Ńuc'értluŋ

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ɶʙ ɞʛ
sinic
sinic
Posts: 209
Joined: 02 Aug 2019 18:47

Ńuc'értluŋ

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

Nasal:
Aspirated: /m̤~β̃ n̤~ð̃ ɲ̤~j̃ ŋ̤~ɣ̃/
Normal: /m n ɲ ŋ/
Constricted: /mˀ~mɓ nˀ~nɗ ɲˀ~ɲʄ ŋˀ~ŋɠ/

Oral:
Aspirated: /pʰ~ɸ tʰ~θ cʰ~ç kʰ~x/
Normal: /p t c k/
Constricted: /p̚~p' t̚~t' c̚~c' k̚~k'/

Vowel:
Aspirated: /ɐ̤ ɪ̤ ʊ̤ œ̤/
Normal: /a i u ø/
Constricted: /ɐ̰ ɪ̰ ʊ̰ œ̰/

Miscellaneous:
/ʔ/
/s/
/h/
/ɺ/
/ʙ/
/ə/ - Epenthetic only

Phonotactics: (C)(R)V(R)(C), where C is any consonant, while R can only be a resonant /ɺ ʙ ʁ j w β/. /ʁ j w β/ are allophones of /A I U Ø/ and assimilate in MOA to adjacent consonants, realized as /ʕ j̰ w̰ β̰/ or /ɦ j̤ w̤ β̤/. /U w/ are protruded and velarized, while /Ø β/ are compressed and have no velar component.

Similarly, /ʔ/ becomes /h/ next to aspirated consonants, and /h/ becomes /ħ/ next to constricted consonants. /ɺ ʙ/ show similar allophony, becoming /l: β:/ in aspirated context, or /ɺˤ ʢ͡ʙ/ in constricted context.

For example, a hypothetical syllable /t'aís/ would be /t'ʕis/ while /t'áis/ would be /t'ɐ̰js/.

/ə/ appears when two different MOA consonants are adjacent. e.g., /kʰʊ̤n̤/ "2" + /t'ɐ̰is/ "3" = /kʰʊ̤n̤ət'ɐ̰is/ "6"

Possible evolution factors:
Specific realizations of the POAs
Primary allophones of the aspirated and constricted MOAs
Loss of MOAs, leading to vowel changes

One notable descendant: Aspirated consonants change to fricatives/approximants all across the board, i.e. the only realizations are /β̃ ð̃ j̃ ɣ̃ ɸ θ ç x/.
/kʰʊ̤n̤ət'ɐ̰is/ > /xʊ̤ð̃ət'ɐ̰is/
The reduced creaky/breathy vowels all merge into /ə̤ ə̰/.
/xʊ̤ð̃ət'ɐ̰is/ > /xə̤ð̃ət'ə̰is/
Diphthongs /ə̰i ə̰u ə̰a ə̰ø/ become /ḛ: o̰: a̰: ø̰:/, and the same changes happen to the breathy vowels. Normal unreduced vowels do not undergo this. Nasal fricatives and approximants denasalize.
/xə̤ð̃ət'ə̰is/ > /xə̤ðət'ḛ:s/
/ɸ θ ç x/ > /h/, but /β ð j ɣ/ > /β ʁ j w/
/xə̤ðət'ḛ:s/ > /hə̤ʁət'ḛ:s/
/h/ absorbs /ə̤/, /ʔ/ absorbs /ə̰/
/hə̤ʁət'ḛ:s/ > /hʁət'ḛ:s/
If one of /c c' ɲ ɲˀ~ɲʄ/ are present in a syllable, if the next obstruent is /s/, that /s/ is realized as [ʃ]. The vowel in that syllable then becomes invariably front, so /u o ə a/ > [y] /ø e/ [æ].
/p p'/ > /h ʔ/
/ɺ ʙ/ > /j w/ in the coda.
/wk wt wk' wt' wc wc' wh/ > /kpʷ kpʷ' k k' xʷ/
/w̤k w̤t w̤k' w̤t' w̤c w̤c' w̤h/ > /p kpʷ h k xʷ/
/w̰k w̰t w̰k' w̰t' w̰c w̰c' w̰h/ > /kpʷ' kpʷ' k' k' kpʷ/
/βk βt βk' βt' βc βc' βh/ > /p p' c c' f/
/β̤k β̤t β̤k' β̤t' β̤c β̤c' β̤h/ > /f p ç c f/
/β̰k β̰t β̰k' β̰t' β̰c β̰c' β̰h/ > /p' p' c' c' p/
/jk jt jk' jt' jc jc' jh/ > /c c' c c' ç/
/j̤k j̤t j̤k' j̤t' j̤c j̤c' jh/ > /k t c ç c ç/
/j̰k j̰t j̰k' j̰t' j̰c j̰c' j̰h/ > /c' c' c' c' c/
/ʁk ʁt ʁk' ʁt' ʁc ʁc' ʁh/ > /q t q' t' k k' ħ/
/ɦk ɦt ɦk' ɦt' ɦc ɦc' ɦh/ > /h h k t ç c h/
/ʕk ʕt ʕk' ʕt' ʕc ʕc' ʕh/ > /q' t' q' t' k' k' ħ/
Similarly, for nasals equivalent changes happen.

However, ɴ ʛ > ŋ ɠ > ɲ ʄ > n ɗ.

Later on, the labiovelars simplify.

/ŋmɠɓʷ ŋmʷ kpʷ' kpʷ xʷ w u/ lose their protrusion: /ŋɠᵝ ŋᵝ kᵝ' kᵝ xᵝ β uᵝ/. A chain shift /ŋɠᵝ ŋᵝ kᵝ' kᵝ/ > /mɓ m p' p/ > /β β ʔ h/ then happens, while /xᵝ β/ become labiodental /f ʋ/. Syllabic /u/ then breaks into /ʋi/ if the following consonant is coronal, palatal, or velar, or /ʋə/ otherwise.

/ç/ becomes /ʃ/ intervocalically or /j/ next to a consonant.

New phonology (stage 1):

/p t c k q ʔ/ <p t c k q '>
/p' t' c' k' q'/ <p' t' c' k' q'>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ń ŋ>
/mɓ nɗ ɲʄ/ <b d j>
/f s ç ħ h/ <f s ç ħ h>
/ʋ ʁ j/ <û â î>
/ɺ ʙ/ <l r>

/a i u ø ə/ <a i u ø e>
/ə̰ ḛ: o̰: a̰: ø̰:/ <é í ú á ǿ>
/ə̤ e̤: o̤: a̤: ø̤:/ <è ì ù à œ>

Name of the language: *ɲu-c'œ̰ʙt-ɺuŋ > ɲuc'ə̰ʙtɺuŋ > ɲyc'ḛutɺuŋ > nyc'ḛpɺuɲ > nyc'ḛʔɺʋiɲ
c'œ̰ʙt > c'ḛʙt > c'ḛut > c'ḛp > c'ḛʔ "mind"
c'œ̰ʙt-ɺuŋ > c'ḛʙtɺuŋ > c'ḛutɺuŋ > c'ḛpɺuɲ > c'ḛʔɺʋiɲ "learn"
c'œ̰ʙt-ɲu-ɺuŋ > c'ḛʙtɲuɺuŋ > c'ḛutɲuɺuŋ > c'ḛpnuɺuɲ > c'ḛʔnʋiɺʋiɲ (1st plural present)
c'œ̰ʙt-çɪ̤ð̃-ɺuŋ > c'ḛʙtəhə̤ʁɺuŋ > c'ḛutəħɺuŋ > c'ḛpəħɺuɲ > c'ḛʔəħɺʋiɲ (2nd singular present)

t'ɐ̰is-kʰʊ̤n̤-ɺuŋ > t'ḛ:sxə̤ʁɺuŋ > t'ḛ:sxə̤ʁɺuɲ > t'ḛ:shə̤ʁɺʋiɲ "diminish"
tʰʊ̤ > hə̤ > 0, a new particle to̤: is introduced (as negative)
tum > tʋəʋ "water"
tumɺuŋ > tʋəʋɺʋiŋ "soak, melt, liquefy, dissolve, etc."
taʙs > taus > taʋs "rock"
tum-taʙs > tʋəʋtaʋs "mud"
tʰʊ̤tum-taʙs > to̤tʋəʋtaʋs "sandstone"
kʰʊ̤n̤ə-taʙs > hʁətaʋs "salt"
xɐ̤ > hə̤ > 0
ɲu - plural 1st person
çɪ̤ð̃ > hə̤ʁ > ə̤ʁ - 2nd person pronoun
hə̤ʁkun > ə̤qun - "us" as in a very close relationship
çʊ̤ > 0, later replaced by ʃy - 3rd person pronoun

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