈxah ʒɔjz ti pɐˈnɛː]
who have.sg def=sg.prx onion diced leave-ptcp.pdt next.to 2s.gen breadbin
Who's left this diced onion next to the breadbin?

kyriel "gamut"

kyriel /kiˈrjɛl/ [ˌkɪ.ʀɪˈʝɛw]
- (dated) a sort of short Christian prayer set to music;
- (musical) scale, sequence of notes usually contained within a single octave;
- procedure, rigmarole, a particular (often long or tiresome) method for performing a task
- range, gamut, spectrum, a complete selection of things;
- scope, compass, reach, the full extent within some scale that can be obtained or managed

Etymology: borrowed in the sixteenth century from French kyrielle, referring both to prayer set to music and to a musical scale (originally in particular the Phrygian mode, but by the time it was borrowed the usage had broadened). This word is a diminutive of kyrié, itself originally from Greek Κύριε ἐλέησον <Kúrie eléēson> "Lord, have mercy".

Vostr y neuç cant d'un kyriel infalagover.
/ˈvɔs.tr̩ i nawts kant dɪn kiˈrjɛl inˌfa.la.goˈvɛr/
[ˌvɔs.tʀɪˈnawts kant dɪn ˌki.ʀɪˈʝɛl ɪɱˌfa.lɐ.gʊˈvɛː]
2pl.gen def niece sing of=indef range impressive
Your niece has an impressive singing range.

The Terrene Tax

excerpt taken from the condensed study materials (2008 N, fourth edition) for the course Histoir Concorrent, s16 : Mort, Vascel eð y Motion Celest (in English, Concurrence History of the 16th Century: Death, Ships and the Movement of the Heavens) taught at the New Vithor School and based on the normal itineraries from Cordin Editions.

…saphires purpel and petal embroderie” to church, although the veracity of this account is disputed.

However, one should be careful not to construe the strengthening negotiating position of the peasantry with respect to their landlords as a broad levelling of the hierarchies of sixteenth-century Europe. In many places central authorities (usually monarchs, although bear in mind the Latin republics—in particular Provence—as well as the eastern patriarchates) took swift advantage of the local nobility's declining power in order to consolidate their own. For example, it has been argued that this process in Rome led directly to the Great Fracture and the accession of the Triunvirato (about which more in Section 13: Revitalist Art and Theory).

After the death of Joseph III in 1534 N (accusations of an unnatural demise have been sporadically levelled but are unsubstantiable), his nephew and successor Brandon II almost immediately sought to exploit his position by levying a terrene tax on landholders across the land. His uncle having never succeeded in producing a natural-born heir, despite several illegitimate children by his various mistresses, Brandon would have been well aware of his inheritance and seems to have spent much of the decades prior winning hearts and minds at court.

There are two consequences of this tax which we will discuss here. The first is that, due to the necessity of an accurate account of the land held by…
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Independent Provence

excerpted from The Latin Republics: Jewels under Tyrian Standards, written by Jacob Trelaune and published 1902 by the Yievle Brethin Primers.

Appos tant—Amigòt degnau noc nos sarvir par un chronic mantenent—es ig sy regn durau ogtoç annað por sceus Menton garantir sy hereter triað vole soutien pres unanim recevir dy Concert, l'edifiç de legifiçour provençal ant form emprontað dell'oc veneçan.
It is also supposed—Amigòt did not do us the service of keeping a chronicle—that his rule lasted eighteen years to allow Menton to ensure his chosen successor enjoyed near-unanimous support of the Concert, the Provincial legislative house modelled after the Venetians'.

Sell'ouçon faïð Raimond Aurellex, ayent sy sour y jundressem mariðað e dont y fraðr Lohis fo mort cant i fey caf poll'assaut ag Battagl de Satillew, perisceu d'un mescanç caucer ne 1511 (eð y recordation commun noc obstroint, l'oc cainç particuler sta cos implausibr occijon).
His first choice Raimond Aurellex, who had married his youngest sister and whose brother Lohis had died leading the charge at the Battle of Satillew, died in a hunting accident in 1511 (and despite the popular understanding, this particular incident was likely not an assassination).

Toð case final, y Concert eligeu y cosvour de Menton, Antoin Amigòt, por y Concert gournar sou y cur glacent e giðanç martial de daus Sanz, Daniel Menton sell'influyenç issarnt lon dout apar magn posc i soloy ombisc cos nominal.
In the end, the Concert elected Menton's cousin Antoin Amigòt to lead the Concert under the close attention and martial guidance of daus Sanz, through whom Daniel Menton doubtless exercised his influence long after his nominal stepping down.

sviðour "fan"

sviðour /sviˈður/ [zvɪˈðʊː]
- (archaic) day labourer, itinerant worker, one who travels to find employ which is usually temporary and revocable at any time
- patron, regular, customer of an establishment who is a reliable source of custom and so is well-known there
- fan, enthusiast, aficionado, one who admires a particular person or thing usually to the point of zealotry

Etymology: originally in the first sense (all the newer senses are attested from the late nineteenth century only), having shifted slightly from the more specific "(itinerant) farm labourer". In this use it is an agentive derivation from earlier (and similarly archaic) svið "area of farmland, especially one that has been newly-cleared for cultivation".

This noun descends from Old Boral svið(re) "field cleared by burning; the practice of clearing fields for cultivation by burning", which is a borrowing either from Old Norse sviða "to burn" or from sviðna "to be burnt".

Jo no sta jamay sviðour de fic.
/ʒo no sta ʒaˈme sviˈður de fɪk/
[ʒo nʊˈsta ʒɐˈme zvɪˈðʊː de ˈfɪk]
1s neg be.ipfv never fan of fig
I've never been a fan of figs.

goðamer "bigoted"

goðamer /ˌgo.ðaˈmɛr/ [ˌgo.ðɐˈmɛː]
- sectarian, dogmatic, expressing fervent support for one set of religious beliefs over others or being unduly concerned with distinctions between people of different religious beliefs
- parochial, narrow-minded, having restricted or rigid views and being unreceptive to new ideas or focusing on local concerns to the exclusion of wider contexts
- (less charitably) bigoted, prejudiced, intolerant, forming negative opinions of groups of people without just cause

Etymology: adjectival derivation from goðam "sectarian person, dogmatist, chauvinist, bigot", itself attested from the early Middle Boral period originally in the sense "religious hypocrite, sanctimonious person, holier-than-thou person".

This comes from thirteenth-century French (likely Norman) godame, which was first used to refer to the Kentish and other English people in a derogatory manner, and is an adaptation of oath "God damn (thee)". Some commentators have suggested a source in various crusader bands of mixed Kentish and Norman soldiers, although there was sufficient contact ordinarily that such a supposition is not particularly necessary.

Nos creim vos desfayað y morrig goðamer acconnoscr.
/no krim vo ˌdɛs.fɛˈjaθ i moˈraj ˌgo.ðaˈmɛr ˌa.koˈnɔ.xr̩/
[no kʀim vo dɛs.fɪˈja‿ði mʊˈʀaj ˌgo.ðɐˈmɛː‿ˌʀa.kʊˈnɔ.xɐ]
1p believe-1p 2p disprefer-2p.sbj def aunt bigoted meet-inf
We believe you'd prefer not to meet our bigoted aunt.

quagl "quail, curds"

quagl /kwɛjl/ [ˈkwɛ.jʊ]
(1)
- quail, any of various small game birds related to pheasants or partridges, or the meat from such a bird eaten as food
- (more generally) quarry, an animal which is hunted or by extension a person or object which is being pursued
(2)
- curds, the part of milk that coagulates when it sours or is treated with enzymes
- any of several pressed, unmatured cheeses made from curdled milk with a high melting point and therefore popular in fried dishes

Etymology: in the senses at (1), a descendant of Late Latin quaccola "quail" with a somewhat irregular outcome—we would expect quacr /ˈkwa.kr̩/. One way to resolve this is to hypothesise an intermediate variant *quacula having undergone degemination; another is to suggest that the word was reborrowed from Old French coaille, which has the same origin. The metaphorical extension to other sought-after things is attested from the poetry of the sixteenth century, though is likely earlier.

In the senses at (2), a descendant of Late Latin quāglum < coāgulum "milk curd", reinforced by Portingale or Leon quallo from traders in the Old Boral period (explaining the retention of initial qu- where we would expect c-).

Vail l'ig quagl star y quagl pascent?
/vel laj kwɛjl star i kwɛjl ˈpa.xn̩t/
[vew laj ˈkwɛ.jʊ stɑː‿ʀi ˈkwɛ.jʊ ˈpa.xɐn(t)]
worth.sbj def=s.dst quail be0inf def curds eat-ptcp.prs
Should that quail be eating the curds?

Vikings in Dumnonia

in excerpt from reference quire On the Dane Supremacy in Kernow [Brittany] and the Creation of Normandy, written by University of Thelmass [Le Mans] deixist historian Professor Jockin Abiscander and published (originally in Norman as Du Promineth Dask en Cornow dot la Genese Normande) in 1934 by the school's printers.

…his thrice great-grandfather Vigo the Magnificent, however tempting the comparison might be from a modern perspective.

Crowned only three years earlier in 883 N and having already suffered the blow of losing the Siege of Avron and ceding the fort and town to the expanding territories of Duke Fargot, who had been appointed by Rothed the Canny to the march, Alan III of Dumnonia cannot be said to have enjoyed an auspicious early reign. Almost the only source of stability in the realm was the loyalty of his vassal and nephew Gorvan of Kernow (or Golleck, accounts differ) to whom Alan had granted dominion of Devon.

Most pressing was the inexorable rise in Viking activity along the coast. Raids along the Seine and the Orne had begun in earnest some decades prior, but now spread west; even the monastery at Landvennick was burned to the ground in 888 N. Nor were the Danes' activities confined to looting; on both sides of the Channel war leaders took advantage of political instability (the collapse of Wessex in the north and the Lombard disputes in the south) to conquer territory and settle. There is evidence of such Danish settlement even past the Vire river, part of the Franco-Dumnonian border as agreed in the eighth-century Catumagin Accords, although when this fiefdom was officially ceded by the Franks in the tenth century to form Normandy the Vire remained the border.

Later in-migration of the Normans (including here in Thelmass) aside, one might be forgiven for imagining that a weakened Frankish presence at Dumnonia's borders would be a boon for…
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A Complete Woman

translated from Una Complerta (A Complete Woman), a 1902 trevold written by Vascon-born Valencian Gonçala Jaubèt, occupying a transitional place between the obsolescent genre of sojourner tales and the newer housebound ænigmata.

Si l'aus un curtel frivol cossirabr posseïð lor plausibr sta i volois le triað por aziar fier accougl, pu i no l'aye.
If she’d owned a gown that could be called frivolous she might have selected it to demonstrate solidarity, but she did not.

I mis sy collar y reloðessem, un rascou ne perl gran luy dað com bricot de Hulda, e pastisceu cos lejar l'idea d'y magð assignar a sy cavel compondr n'un form minutiosessem, pu toverstau.
She donned her best necklace, a grain-pearl rascow [choker] that had been a gift from Hulda, and toyed with the idea of asking the maid to arrange her hair into something more elaborate, but lost her nerve.

No sceye un sorty for insolemn. Conrad vole creir ig i sta fol denuð. Par sell'obstinacy tardisceu i jusc surcair y derran a entrar ny salon.
It was only an informal sorty. Conrad would think she’d run mad. Her reluctance delayed her to the point that she was the last into the parlour.

Ja scey casc autr hom, casc gent taçoirn, e l'atmospher cant l'aulau afont portau toll'exuberanç fujonner d'un torvegl.
Everyone else was there, everyone was silent, and the atmosphere as she walked in had all the joie de vivre of a thunderstorm.

fabr "tale"

fabr /ˈfa.br̩/ [ˈfa.bɐ]
- tale, story, narrative, the account of a sequence of events with strong connotations of being fictional (compare stoir, narrað);
- play, production, performance, story told via live actors in a theatre;
- (by extension) drama, adventure, excitement, implausible events resembling those of popular theatre;
- (in philosophy) matter, concern, a particular topic under discussion or relevant to a scenario

Etymology: from Old Boral fable "fable, tale" a semi-learned borrowing (possibly via Old French) from Latin fabula "narrative, story". Seen in the sense of "play" from the thirteenth century, which may be an independent development or perhaps influenced by Classical usage of fabula to mean "poem, dramatic narration". The philosophical sense, first seen in the nineteenth century, is definitely a learned use from the Classical word, which could be used in that way.

Nos vail tout un picq poy de fabr a nostr y jorn.
/no vel tut ɪn pɪk pɔj de ˈfa.br‿a ˈnɔ.str‿i ʒɔrn/
nʊˈvew tut ɪmˈpɪk pɔj de ˈfa.bʀ‿a ˈnɔ.stʀ‿i ʒɔːn/
1p worth.sbj all indef little less of drama to 1p.poss def day
We could all do with a bit less excitement in our lives.

vivirc "leeway"

vivirc /viˈvirk/ [vɪˈvɪːk]
- legroom, breathing space, room to move, adequate space such that one does not feel constrained;
- leeway, latitude, margin, an amount of freedom or flexibility to change to make alternative decisions or to pursue other courses of action, especially any involving only minor alterations to one's present situation or course;
- respite, downtime, a moment between work or other activity for one to recover one's breath

Etymology: of unclear origin, but attested from the fourteenth century in the first sense. Thought to be related to Sothbar dialect term vrikir "to squirm, wriggle", which is a borrowing from Germanic (probably Old Dutch, cf. modern wricke "to pry, wrench").

The first syllable is somewhat problematic; ideophonic reduplication is possible but not otherwise seen in the language. The suggestion of Yaskirç that it descends from Latin via "road, way, route" is not generally credited.

Metaphoric extension to leeway in general and downtime in particular is seen with certainty from the latter half of the seventeenth century, although the development is likely earlier (as the new senses appear in texts from different areas almost simultaneously, implying that they were well-established in the lexicon).

Nos n'arreu magn vivirc neðan y scon vec kiglar.
/no naˈraw mɛjn viˈvirk neˈðan i xɔn vɛk kajˈlar/
[no nɐˈʀaw mɛjɱ vɪˈvɪːk nɪˈðan i xɔɱ vɛk kɐjˈlɑː]
1p neg=have.fut-1p big leeway lest def second bus miss-inf
We won't have much leeway to catch the second bus.

vabianclosnautr "ramshackle"

vabianclosnautr /vaˌbjan.kloˈsno.tr̩/ [ˌva.bɪˌjaŋ.klʊˈzno.tɐ]
- dilapidated, tumbledown, ramshackle, in a deplorable state lacking maintenance and upkeep;
- obsolete, deprecated, antiquated, no longer in use or neglected in favour of something newer;
- void, null, invalid, no longer having any effect or now being considered irrelevant

Etymology: compound of the two Middle Boral words vabȝan "woebegone, in a sorry state" and closnautre "beset, hagridden, burdened", originally both in reference to people. The former is borrowed from Old English wābegān "beset by woe", while the latter descends (it is thought, via some vulgar adverbial form) from Latin clausus "enclosed, shut off, inaccessible".

The shift from referring to people towards referring to buildings or vehicles (and later in extended use as above) took place slowly in the Revitalist and Romantic periods and was complete by the turn of the eighteenth century; in modern usage, if the word refers to a person it references their outdated fashions, affect or beliefs and not their emotional state.

L'oc majon dien vabianclosnauterrem casc annað.
/lɔk maˈʒɔn djɛn ˌva.bjanˌklo.snoˈtɛ.rɛm kax aˈnaθ/
[lɔ(g) mɐˈʒɔn djɛn ˌva.bjɐŋˌklo.znʊˈtɛ.ʀɐm kax ɐˈnah]
def=s.prx house become dilapidated-comp each year
This house gets more run-down every year.

Roman-Celtic Syncretism

extract taken from historical reference The Boral Province in the century after Hadrian, published in 1952 (originally in Borlish as Y Provinç Boral par siecr posc Hadrian) by Cordin Editions and written by concurrence (in this case, late classical) historian Robiaut Scarvon.

…shrine to the seen in the aftermath of his failed rebellion in the first century N as an aspect of Govan, the Keltic god of smithcraft.

Just as the Romans did across the rest of the empire (particularly in Greece and Egypt, about which see Trabont 39), the pre-existing sacred practices and divinities on Borland were interpreted through the lens of and recast in the mould of the Roman pantheon. This could be based on really quite tenuous analogies—for example, the old worship of Nahalennia along the southern and western coasts of the island, who was a goddess of trade and the ocean, was absorbed for unclear reasons into the cult of Pluto and she was syncretised with his wife Proserpina (Hamerton 41 has suggested a link via wealth; Pluto/Dis Pater is connected to the mineral wealth of the earth).

Other deities were more localised or connected inextricably to particular geographical features, and as such could be incorporated painlessly into the Roman religious landscape. Just as there was Tamesis in Britannia and Sequana in Gaul, the river now called Reim was once personified as the god Reagimos (also seen in inscriptions as Drahimus and less commonly with multiple other spellings). Some years ago the remains of a marble temple built some decades after the founding of the Roman city of Pons Seianus were unearthed, revealing…
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The Emeralds are a Red Herring

excerpt in translation from trevold Y Smaraut son Piescrat "The Emeralds are a Red Herring", one of the early successes in the housebound enigma genre. Written in 1908 by Ausçagm-born author Norrasc Yvauron, the idea for the novel and in particular its Ambrosian setting were likely inspired by her travels in Mendeva and her time in the literary circles of Zaigmonisca.

"Or." Hemma parolau de vois kieð demay.
“Well." Hemma's voice was too calm.

"Vray dis jo incoïbr es traiçon. Por mell'envou, repars tu for oy calscon bravur exiguous teyon accomblabr zelous, ben es tu un pascaret trayour lonc y mesur?"
"I did say it always ends in betrayal. Out of interest, did you only now lose whatever excuse for a spine you possess, or have you been a treacherous little rat all along?"

I poðe noc y frigçon a Monick mesveir. "Ja's indeniabr; sou ty man so jo clavir. Ne vertað, jo vil toð adolanç te dar por y sona de credola lon art hamtar si bel."
She couldn't miss Monick's flinch. "Of course you have; you played me like a fiddle. Truly, I must applaud your dedication to the role of hapless ingénue."

Marça se pleyau eç ogl. "Vel le deniar, Monick."
Marça’s eyes narrowed. “Surely you didn’t, Monick.”

"Pu i poð noc, certan," dis Hemma cos brutal.
“Of course she did,” Hemma said viciously.

"Bon Deu, Monick, val tu parform ne fabr. Ben ig tu laur plu ag tragçment e te dedey vars lucr fair con tell'experiç real. Y majon de Camin d'Arquèr veln te benoçar lon vacillar, untal agreç a tu vars star benoçað."
“Really, Monick, you ought to be on the stage. Or give up the illustrations and dedicate yourself to selling what you’re actually good at. They could use you on Camin d'Arquèr, for how good you are at being used."

sbolognment "burden"

sbolognment /ˌsbo.lɔjnˈmɛnt/ [ˌzbo.lʊjmˈmɛn(t)]
- chore, burden, onus, an unwanted obligation imposed upon one;
- (more concretely) encumbrance, load, something unwieldy to carry around with one

Etymology: sixteenth-century noun derivation from verb sbolognar "to foist upon, saddle with", borrowed from synonymous Italian sbolognare in the Revitalist period. This verb is presumably a pejorative derivation from the name of the city Bologna, although the cultural context that led to the current sense is not well understood.

Sbolognment sera toll'eç kynous cavir pront candon recas.
/ˌsbo.lɔjnˈmɛnt seˈra toˈlɛts kiˈnuz kaˈvir prɔnt kanˈdɔn reˈkaz/
[ˌzbo.lʊjmˈmɛnt sɪˈʀa tʊˈlɛs kɪˈnuz kɐˈvɪː pʀɔn kɐnˈdɔn ʀɪˈkaz]
chore be-fut all.def=p.prx ingredient get-inf available when require-ptcp.pst
It must be a pain needing to have all these ingredients to hand.

outrscac "brazen"

outrscac /ˌu.tr̩ˈxak/ [ˌu.tɐˈxak]
- (archaic, poetic or tongue-in-cheek) unconstrained, free, not subject to physical restraint or bondage;
- unrestrained, immoderate, not held in check by convention or social pressure;
- shameless, unblushing, impudent, audacious, brazen, acting boldly or shockingly in the teeth of (felt or expected) embarrassment

Etymology: from early Middle Boral expression outre scac "(in chess) not capable of being put in check" (literally "beyond check"), quickly extended to simply mean "not subject to any compulsion or restraint".

The preposition, which in modern Boral has shifted to outr "complete, total, absolute", descends from Latin ultra "beyond". The noun scac "chess; check" descends from Medieval Latin scaccus "check", originally from Persian شاه‎ (šâh, “king”).

Nos voum noc sy volary outrscac venjar ou?
/no vum nɔk si ˌvo.laˈri ˌu.tr̩ˈxak vɛnˈʒar u/
[no vun nɔ(k) si ˌvo.lɐˈʀi ˌu.tɐˈxak vɪɲˈʒɑː u]
1p fut-1p neg 3s.gen theft-coll brazen punish q
Are we just going to ignore his brazen thievery?

gam sgarant "wanderlust"

gam sgarant /gam sgaˈrant/ [ˌgan.zgɐˈʀan(t)]
- wanderlust, itchy feet, a strong impulse or longing to travel;
- malaise, a generalised sense of dissatisfaction with one's current circumstances

Etymology: the phrase literally means "legs wandering" and is attested from the eighteenth century. The noun gam descends from Late Latin gamba, which itself is from Ancient Greek κάμπη (kámpē) "turn, bend".

The verb sgarar "to wander, get lost" comes from Old Boral isgarar "to lead astray", a borrowing from Old French esgarer in the same sense. This is a derivation of garer "to place, position" which is from Frankish warón "to guard, keep watch".

Gam sgarant me cof donc j'enfugheu.
/gam sgaˈrant me kɔf dɔnk ˌʒɛn.fajˈaw/
[ˌgan.zgɐˈʀan(t) mɪˈkɔf dɔŋk ˌʒɛɱ.fɐˈʝaw]
leg wander-ptcp.prs 1s.acc get.pst so 1s=run.away-pst
Wanderlust called me and so I ran away.

Middlesea Meals

excerpt from acclaimed 1880 mealbook Pasti Mezziterreni (Middlesea Meals). The book was written by world-traveller Giosforo Sant'Angelo, youngest son of the last Marksman of Cremuna, and it popularised the use of autobiographical anecdotes to separate and give context for the various recipes within.

Cypriot Pan-Farrago (Χαλουμ Κομαρ)

Unless you have the good fortune to hail from the sea-Masreck (although I hear the Arcabil staddenzen have a similar cheese, there made of course with cow's milk), you will need to content yourself to brine-stored Cypriot cheese which, while perfectly appetising in this traditional mélange, is unlikely to match the exquisite meal I took by the sea after a day spent among the ruins of Knossos. One might object that I must simply have been swept up in grandeur, carried along by the weight of aeons behind me; for my part I am inclined to credit the chef.

Wares (for six)
- olive oil
- 4 large tartover [potatoes] per cubos
- several stalk-onions, chopped, bulb and stem apart
- fine jarraspepper spice
- 1п round of Cypriot cheese or other curd per frangos
- 6 eggs

Method
First heat some oil in a broad pan and fry the tartover over gentle fire for a quarter-hour, often stirred (until the pieces crispen and the flesh becomes soft). Add in the stalk-onion bulb and the jarraspepper and cook a little longer.

Subside the mix and heat more oil in the pan, on which fry the cheese until golden. Bring together the tartover and cheese and fully involve while including salt and drypepper in whichever amount suits.

Divide the farrago by covered bowls and hold near the fire, then crack the eggs into the seasoned pan and fry as desired. Finally place the eggs atop each dish and scatter with the rest of the stalk-onion.
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Developments in Philosophy

excerpted from the 1998 scholastic quire Sviluppi in Philosophia dal Periodo Revitalisto (Developments in Philosophy since the Revitalist Period) by historical deixist Jovanna Ariperto, researcher at the Autonome University of Saint Marinus in Romaine.

L'ouvr de Desselut vole remanir irreconnuð tras dou dezein apen (deut majortaðer ag scompigl dell'Abat Democratic), e nell'eç annað i vole deïr y combat fugr vars Cantuer norman cos primer e soulor vars Provenç par Lustagn.
Desselut's work would go unrecognised for nearly two decades (due predominantly to the disruption of the Democratic Wars), during which time she would be forced to flee first to Norman Kent and later to Provence, via Lustaine.

Cant l'er ac sojornant ençau i a correspondr con y mathematorg Raymond al Moustafa, oc stant temporane hamtant ne Barcelon sou y patronisment dy Duc d'Aragon.
It was in these years that she began corresponding with mathematician Raymond al Mustafa, who was at the time resident in Barcelon under the Duke of Aragon's patronage.

Lour y lettr nos offriscn un parcevet queglant a methodic primal, pu meðes y dou s'envoloirn may ag ci cohernç issent por við.
Their letters offer a tantalising glimpse into early methodics, although both were more interested in the implications for life.

Desselut ratiocinau ig exist un lengaç vital (parmy sy scaunç a luy i le nommau y Parol Divin) present ny ci cas dy corp.
Desselut inferred the existence of a vital language (in her own writing she called it the Divine Word) present in the cases of the body.

scompigl “turmoil”

scompigl /xɔmˈpajl/ [xʊmˈpa.jʊ]
- disruption, turmoil, upheaval, a state of rapid change and impermanence as an interruption to the flow or sequence of something;
- (more generally) havoc, chaos, widespread devastation or mayhem

also scompiglar /ˌxɔm.pajˈlar/ [ˈxɔm.pɐjˈlɑː] to disrupt, to thow into chaos

Etymology: Borrowed in both noun and verb forms from Italian scompiglio, scompigliare "(to cause a) mess" in the Middle Boral period. The Italian is a derivation of pigliare "to grab", which descends from Latin pilō "to pull out hair, to plunder"—whence also Boral piglar "to loot, pillage" (which may have influenced the modern meaning).

Alcun hom sceu y scompigl redugr ny vesteul.
/alˈkɪn ɔm xaw i xɔmˈpajl reˈdaj.r̩ ni veˈstawl/
[ˌa.gɪˈnɔm xaw i xʊmˈpa.jʊ ʀɪˈda.jɐ ni vɪˈsta.wʊ]
no person be.able.pst def chaos quell-inf in=def foyer
Nobody managed to calm the chaos in the foyer.

udomintel “babysitter”

udomintel /iˌdo.mɪnˈtɛl/ [ɪˌdo.mɪnˈtɛw]
- (dated) nanny, wet nurse, a woman hired to suckle and otherwise look after another woman's infant child;
- babysitter, childminder, person who cares for one or more children for a short period of time in place of their legal guardians

Etymology: nineteenth-century borrowing from Italian udomintello "nursemaid, wet nurse", which is an adaptation of earlier and synonymous Friul udomitel; the insertion of -n- is thought to be by analogy with other household words from the Latin words domus "house", dominus "master, lord". In turn, the Friul is taken from neighbouring Crovatian udomiteł "foster parent, adoptive parent", an agentive derivation of udomiti "to shelter, give home to".

Jo vel hur dar an udomintel.
/ʒo vɛl hɪr dar an iˌdo.mɪnˈtɛl/
[ʒo vɛw hɪː dɑː‿ʀan ɪˌdo.mɪnˈtɛw]
1s will.sbj rent give=inf to=indef babysitter
I would like to hire a babysitter.

vunnastr “merry”

vunnastr /viˈnas.tr̩/ [vɪˈnas.tɐ]
- merry, jolly, festive, full of high spirits and inclined to celebrate;
- (of music) brisk, lively, at a fast tempo and with a light-hearted mood;
- tipsy, a bit drunk, slightly inebriated as one might be at a holiday party

Etymology: from Old Boral wunuast(re) "joyful, joyous", the first part of which is thought to be cognate to Old English wynn "joy, happiness". Direct borrowing of the noun is considered unlikely, however, since it was uncommon in prose and usually confined to poetry. The most commonly held view is that the Old Boral is borrowed from the derived adjective wynfæst "joyful", with the final -r being a later addition by analogy with other adjectives ending in -astre < Latin -aster, -astrum.

Nos broucaum un crevoscr vunnastr accougl.
/nɔz bruˈko ɪn kreˈvɔ.xr̩ viˈnas.tr̩ aˈkujl/
[nɔz bʀʊˈko ɪŋ kʀɪˈvɔ.xɐ vɪˈnast‿ʀɐˈkʊ.jʊ]
1p spend.time-1p.pst indef evening merry together
We spent a merry evening together.

14C Manoscard Music

excerpt from 1976 scholastic quire Shallmews and Fithels: the influence of post-Tetrarchic Hymnal Practice on Popular Music, a textbook of musical history written by clavierman Morency Rivellerson through the Tommarth University Faculty of Domain History's primers in collaboration with the city's Lady Maud Orchestra Public Indreck.

…in the 'farmer duke' tradition of folktales whose interstitial melodies and songs constitute some of the very earliest extant examples of this lineage of musical notation; thanks to recent archival work at the Academy in Santrafew (more about which see chapter 8), we can stage modern performances of this pieces on replica instruments and hear just what the fair-goer of the fourteenth century would have heard.

Nonetheless, the character of these pieces draws upon yet earlier innovations about which we can only make educated guesses. What to make, for example, of the shared use of the manoscard scale [an octatonic scale being the union of the major and minor pentatonic scales] in many of these works? Traditionally we conceive of the manoscard as a Burgund innovation of the late twelfth century, beginning with hymns performed in the religious communities of the eastern Luberon region (and in particular the Sassenine monastery overlooking Manosque, whence the name).

By the time we do have evidence of manoscard melody in contemporary popular music, we see use of the scale across western Europe as far north as Mondwell [Anglesey] and as far south as Bagliemmo [Palermo], so it is difficult to determine its true homeland. The presumption that it radiated from Luberon through Burgundy and outward through the thirteenth century is as well-evidenced as any alternative hypothesis, which is to say not particularly convincingly. Some scholars have argued that the direction of influence was in fact the reverse, and the scale was brought to Manosque by a young monk who had it from his childhood village. As neither the origins nor even the birthnames of the…
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu un mont sug
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Pāṇini
hieroglyphic
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Posts: 45
Joined: 16 Sep 2017 14:24
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Pāṇini »

I just wanted to say that I absolutely adore the vibe of Boral :)

This is likely a bit of an off-topic question, but what is the music theory of Boral-verse Europe like? The manoscard scale is somewhat reminiscent of the American blues scale; Gerhard Kubik among others describes “blue notes” as the superimposition the 12-tone chromatic scale and European common practice tonal music onto a West African equipentatonic scale. OTL post-classical Eurasia and North Africa is characterized by a fundamentally heptatonic system (from the Maghreb to Java), either enhanced with microtones as in much of the Middle East, or reduced to a pentatonic subset as is especially notable in East Asia. Does harmony play a major role in Boral-verse European music?
天含青海道。城頭月千里。
/tʰiæn ɣɑm tsʰieŋ.hɑ́i dʱɑ́u ‖ ʑʱeŋ dʱəu ᵑgyæɾ tsʰiæn lí/
The sky swallows the road to Kokonor. On the Great Wall, a thousand miles of moonlight.
—/lí ɣɑ̀/ (李賀), tr. A. C. Graham
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Jackk
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Joined: 04 Aug 2012 13:08
Location: Damborn, Istr Boral

Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

Pāṇini wrote: 19 Mar 2022 23:13 I just wanted to say that I absolutely adore the vibe of Boral :)

This is likely a bit of an off-topic question, but what is the music theory of Boral-verse Europe like? The manoscard scale is somewhat reminiscent of the American blues scale; Gerhard Kubik among others describes “blue notes” as the superimposition the 12-tone chromatic scale and European common practice tonal music onto a West African equipentatonic scale. OTL post-classical Eurasia and North Africa is characterized by a fundamentally heptatonic system (from the Maghreb to Java), either enhanced with microtones as in much of the Middle East, or reduced to a pentatonic subset as is especially notable in East Asia. Does harmony play a major role in Boral-verse European music?
Thanks! I'm glad you enjoy reading these weekly posts :) In the time period I was writing about here, I think the monastic chant tradition is increasingly polyphonic, but still mostly structured as multiple simultaneous melodies, instead of vertical harmony. I'll have to think longer about how it evolves in later centuries [:D]
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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Jackk
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Posts: 1448
Joined: 04 Aug 2012 13:08
Location: Damborn, Istr Boral

Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

Flaxen Hearts

extract from the 1919 sensation trevold Flaxen Hearts, an early example of the genre of social comedy written by Andalus autor Judeta Barracin after she had returned from her years in Arcabil.

…Pomona volois jamay poðir expatiar con tal experiç ag them dy congerie continu de combat mendevan zajadau, ci oïð certan aðief ent par Emilla des sy fraðr y jundressem deur for hour l'oc aubon.
…Pomona would never have been able to speak so knowledgeably on the subject of the ongoing congeries of Mendevan wars, about which Emilla had heard quite enough from her youngest brother that very morning.

Y lampionnour fo venuð e partið tras y jogntur vars Zanca de Molinero prell'hour yon y covalcat a connoscenç de Pomona ençau a vrimnar apart e lor colloq picquesseum sceurn ortellir ig ne cognit.
The lamplighter had been and gone round the juncture onto Zanca de Molinero by the time Pomona's cavalcade of cognoscences began to wind down and smaller conversations managed to sidle in unnoticed.

Emilla sorgoy des sy hamarr denent incommodessem pres y fenestr, recomponoy y ci kynous y fatuosessem ne sy spallot alað (cos recent rafayattað ne form voinaçaller sou y man de car Valeria, un denzan repaðrið d'un parrinment ne Napr l'eç barstant 'disimpecciabile' may cascun carnt), e captau y remarc de sy glovir Zoe…
Emilla arose from her increasingly-uncomfortable seat by the window, rearranged the fiddliest parts of her winged shoulder pieces (recently retailored in the armourcloth style by her darling Valeria, a repatriate from an expedition to Naples in search of ever-more 'disimpecciabile' fashions), and caught the eye of her sister-in-law Zoe…

scarrad yarcer "crossword"

scarrad yarcer /xaˈrad jarˈtsɛr/
- crossword puzzle, a word game in which interlocking words are entered usually horizontally and vertically into a grid based on clues given for each word;
- (proscribed) wordsearch, a word game comprising a grid of letters in which are hidden given words;
- (jocular) word salad, any difficult-to-parse or deliberately obscurantist prose

Etymology: literally "grid-shaped word-game", formed from the noun scarrad "riddle, verbal puzzle, word game" and the adjective yarcer "in the shape of a grid/lattice/grill".

The noun is a fourteenth-century borrowing from Middle French charrade "riddle, idle chatter", itself from Aquitain, while the adjective is a derivation of yarç "portcullis, grate, grill, lattice, harrow" from Medieval Latin hercia of the same meaning.

J'ignor trevogt demay poll'oc scarrad yarçer.
/ʒajˈnɔr treˈvɔjt de.me poˈlɔk xaˈrad jarˈtsɛr/
[ʒɐjˈnɔː tʀɪˈvɔjt dɪˈme pʊˈlɔ(k) xɐˈʀad jæːˈdzɛː]
1s=not.know voidtale too.many for=def=sg.prx puzzle grid
I don't know enough voidtales for this crossword.

moðnaut "sailor"

moðnaut /mɔðˈnot/ [mʊðˈnot]
- sailor, seaman, mariner, person in the business of navigating ships or a member of the crew of such;
- fellow, chap, man, a male person often held in some regard by the speaker

Etymology: from Middle Boral moðnaut "sailor", of uncertain origin. Most likely, although somewhat phonetically implausible, is that is descends from Middle Dutch matenout "bunkmate" < mate "mat, hammock" and henout "companion" (whence also Middle French matelot "sailor" and thus Kentish mattlet "(lower) seaman, below-decks shipworker".

Alternatively, an earlier origin in the (probably Horther) Old Norse compound møtu-nautr "food companion" has been proposed; some also claim that this is the original etymon later influenced in meaning by the Middle Dutch above. Despite superficial similarity, certainly unrelated to Latin nauta or Greek ναύτης <naútes> "sailor".

Tre moðnaut ern y cordamn laðrant.
/tre mɔðˈnot ɛrn i kɔrˈda.mn̩ laðˈrant/
[tʀe mʊ(ð)ˈnot ɛːn i kʊːˈda.mɐn lɐ(ð)ˈʀan(t)]
three sailor cop-ipfv.3p def rigging climb-ptcp.prs
Three sailors were climbing in the rigging.

laðrar "climb"

laðrar /laðˈrar/ [lɐ(ð)ˈʀɑː]
- climb, scale, clamber up, to move along a vertical surface or structure by holding onto it with one's hands and feet;
- (of an insect) crawl, skitter, move nimbly with fast leg movements and especially along a wall or a ceiling;
- (by extension, of a person) manoeuvre oneself adroitly through difficult terrain or metaphorically through awkward circumstances

Etymology: originally in the first sense only, from Old Boral ladrar, laðrar "to climb, scale", from Borland English hlǣdran "to climb (a ladder)", itself a derivation from noun hlǣder "ladder". Extension to insect movement is attested from the fourteenth century.

Dou aragn son y platcouf laðrant.
/du aˈrɛjn sɔn i platˈcuf laðˈrant/
[du ɐˈʀɛjn sɔn i plɐ(t)ˈcuf lɐ(ð)ˈʀan(t)]
two spider be.3p def ceiling climb-ptcp.prs
Two spiders are climbing on the ceiling.

Linguistic Exam Questions

from the 1990 edition of collected sample scitation papers for the University of Lester's Faculty of Domain History, an academic group who, due to the university's well-funded Faculty of Language, has a strong leaning towards language-related studies, including palaeography and comparative mythology.

…which presaged the collapse of the First Drengotian Empire [1]. Discuss:
(i) the role of fourteenth-century compendium The Tales of Enfield Wood in codifying the divergent folklore interpretations of the Farmer Duke and his Masked Band,
(ii) the growing separation between the Markish and Kentish tongues as evidenced by the vocabulary attested in this compendium, and
(iii) the extent to which the traditional identification of this work's author with John of Yare (most known for having written historical account The Great Dying) can be justified.

Question 5 (thirty minutes)
Argue either in favour of or in opposition to any two of the following theses.

(i) The word for 'silver' is of uncertain origin—words referring to the substance having been borrowed between languages for millennia via extensive trade networks. The most likely origin of the word (cf. Lithuan sudrabs, Hausan 'asrvae, Vask zirar) as a trade-word is in ancient Acadian 𒀫𒁍𒌝 (surpum).
(ii) Usage of Sinic runes soundwise, a practice in certain names and other words of foreign origin since antiquity and seen in neighbouring polities (cf. early maniocan script) from the seventh century N, gains currency in Cathay during…

---

[1] A polity of the eleventh and twelfth centuries formed from the protacted union of several states, to wit Normandy, France, Burgundy, Kent, Greater Devon, Markland and York.
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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