Gada language - a isolate in Sweden

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Gada language - a isolate in Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Edit: I revive this project. It's old enough so I can redo it completely.

I think southern Sweden could be a better place actually.
Pitch accent, uvular r and velar fricative are more natural there.
Of course, the language having saved there is more improbable, maybe I can ignore it.
I decided to start working on an a-priori lang that is positioned in more-or-less real word. That gives nice freedoms and limitations.

The name of the lang is Gadamål (yes mål is borrowing). The Swedish name is Gadisk. I found a Saami word "gáddi" meaning coast. Though I've no idea of its origin. So the name was an exonym in the beginning.

It's main superstrate lang is of course Swedish. Saami langs have had affect too in earlier times at least.

Swedish features (some of them may be just accidentally shared)
- pitch accent - two accentuations (two-peak accent and one peak accent)
- definiteness marked by suffixes, sc. suffix articles
- rounded front vowels
- V2 syntax
- complentizer /fi/ works similarly to Swedish /att/ both with clausal complements and infinitives
Shared sound changes
o => u, u => y
ʃ => x, in Jadish it's closer to the velar spirant than the Swedish sound.

Saami features
- lowering diphthongs /ie/, /uo/, and /yø/.
- preaspiration

Unique features
- an essive case for copular complements (that also appears in Saami and Finnic but only in rare contexts), in my conlangs it's very common 😁
- phonemes /ʁ~ʀ/ and /z/
- penultimate stress (that doesn't really differ from Swedish as much it seems.)
- anti-agreement forms of verbs used in relative clauses and argument-focus structures
- adpositions have both definite and indefinite forms
- lack of adjectives (though it's questionable if there still is a class of adjectives in modern language)
Last edited by Omzinesý on 25 May 2020 21:58, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Aszev »

Some assorted comments. Not intended as nitpicky.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
The name of the lang is Gadamål (yes mål is borrowing).
Gadamål sounds like a legit name of a Swedish or Norwegian dialect.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
The Swedish name is Gadisk.
This doesn't work, it would have to be gadiska. However depending on the origins of the name it works better or worse, as it does not look like a name that has Swedish origins.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
I found a Saami word "gáddi" meaning coast. Though I've no idea of its origin. So the name was an exonym in the beginning.
Apparently it's related to Finnish kanta.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Swedish features (some of them may be just accidentally shared)
- pitch accent - two accentuations (two-peak accent and one peak accent)
Could work, of course, but IOT the opposite is more common. I.e. Nordic dialects who've been in prolongued contact with Uralic speakers lose their pitch accent.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- definiteness marked by suffixes, sc. suffix articles
- rounded front vowels
- V2 syntax
These all seem plausible to me.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- complentizer /fi/ works similarly to Swedish /att/ both with clausal complements and infinitives
I'm a bit hesitant to this, depending on its age. In Swedish, <att> is ridiculous, as the conjunction is /at:/ and the infinitive particle is /o:/ (usually [ɔ]). Although it's gaining ground today as a spelling pronunciation, no traditional variety of Swedish has /at:/ for the infinitive particle. (Dialects may also have te or ti, identical to the preposition meaning 'to', as in English.)
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Shared sound changes
o => u, u => y
This could work, although technically Swedish has had /u/ > /ʉ/. Cf. South Saami, which has /ʉ/ due to (I assume) Sw/No influence.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
ʃ => x, in Jadish it's closer to the velar spirant than the Swedish sound.
The Swedish /ɧ/ is a velar fricative as well, if that's what you're thinking of. The IPA description is based on some kind of misunderstanding. However, in northern Sweden the shift hasn't occurred, so they still have only /ʂ/ there.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- preaspiration
This also occurs in several Nordic dialects, and it is hypothesized that it may have been present in some form in the proto-language, so you could actually have this as a double influence if you wanted, depending on how long your people have been in contact with Nordic speakers.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Unique features
[...]
- penultimate stress (that doesn't really differ from Swedish as much it seems.)
In Swedish stress traditionally falls on the first syllable, just like in Uralic, so I would disagree!

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Some assorted comments. Not intended as nitpicky.
That's the idea of such projects. :)
Tank you for commenting!
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
The name of the lang is Gadamål (yes mål is borrowing).
Gadamål sounds like a legit name of a Swedish or Norwegian dialect.
So, is that a bad thing?
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
I found a Saami word "gáddi" meaning coast. Though I've no idea of its origin. So the name was an exonym in the beginning.
Apparently it's related to Finnish kanta.
I think Saami á should correspond to Finnish ä.
But sounds reasonable.
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Swedish features (some of them may be just accidentally shared)
- pitch accent - two accentuations (two-peak accent and one peak accent)
Could work, of course, but IOT the opposite is more common. I.e. Nordic dialects who've been in prolongued contact with Uralic speakers lose their pitch accent.
But I like what Swedish sounds like :)
My understanding is that the pitch accent appears in quite north too. And we don't know how gada-language was in the beginning.
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- complentizer /fi/ works similarly to Swedish /att/ both with clausal complements and infinitives
I'm a bit hesitant to this, depending on its age. In Swedish, <att> is ridiculous, as the conjunction is /at:/ and the infinitive particle is /o:/ (usually [ɔ]). Although it's gaining ground today as a spelling pronunciation, no traditional variety of Swedish has /at:/ for the infinitive particle. (Dialects may also have te or ti, identical to the preposition meaning 'to', as in English.)
Interesting!
I know that att and och often merger. But I thought att is a nice counter example of infinitives developing from what Haspelmath calls purposives.
Can those dialects with /te/~/ti/ have "för att göra" or "utan att göra".
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Shared sound changes
o => u, u => y
This could work, although technically Swedish has had /u/ > /ʉ/. Cf. South Saami, which has /ʉ/ due to (I assume) Sw/No influence.
My understanding is that /ʉ/ is just an inaccurate notation. In most Swedish dialects it is a front vowel.
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
ʃ => x, in Jadish it's closer to the velar spirant than the Swedish sound.
The Swedish /ɧ/ is a velar fricative as well, if that's what you're thinking of. The IPA description is based on some kind of misunderstanding. However, in northern Sweden the shift hasn't occurred, so they still have only /ʂ/ there.
Swedish /ɧ/ has very much dialectal and sociolectal variation. But it is usually not the same as Spanish <j>.
Yes, read it is the boring sibilant in the northern dialects. This is kind of again a place where I just want to follow the standard language.
Maybe some remote place in th South could be a better option.
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- preaspiration
This also occurs in several Nordic dialects, and it is hypothesized that it may have been present in some form in the proto-language, so you could actually have this as a double influence if you wanted, depending on how long your people have been in contact with Nordic speakers.
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Unique features
[...]
- penultimate stress (that doesn't really differ from Swedish as much it seems.)
In Swedish stress traditionally falls on the first syllable, just like in Uralic, so I would disagree!
Yes, the rules differ, but how many non-compound Swedish words with more than two syllables, and initial stress there really are.

Yeah I admit there are inflections like händerna or älskade.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Aszev »

Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
The name of the lang is Gadamål (yes mål is borrowing).
Gadamål sounds like a legit name of a Swedish or Norwegian dialect.
So, is that a bad thing?
Not at all.
Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Swedish features (some of them may be just accidentally shared)
- pitch accent - two accentuations (two-peak accent and one peak accent)
Could work, of course, but IOT the opposite is more common. I.e. Nordic dialects who've been in prolongued contact with Uralic speakers lose their pitch accent.
But I like what Swedish sounds like :)
My understanding is that the pitch accent appears in quite north too. And we don't know how gada-language was in the beginning.
Yes, the pitch accent is common almost everywhere. In the north it only disappeared in some areas bordering where Meänkieli is traditionally spoken.
Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
- complentizer /fi/ works similarly to Swedish /att/ both with clausal complements and infinitives
I'm a bit hesitant to this, depending on its age. In Swedish, <att> is ridiculous, as the conjunction is /at:/ and the infinitive particle is /o:/ (usually [ɔ]). Although it's gaining ground today as a spelling pronunciation, no traditional variety of Swedish has /at:/ for the infinitive particle. (Dialects may also have te or ti, identical to the preposition meaning 'to', as in English.)
Interesting!
I know that att and och often merger. But I thought att is a nice counter example of infinitives developing from what Haspelmath calls purposives.
Can those dialects with /te/~/ti/ have "för att göra" or "utan att göra".
I don't think it is. The infinitive particle att is etymologically the same word as the preposition åt (~for, to), and thus unrelated to the conjunction (the stupid spelling obscures this). If the dialect uses te/ti it would also have för te göra, although there might be dialects mixing the two, I'd have to look that up.

Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Shared sound changes
o => u, u => y
This could work, although technically Swedish has had /u/ > /ʉ/. Cf. South Saami, which has /ʉ/ due to (I assume) Sw/No influence.
My understanding is that /ʉ/ is just an inaccurate notation. In most Swedish dialects it is a front vowel.
Historically it was a central vowel, as it still is in Norwegian and several Swedish dialects, including Finland Swedish and Northern Swedish. In central and southern Sweden it's been fronted and is probably closer to a cardinal /y/, but even there it is quite distinct from the actual phoneme /y/.
Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
ʃ => x, in Jadish it's closer to the velar spirant than the Swedish sound.
The Swedish /ɧ/ is a velar fricative as well, if that's what you're thinking of. The IPA description is based on some kind of misunderstanding. However, in northern Sweden the shift hasn't occurred, so they still have only /ʂ/ there.
Swedish /ɧ/ has very much dialectal and sociolectal variation. But it is usually not the same as Spanish <j>.
Yes, read it is the boring sibilant in the northern dialects. This is kind of again a place where I just want to follow the standard language.
Maybe some remote place in th South could be a better option.
True, the /ɧ/ sound is characterized by a lower level of friction.
If you want to share a /ʃ/ > /x/ process you need to go south, because the shift from /ʂ/ to /ɧ/ is quite recent; for example /ɧ/ was considered non-standard only 75 years ago.
Omzinesý wrote:
12 Jul 2019 17:23
Aszev wrote:
12 Jul 2019 13:59
Omzinesý wrote:
11 Jul 2019 18:49
Unique features
[...]
- penultimate stress (that doesn't really differ from Swedish as much it seems.)
In Swedish stress traditionally falls on the first syllable, just like in Uralic, so I would disagree!
Yes, the rules differ, but how many non-compound Swedish words with more than two syllables, and initial stress there really are.

Yeah I admit there are inflections like händerna or älskade.
Well, I guess? But as soon as you start inflecting anything you'll get 3-syllable words with initial stress, and I have a hard time seeing anyone getting any other stress pattern from historical contact with Swedish, especially in the north.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Ælfwine »

I was also about to remark what Aszev said about preaspiration. Supposedly its quite a common areal feature that made its way to even Scottish Gaelic.

Looks good nonetheless.

Edit:
Yes, the rules differ, but how many non-compound Swedish words with more than two syllables, and initial stress there really are.
Lots. Probably every inflected plural noun with a definite article attached, at least.
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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Vowels

y[ʏ], i:, u[ʊ]
ɪ
yø, ie, uo
ø, e, o
ä

All vowels except /i:/ and /ɪ/ (and maybe the lowering diphthongs, I haven't decided how they behave) can appear both short and long, but it's usually considered allophonic.


Syllable structures are very Swedish, as well.

1. (onset +) long vowel (+ short consonant in the word-final position), i.e. (Cn)V: or (Ci)V:C#
/bi:l/ [bi:l] 'car'
/zie/ 'person'
/tä:r/ 'hill'

2. (onset +) sort vowel + a coda consonant or two in the word-final position, i.e. (Cn)VC or (Ci)VCC#
/sehp/ 'dog'
/ofka/ 'star'
/pess/ 'door'

3. (onset +) /ɪ/, i.e. (Cn
tisi 'baby'
sina 'to bring'

Maybe? 4. (onset +) sort vowel + voiced consonant + an over-short vowel
revka [re:və̆ka] 'jacket'

/i:/ and /ɪ/ thus break the rule that "open" stressed syllables have a short vowel and "closed" syllables have a long vowel.
/i:/ only in "open" stressed syllables but /ɪ/ appears in both "open" and "closed" syllables.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Consonants

p t t͡ɕ k <p t k/kj k>
b d g <b d g>
m n ŋ <m n ng>
f s x h <f s ch h>
v z ʝ <v z j>
l r~ɹ ʀ~ʁ <l r rh>

Voiceless plosives are aspirated word-initially and in the beginning of a stressed syllable. In those positions, the voiced plosives can be a bit less voiced.
/ t͡ɕ k/ are more clearly phonemes than those in Swedish. That is because the softening is blocked in verbs, especially.
/ŋ/ is always geminated.
Sound change /ʂ/ => /x/ is quite resent. The phoneme usually appears in Germanic/Swedish loan words that had *sk in the beginning. Gadaish still has consonant clusters /sk/ and /sj/ on syllable boundaries.
All consonants except /v z ʝ/ can be preaspirated in the coda position. It's analysed as an h+C cluster.
/r~ɹ ʀ~ʁ/ are fricatives rather than trills.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 16 Jul 2019 15:02, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by eldin raigmore »

Aww, aren’t you sticking with “Gadamål”? :-(

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

eldin raigmore wrote:
15 Jul 2019 20:23
Aww, aren’t you sticking with “Gadamål”? :-(
I'm still considering the exact name.
Gada is the root.
I think the language could be Gadaish/Gadish or something alike in English.
In Swedish, it would be Gadaiksa/Gadiska or Gadamål.
The exact form of the name they use of themselves clarifies when the project goes on and I see that words generally will look like.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Verb morphology

Nouns follow quite much my earlier project, so I describe verbs first.

Basics:
- 3 synthetic tensis (present, past, future), 2 periphrastic tenses (perfect, pluperfect)
- morpholocally 1 mood - Indicative and Imperative are differentiated syntactically and past and pluperfect forms are used in conditional subordinate clauses
- 2 extra forms (active and passive) that are used in relative clauses and argument focus clauses
- agreement with the number of the subject
- 2 infinite verb forms: Infinitive and result/perfect coverb (participle)

Tenses
Present: zero
Past: s- (assimilates to /z/ before voiced stops)
Future: f- (assimilates to /z/ before voiced stops)

Diacronically they derive from auxiliary + infinitive.
"furr nola" 'must do' => "fnol" 'will do'
"sill nola" 'was doing' => "snol" 'did'

Verb 'to be' has thus an irregular past form
Is: rhe
Was: sill
Will be: frhe

Subject agreement with number is done by redupliclicating the onset and the nucleus of the first syllable of the stem. r and rh are however replaced by d and g respectively. Tense prefixes precede the reduplication.
ot 'goes', otot 'go'
rhe 'is', gerhe 'are'

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

There aren't really adjectives but genitives of abstract nouns.

Varra-j zie
property-GEN person
'rich person'


The indefinite genitive is nearly exclusively devoted to the adjectival function.

Ozza-zi Peter
friend-PL.GEN Peter
'Peter who has friends '


One cannot either say "I am rich" but "I have property".

Rhin ne varra.
SG1 PRS.have property
'I am rich.'

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote:
17 Jul 2019 03:34
Verb morphology

Nouns follow quite much my earlier project, so I describe verbs first.

Basics:
- 3 synthetic tensis (present, past, future), 2 periphrastic tenses (perfect, pluperfect)
- morpholocally 1 mood - Indicative and Imperative are differentiated syntactically and past and pluperfect forms are used in conditional subordinate clauses
- 2 extra forms (active and passive) that are used in relative clauses and argument focus clauses
- agreement with the number of the subject
- 2 infinite verb forms: Infinitive and result/perfect coverb (participle)

Tenses
Present: zero
Past: s- (assimilates to /z/ before voiced stops)
Future: f- (assimilates to /z/ before voiced stops)

Diacronically they derive from auxiliary + infinitive.
"furr nola" 'must do' => "fnol" 'will do'
"sill nola" 'was doing' => "snol" 'did'

Verb 'to be' has thus an irregular past form
Is: rhe
Was: sill
Will be: frhe

Subject agreement with number is done by redupliclicating the onset and the nucleus of the first syllable of the stem. r and rh are however replaced by d and g respectively. Tense prefixes precede the reduplication.
ot 'goes', otot 'go'
rhe 'is', gerhe 'are'
Non-finite verb forms

The are only two non-finite verb forms, which is extremely few, even for an West-European language.

The infinitive is formed with suffix -a. It often coappears with the complementized fi.
The perfect "participle" that is technically a coverb because its only use id to appear with ja 'to have' to form the perfect and pluperfect forms and with kela 'to become/arrive' or rha 'to be' to form passive forms. Its suffix is -ol, which is historically a essive form of the result derivation suffix -o.

(fi) tuovra 'to write'
tuovrol 'written'
je tuovrol 'has written', kel tuovrol 'gets written', rhe tuovrol 'is written'
ih tuovro 'a writing'

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Pitch accents

There are two word accents, which identical to those of Swedish.
1. The high pitch appears on one syllable only, that I call the stressed one. (Stress usually also realizes in syllable length so that stressed syllables either have a coda consonant or a long vowel, excluding the phoneme /ɪ/ that can appear short in open syllables.) Monosyllabic words always have that word accent.
2. There is one high pitch on the stressed syllable (define above) and another maybe-a-it-less-high higher pitch on the last syllable.


Diachrony of the pitch accents.

Most roots in Gadaish are monosyllabic. Especially verbs are prefixing. When a stressed prefix was joined to a root, there was a compound word.

zuhk 'lives (somewhere)', sil 'was' da: 'RELATIVE PRONOUN',

Past progressive was formed just with juxtaposing the auxiliary and the main verb: síl zúhk 'was living'. Both had their own stress, which was apparently realized as a high pitch. Similarly the relative pronoun preceded the verb in syntax: dá: zúhk 'that lived'
Both of the examples developed single words: sízúhk 'lived (somewhere)' and dá:zúhk 'that lived (somewhere)', but preserved their own stresses.
With North-Germanic influence, those word, which might have been seen as compounds in the beginning, developed the accent 2.

Of course the several North-Germanic/Swedish loan words that come to Gadish preserve their accents.
All native Gadish non-prefixed words have the accent 1.
Edit: Still considering:
how the reduplicated plural of verbs is accented?
Also, tense prefixes usually reduce to just one consonant that does not have a stress, how has that happened if the syllable earlier was stressed?

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Nouns - their morphology comes quite direcly from my earlier project: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=6988

The following example have the Swedish way to read vowel letters:
<å> [o]
<o> [u .]
<ö> [ø]

There are tree cases:

Code: Select all

Direct or simply Nominative 	-∅
Genitive-Dative			-j (after vowels), -i (after consonants), ∅ (after /i/)
Essive 				-l

There are two numbers:

Code: Select all

Singular:			-∅
Plural:				-zi

Two decrees of definiteness:

Code: Select all

Indefinite			-∅
Definite:			-u  (after one vowel), -va (after some geminates), (but: a+u => o, e+u => ö, i+o => y, ie+o => yö) 

Code: Select all

chef 'boss' 
		INDEF.SG	DEF.SG		INDEF.PL	DEF.PL 
NOM		cheff-∅ 	cheff-o-∅	cheff-zi-∅	cheff-zy-∅
GEN-DAT		cheff-i		cheff-o-j	cheff-zi-∅	cheff-zy-j
ESS		cheff-l		cheff-o-l 	cheff-zi-l	cheff-zy-l 

Code: Select all

tras 'house' 
		INDEF.SG	DEF.SG		INDEF.PL	DEF.PL 
NOM		tras-∅ 		tras-o-∅	tras-zi-∅	tras-zy-∅
GEN-DAT		tras-i		tras-o-j	tras-zi-∅	tras-zy-j
ESS		tras-l		tras-o-l 	tras-zi-l	tras-zy-l 
Nouns ending in a non-rounded vowel

Code: Select all

zie 'person' 
		INDEF.SG	DEF.SG		INDEF.PL	DEF.PL 
NOM		zie-∅		zyö-∅		zie-zi-∅	zie-zy-∅	
GEN-DAT		zie-j		zyö-j		zie-zi-∅	zie-zy		
ESS		zie-l		zyö-l		zie-zi-l	zie-zy-l
Nouns ending in a rounded vowel

Code: Select all

 
		INDEF.SG	DEF.SG		INDEF.PL	DEF.PL 
NOM			
GEN-DAT			
ESS		
Last edited by Omzinesý on 23 Jul 2019 19:32, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

The first sentence.

Ven törve bibel-zi.
SG1 read.PRS book-PL.INDEF.NOM
'I read books.'

"Ven" [ve:n] is the "long form" of the pronoun. After the verb it appears in the clitic form "vo".

The present form of verbs has no marked inflection. Verbs ending in a vowel usually end in /e/.

bibel 'book' of course is cognate to "Bible", which is "Va kraki Biblu" 'The Holy Book' in Gadaish.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

An etymological dictionary

Bibel 'book', loan
Bil 'car', loan from Swedish
Cheff 'boss', through Swedish from French
Jo 'to have, to be there' < *jau, native word
Ejr 'to want', native word
fi "complementizer: that, to', < *fi
Furr 'to have to' < *furr, native word
gi [ʝɪ] "indefinite article" 'a', < *gi 'one'
gij [ʝi:] 'one', native word
Kel 'to arrive, to become', native word
Krak 'holiness, weekend', native word
Mol 'language', from Swedish mål
Nol 'to do' < no, native word
Ofka 'star, sun', native word
Ot 'to go' < *ot, native word
Ozzi 'friend'
Pess 'door', native word
Revka 'jacket', derived from Swedish rev 'fox'
Rhe 'to be', native word
Sehp 'dog', native word
sil 'was', native word
sin 'to bring', native word
Tar 'hill', native word
Tras 'house, building', native word
Tisi 'baby', emphatic word
Tuo 'you' < *to, native word
Törve 'to read' < *teurve, törr 'interprete' < *teurr, native word
Ven 'I' native word
Varra 'property, (rich)' < *vara, from Scandinavic 'thing'
Zie 'person, human' < *zē, native word
Zuhk 'home', native word
Zuhka 'to live somewhere, to dwell', native word
Last edited by Omzinesý on 23 Jul 2019 19:30, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

I'll change the infinitive. It will be just "fi" + the present, like in English.

Fi ot 'to go'

The history of the future marker will also be changed. Earlier it was "furr ota" 'must go.INF' > 'will go' (which is very common in the Baltic region) and later also morphological bleaching to "fot".
But the complementizer "fi" is too appealing. So the future was formed like in Greek "gurr fi ot" 'must to go', which gained the meaning 'will go', and later the auxiliary was left out. At the end, "fi ot" was contracted to "fot" 'will go'.

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

While I killed the infinitive, the concept of finiteness is also blurred. (1) and (2) only differ in that (2) has an own subject while the subject of "ot" is coreferential with that of "ejr" in (1).

(1)
Ven ejr fi ot suhk.
SG1 want COMPLZR go home
'I want to go home.'

(2)
Ven ejr fi tuo ot suhk.
SG1 want COMPLZR SG2 go home
'I want that you go home.'

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Pronouns

Ven [ve:n] 'I'
Tuo [tuo] 'you'
Y [y:] 'he/she/it'
Ött [øt:] 'it' - refers to clauses

Plurals are regular -zi
Venzi [venzi] 'we' also Swedish vi [vi:] is used.
Tuozi [tuozi] 'you'
Yzi [y:zi] 'they'

They also have dative forms

Vej
Tuoj
Yj [y:j]
Ötti

Vezij
Tuozij
Yzij

There are no specific object forms, but pronouns appearing after the verb have enclitic forms.

-ve
-to
-y [y]
-öt

-vez
-toz
-yz

They also have dative forms:
-vej
-toj
-yj
-ötj

-vech
-toch
-ych

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Re: Gadish - a isolate in Northern Sweden

Post by Omzinesý »

Adpositions

There are three forms of each adposition. That nicely combines Finnic/Saami inflecting postpositions/positional nouns and Germanic monosyllabic prepositions. Either can be used.
Prepositions appear with Nominative case of their head and postpositions appear with Genitive-Dative of their head.

1) short prepositional forms
They are monomorphemic like English in, on, at etc.
They cannot express directions which have to be inferred from the context.

2) Long postpositional forms
They are morphologically complex like English into, onto etc.

3) Pronominal independent forms
- They appear without a noun.
- They are morphologically complex as well
- like German darin, darauf etc.

Prepositions an postpositions are basically interchangeable. There are however some tendencies for one to appear.
- A preposition usually appears if the noun is modified by a relative clause.
- A preposition often appears if it is defined in the argument structure of the verb.
- A postposition usually appears if it means the direction from somewhere
- A postposition often appears if the PP is an adjunct in the clause
- A preposition usually appears if the focus is on the action not the location, like "sitting on the sofa" with no interest in the specific sofa.

Edit: Adpositions is a hard theme, I see.
It requires more studying to go on.

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