Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread [2011–2018]

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Omzinesý
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

A language that has inspiration from Altaic langs and from the language that somebody linked in the odd features thread.

y, i, u
ø, e, ɘ, (ə) o
ä

High vs. low vowel harmony: y vs. ø, i vs, e, u vs. o, ɘ vs ä. And the diphtongs: ɘi vs. äe, ɘu, vs. äo
The diphtongs, ai and au can appear with both groups, but only in first syllables
The schwa can appear in both groups in unstressed syllables, but its status in unsure because /ɘ/ often realizes as schwa.
Some, hormony appears between y and i, and ø and e, as well but that is unconsistent.

Consonants

p, t, t͡s*, k* q (all of those have voiced variants but their phonemic/allophonic status in unclear (depends on analysis, I think))
m, n, ŋ*, ɴ
r, ʀ
v, s, j, χ, h

Alveolar affricates and velar sounds merge into palatals before front vowels.
Preaspiration is maybe possibe if I Samisize the language.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by thetha »

This is the phonology of my newest conlang:
/p b pˤ bˤ t d tˤ dˤ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g ʔ/
/s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ sˤ zˤ h/
/m n ŋ mˤ nˤ ŋˤ/
/l r rˤ w j/

/i e a o u ə ɤ/

All non-pharyngealized consonants can appear geminate in any position (including initially) except for plosives, /l/, and /h/. Plosives can appear geminate intervocally. /l/ has quite limited distribution, and only appears before consonants or initially. /ɤ/ is rounded to /ʊ/ before velars.

I'm going to try to focus on non-phonology related pieces of grammar for this project, but I thought it'd be nice to just put this here.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Theta wrote:This is the phonology of my newest conlang:
/p b pˤ bˤ t d tˤ dˤ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g ʔ/
/s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ sˤ zˤ h/
/m n ŋ mˤ nˤ ŋˤ/
/l r rˤ w j/

/i e a o u ə ɤ/
Do the vowels have any allophones in the environment of the pharyngeals, they often have some more back or low allophones.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by thetha »

I haven't gotten that far but I'm pretty sure it's just going to be that high vowels don't occur after them/merge with mid vowels /o/ and /e/.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by CMunk »

Irohuro wrote:feeling very cautious with hlosestis because i've never done well with a borrowing (or posteriori) language, so wrote something up on the side
currently unnamed
consonants
stops /p b t̪ d̪ k g ʔ/ <p b t d k g '>
fricatives /ɸ β s z ʃ ʒ x/ [ʁ] <f v s z š ž h ř>
affricates /tʃ dʒ/ <c j>
approximants /w j/ <w y>
nasals /m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
trill /r/ [ʀ] <r ř>
lateral / l / <l>

vowels
/i i:/ <i í >
/a a:/ <a á>
/u u:/ <u ú>

<ř> is [ʀ] at the beginning and when following a voiced consonant, and [ʁ] after an unvoiced consonant.

syllable shape is (C)V(:)(C(:))

i usually prefer to use <j> for /j/ but i also rarely use //, and i didn't want any digraphs, so i wasn't sure what i could use. I think it's ok though since i'm using <c> for /tʃ/ so it looks a better match.
Fixed the brackets.

Cool phonology! You should choose just one symbol to represent the phoneme you write <ř>. Is it inherently a trill or a fricative?

Also, can all consonants be geminated? And can they be geminated word finally? i.e. is there a difference between the words <sap> and <sapp>? Or is it that after short vowels consonants are geminated (as in Swedish)?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Click »

Kaipói v3 (now with a vertical three-vowel system!)

/mʲ mˠ nʲ nˠ ŋ ŋʷ/ ‹m m n n g g›
/pʲ pˠ tʲ tˠ k kʷ ʔ/ ‹p p t t k k x›
/rʲ lˠ/ ‹r r›

/ɨ̀ ɨ́ ə̀ ə́ à á/

The vowel spelling is quite complex and depends on the surrounding consonants.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by CMunk »

2-4 wrote:Kaipói v3 (now with a vertical three-vowel system!)

/mʲ mˠ nʲ nˠ ŋ ŋʷ/ ‹m m n n g g›
/pʲ pˠ tʲ tˠ k kʷ ʔ/ ‹p p t t k k x›
/rʲ lˠ/ ‹r r›

/ɨ̀ ɨ́ ə̀ ə́ à á/

The vowel spelling is quite complex and depends on the surrounding consonants.
Can I expect front vowel allophones and/or graphemes afther palatalized consonants, and back vowel allophones and/or graphemes after velarized consonants?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Click »

CMunk wrote:Can I expect front vowel allophones and/or graphemes afther palatalized consonants, and back vowel allophones and/or graphemes after velarized consonants?
Yep.
I have not worked out the orthography and allophony yet, but I'm trying to make Kaipói look like a cross between Irish and Pirahã.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Nemesis »

Phonology of modern Ckoerrolu, recently created:

consonants:
nasals: m n
plosives: p t k
fricatives: f s ʃ h
affricates: ts tʃ
rhotics: ɹ ʀ
approximants: ʋ l j

vowels:
æ a ɒ e o i y ɨ u

Notes: gemination is phonemic both on consonants and vowels. Classical ckoerrolu (or also ancient ckoerrolu) had a distinction between plain and aspirated plosives. Aspirated plosives evolved as follows: pʰ->f ; tʰ->ts ; kʰ->x. At some time in history /x/ merged with /k/ or /h/. There used to be only one rhotic, /r/ the alveolar trill wich gradually became an approximant for the "single" form and remained a trill for the geminated form. Through contact with human languages the ckoerrolu people aquired /ʀ/ for the geminated version of the older rhotic. This uvular or more commonly post-velar trill is in the standard form of the ckoerrolu language. In the syllable coda /l/ becomes velarized, with some dialects having now only the velarized form in all positions. /ʋ/ tends to become /w/ when after a consonant. /ɒ/ is a little raised and it is in free variation (but also depends on dialects) with [ɔ]. /ɨ/ has some degree of roundness being pronounced with labial compression. Ckoerrolu ['kʋeʀolu] is a SOV language, and also an agglutinative language with postpositions.

Tell me what do you think, so I can improve it.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Ralph »

Here's the beginnings of the phonology for a new as-yet-nameless proto-lang I'm currently working on to replace my older Proto-Occidental:

Phonemes:
Plosives: /p b t d c ɟ k g/
Implosives: /ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ/
Laryngeals: /ʔ/
Nasals: /m n ɲ ŋ/
Clicks: /k͡ǀ k͡ǂ ŋ͡ǀ ŋ͡ǂ/
Fricatives: /s ʃ/
Laterals: /l ʎ/
Semivowels: /w j/
Vowels: /i e a o u/

I'm not sure yet whether I want to keep /ɲ/ and /ʎ/, and might add voiced and glottalised clicks (so that the clicks have the same set of distinctive manner features as the stops). I'm also contemplating whether or not to add a simple tone system (with just high and low tones).

Phonotactics:

Syllables can be either CV, CVV (where VV symbolises a long vowel) or CVC. Word final codas may not include clicks or voiced obstruents. I still need to work out what the restrictions on medial consonant clusters are.

Phonological processes:

Haven't worked out too many of these yet. So far I've got frication of intervocalic voiced plosives (i.e. /b/ --> [β]/V_V etc.), and assimilation of nasals to the POA of a following consonant.
Languages!
Native: :eng: Proficient: :rus: :esp: Decent: :fra: Have dabbled in: :fin: :ita:
rendsmoiheureux
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by rendsmoiheureux »

Let me know what you think and how I could make it better. Thanks!

Image
Image
Image
* This is my first time trying vowel harmony. I know <a> and <å> are both central vowels and unrounded and rounded counterparts of each other, but would having the front/back harmony + this rounding harmony (for just these two vowels) make sense/work?

Stress: Stress normally falls on the first syllable of a word. However, there is irregular stress. This is denoted by an acute accent on that specific syllable’s vowel to show the irregularity.
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ABC
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by ABC »

Looks good. Perhaps /y/ could be added. I have yet to find a natlang that contrasts rounding in front vowels, but has no /y/.
As far as the romanization is concerned, I advise you to use digraphs for diphthongs.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Xing »

ABC wrote:Looks good. Perhaps /y/ could be added. I have yet to find a natlang that contrasts rounding in front vowels, but has no /y/.
WALS lists six languages that have mid front rounded vowels, but no high ones.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by CMunk »

Xing wrote:
ABC wrote:Looks good. Perhaps /y/ could be added. I have yet to find a natlang that contrasts rounding in front vowels, but has no /y/.
WALS lists six languages that have mid front rounded vowels, but no high ones.
And he does have [y:] for long /ø/
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by rendsmoiheureux »

Thanks for the input!
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by CMunk »

Consonants:
/m n ɲ~ŋ ɴ/ <m n ñ ň>
/p t ʧ~k q/ <p t c q>
/b d ʤ~g ɢ/ <b d g ǧ>
/f s ɬ ʃ~x χ/ <f s l x r>
/f̩ s̩ ɬ̩ ʃ̩~x̩ χ̩/ <ff ss ll xx rr>

Vowels:
/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/a ɶ ɒ/ <a ã õ>

Syllable structure:
(C)(C)V(W)(C) or (P)F

Where C is any non-syllabic consonant,
V is any vowel,
W is either the same vowel (making a long vowel), or one of /i u a ɒ/ (making a falling diphthong). If the first vowel is rounded the second assimilates rounding /oi/ > [oy] <oü>
P is any plosive
F is any syllabic consonant

Allophony:
Syllabic consonants become ejective if directly followed by a vowel. /f̩.a/ [f'a] <ffa>
Velar consonants /ŋ k g x x̩/ become palatal or post-velar when followed by a high vowel or when following an alveolar consonant. /xu/ [ʃ̩u] <xu>, /dŋɒ/ [dɲɒ] <dñõ>
Uvular consonants /ɴ q ɢ χ χ̩/ become velar in above invironment. /χu/ [xu] <ru>, /dɴɒ/ [dŋɒ] <dňõ>

Wondering:
Is it weird to have syllabic fricatives, but no syllabic nasals or other liquids?
Is it weird to have ejective fricatives, but no ejective plosives?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Fanael »

Vowels:
/a e i o u/ <a e i o u>

Consonants:
/pʰ p tʰ t kʰ k q/ <p b t d k g q>
/f s ʃ ç̺ x χ ħ h/ <f s c ss x xx hh h>
/m n/ <m n>
/ɾ r ɹ~ɻ ʀ/ <r rr l rx>
/j w/ <j w>

The apical palatal fricative is something like an über retroflex.

Syllable structure:
(C)(X)(W)V(W)(X)
or
(C)RX
or
(C)(X)(W)V(W)(X)(T) (word-finally)

where:
  • C is any consonant
  • V is any vowel
  • X is any continuant except vowels and semivowels
  • W is any semivowel
  • R is any rhotic
  • T is any occlusive
Forbidden clusters:
  • A rhotic followed by a fricative: the fricative wins.
  • A consonant followed by the same consonant: only one remains.
  • Two same vowels (also applies to semivowel following/followed by the corresponding vowel): likewise.
  • Two different vowels: an epenthetic /h/ is inserted in between.
----

What do you think?
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Xing
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Xing »

/m n/ <m n>
/p t̺ ʨ k ʔ/ <p t c k q>
/ɸ s̺ ɕ/ <f s x>
/r̺~ɾ̺/ <r>

/i u/ <i u>
/e̞ o̞/ <e o>
/a/ <a>

▸Syllable structure is (C)V(ː)
▸Vowel length is contrastive (indicated by double vowels, <aa> etc.). Overlong vowels may occur across morpheme borders.
▸Stress is on the penultimate mora (that is, on the last syllable of it contains a long vowel, on the second-to last otherwise). It's usually realised through higher pitch.
▸High vowels cannot occur adjacent to apical consonants.
▸Back vowels become centralised after alveolo-palatals: /u o/ > [ʉ ɵ]. They may possibly also be fronted: [y ø].
▸Word-final short vowels have a slightly different realisation: /i e a o u/ becomes [ɪ~e~ɛ, ɐ, ɒ, o~ʊ, ɵ~ʏ~ɪ]


Some sample words:

<ne> /ne/ [nɐ], (masc. sing. article)
<core> /ʨoɾe/ [ˈʨør̺ɐ] 'eat'
<meere> /meːɾe/ [ˈmeːɾ̺ɐ] 'man'
<saqaasa> /s̺aʔaːs̺a/ [s̺aˈʔaːs̘ɒ] 'soup'
<xapi> /ɕapi/ > [ˈɕape] 'chicken'
<soo> /s̺oː/ 'hot'

Ne core saqaasa xapi soo ne meere
3sM eat soup chicken hot 3sM man
"The man is eating hot chicken soup."
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Avjunza »

Image:Proto-Southern, or Onure.

Vowels:
Image
This is counting /ɐ̃/ as a seperate vowel, although there is no oral version of /ɐ/.

Consonants:
Image


From this I want to get Jtaraectozoru (and a range of other langs), which has the same vowels plus /ɔ̃/ and the following consonants:
Image
Image
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Shrdlu »

Something small I like,

/p[p] b t[t] k[k] g[g] '[?] kx[q] gx[G\]/
/s[s/ S s] z[z] f[f] v[v]/
/l[l] lh[K]/
/w[w]/
/pp[p:] bb[b:] tt[t:] kk[k:] gg[g:]

/i e o u ou/
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