Tulemo

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Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

This project (again) combines many of my older ideas.
It has especially much in common with Ptila: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=7101

- Very simple phonotactics, i.e. (C)V syllable
- All main clauses have an auxialiry that does not have any lexical meaning but is rather a bunch of grammatical morphemes
- Incorporation
- Word-final vowel is a marker of word-class (á la Esperanto).


Phonology
It is very simple so it can be presented as phoneme tables.

Consonant phonemes
p t k ʔ
f θ x h
s
m n
pm tn kŋ
l
tl kʟ

* Prestopped consonants usually only appear in morpho-phonological processes.

<p t k '>
<f θ~þ x h>
<s>
<m n>
<pm tn kn>
<l>
<tl kl>

Vowel phonemes
i u
e o
ä

<i u>
<e o>
<a>

Syllable structure
(C)V

When /o/ or /u/ is followed by a vowel, [w] appears as a hiatus sound.
When /i/ or /e/ is followed by a vowel, [j] appears as a hiatus sound.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 05 May 2020 09:59, edited 6 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Lexical classes

Open classes:

1)
Proper nouns
- Marked with suffix -o

2)
Common nouns
- Always have a definite suffix -a or indefinite suffix -i.
- Do not have cases, but adjective -e can be seen as a Genitive.

3)
Verbs
- Have always suffix -u.
- Do not have other inflection. All of "verby" categories are marked by Auxiliary.
- Can often be omitted.
- Should rather be classified nonfinite.

4) Adjecticves
- Have marker -e.
- Can be easily made nouns -e => -i/-a and nouns can be easily made adjectives -i/-a => -e. But there is some reasons to classify some roots primarily Nouns and some primarily Adjectives.

Closed classes:
5) Auxiliary
- Codes
[*] tense and mood
[*] conjunctions (but though...)
[*] evidentials
[*] negation
[*] person agreement
[*] some focus things

6)
Prepositions
- code role of nouns

7)
Pronouns
maybe exist

One could analyse that verbs and prepositions are actually one thing, like in East-Asian languages, but I think that would just make the analyses messy.
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Basic syntax

Topic always precedes Auxiliary and agent precedes Verb.

So basic topic-comment sentences are

[TOPIC=AGENT] [AUX] [VERB] [PATIENT]
or
[TOPIC=PATIENT] [AUX] [AGENT] [VERB]

They quite much resemble English.

"Bill does love Mary."
or
"Mary does Bill love.'

Their meanings though differ because the English clauses have argument foci.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I am changing -e to mark 'posessedness'
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Re: Tulemo: Nouns and NPs

Post by Omzinesý »

Now I introduce the lexical classes more thoroughly.
I start with nouns because they are relatively simple.

Nouns

Common nouns have three endings:
-i 'indefinite'
-a 'definite'
-e 'possessed'

Proper nouns (i.e. names) are derived with ending -o. Names are usually "meaningful". 'Honor' is oka and Oko is quite a common first name for a person. Proper nouns cannot be possessed.

Number is not marked morphologically. Auxiliaries, however, agree the number of some arguments. Quantifier pitu 'many' can be used to mark plurality, if needed, but in practice, it is rare.

Modifier (or possessor) always follows the noun it modifies. The modifies noun has the possessed -e. There are no adjectives in Tulemo but abstract nouns just modify their head as a possessor.

situle oka 'man of honor' ~ 'honorable man'



N+N Compounding

Compounding is common in Tulemo. One can also form ad hoc compounds, but morphologically compounding is not fully regular.

The modifying root precedes the modified root, just like in English. (Nearly) all roots end in a consonant. (The vowel ending is added to it.) Because Tulemo phonotactics does not allow CC clusters, things processes happen on the border of the two roots.

Usually, the last consonant of the first (modifying) root is dropped. If the second (modified) root begins with a resonant, the resonant gets prestopped.

pusuk 'pusuki (a tree)'
hem 'tree'
it 'fruit'
meut 'pudding'

pusukiti 'a pusuki fruit'
pusuhemi 'a pusuka tree'
pusupmeuti 'pusuka pudding' [pu.su.pme.ju.ti]

If the modifying root is very short, it can preserve the consonant and get an epenthetic interfix vowel, which is usually the same as the last vowel of the root.

okosituli 'a honor man' 'kind of MP'

Some roots have a idiosyncratic modifier root. They can be seen as derivations rather than compounds, though.

sihana 'smallness'

sihemi 'a small tree' (equal with "heme sihana")
siiti 'a small fruit' (equal with "ite sihana")
etc.

Prepositions

Prepositions precede the noun.

pi situla 'to the man'

Numerals

Numerals and other quantifiers precede the noun.

'itu situli 'one man'
'itu situla 'the one man'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 29 Apr 2020 13:26, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Lexicon

situla 'man'
oka 'honor'
pusaki 'a pusaki (tree)'
hemi 'tree'
iti 'fruit'
meut 'pudding'
sihana 'smallness'
'itu 'one'
pi 'to'

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Starting to design the auxiliary.

There are four kinds of combinations of subject and objects:

1) subject only
1) subject and direct object
3) subject and indirect object
4) subject, direct object, and indirect object

With an animate sg3 subject and a sg3 object, the auxiliaries are:

1) ka
2) xa
3) ki
4) xi

With an inanimate subject, the auxiliaries have a dental:
1) ta
2) þa
3) ti
4) þi

(1) Hemi ta umiþu. 'A tree fell'. (Tree AUX fall.)
(2) Sihatli þa umiþu hemi. 'A lightning felled a tree.' (Lightning AUX fall tree.)
(3) Hema ti tnihini fe. 'There is a bird in the tree.' (Tree AUX bird in_it.)
(4) Hema þi sakata pi tnihini. 'The tree gives protection to a bird.' (Tree AUX protection to bird).

(5) Oko ka upelu. 'Oko is playing.' (Oko AUX play)
(6) Oko xa tokimu upefoni. 'Oko broke a toy.' (Oko AUX break toy)
(7) Oko ti upefoni (fe).' Oko has a toy.' (Oko AUX toy (for_himself))
(8) Mama xi pi Oko upefoni. 'Mum gave Oko a toy.' (Mum AUX to Oko toy)
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I think I'll already change the ideas in the last message.
Subjects of bivalent clauses are almost always animate. So it's more important to make Auxiliary agree with the direct or indirect object in animacy.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Fo pexul-a þumos-i t<ox>i-ni.
in beginning-DEF knowledge-INDEF AUX-PEF-IMPERS

Þumos-a t<ox>a supu 'ik-limih-a.
knowledge-DEF AUX<PERF> with one-spirit-DEF

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Finite clauses often begin with conjugations/discourse particles.

Time*: After that - before that
Time*: later - earlier
Cocesive: but/however - although
Cause: so - becase
Reason: for - therefore
Condition: if - then (with different digrees of factuality)

* The first time morphemes express order of events - what perfective aspect does in many languages. The second time morpemes express flashbacks- what perfects express in many languages.
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Lexical verbs have only two morphological forms:

-u (Converb)
- The verb form in main clauses
- The verb form in adverbial clauses

- e (Participle)
- The verb form in relative clauses
- The verb form in (pseudo-relative) complement clauses

(1)
Þaso niru epe telekopi.
AUX.sg1 see-E use-E telescope
'I saw him using a telescope.'

(2)
Þaso niru epu telekopi.
AUX.sg1 see-U use-E telescope
'I saw him using a telescope.'

In (1) the subordinate clause refers to 'him' and 'he' uses a telescope. In (2), the subordinate clause refers to 'I' and 'I' use a telescope.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Now that -e, again, marks adjectives instead of the posessed, there should be a new way for expressing possession.

Juxtaposition could actually do.

Oko iti 'Oka's fruit'

It contrasts with compounding.

okiti 'an honor fruit' (whatever it is)

I think that adjectives will follow their head.

Oko oke 'the honorable Oko'

There is, I think, some tendency that genitives cannot precede their heads if adjectives don't. Maybe I have to change the order of both the posessed one and the possessor, and the roots in a compound.
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Prepositions, which are kind of verbs as well, do also have two forms: -u and -e. The -e form has a nominal head 'man in the street' etc.
Prepositions do also have an anaphoric form. It's used in constructions like 'The house has many people in it.' which are very common in Tulemo. I think the marker of that form is -a.

I think Tulemo is a satellite-framed language. So its prepositions also code goal and source. I have to think how prepositions like 'into' are formed.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I got rid of the ditransitive auxiliary. It will be expressed with a serial verb construction or an auxiliary and a preposition, however one wants to analyse.

The translations below are not exact. In English, the meaning difference in the dative alteration is some kind of a focus. Those below are not focused structures in Tulemo.

Mama xa upefoni pu Oko.
mum AUX.DIRO toy to/give Oko
'Mum gave a toy to oko.'

Mama ki Oko solu upefoni.
mum AUX.INDORO Oko PREP toy
'Mum gave Oko a toy.'

solu is the theme preposition.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Attempt for the auxiliary

The morphological pattern:
[conjunction] *[verb class, agreement] *[epistemic] *[focus/polarity/question] [pronominal clitics]

* The morphemes marked with * are obligatory.


1) conjunction

//al// 'then'
//ol// 'before that'

//as// 'later'
//os// 'earlier'

//akl// 'though'
//okl// 'but ~ however'

//akn// 'yes, and'
//okn/ 'no but ~ rather'

//ah// '(when ~because) then' factual condition
//eh// '(if does) then' nonfactual condition'
//uh// '(if did) then would' counterfactual condition


2) verb agreement

//t// monovalent, singular inanimate subject
//þ// monovalent, singular animate subject
//tn// monovalent, plural animate subject
//tl// monovalent, plural inanimate subject

//p// bivalent, singular inanimate indirect object
//f// bivalent, singular animate indirect object
//pm// bivalent, plural animate indirect object
??

//k// bivalent, singular inanimate direct object
//x// bivalent, singular animate direct object
//kn// bivalent, plural animate direct object
//kl// bivalent, plural inanimate direct object


3) epistemic

//a// sensory evidential
//e// fact ~ generally known
//o// reportative
//i// inferred
//u// uncertain


4) Pronominal clitics (their order still unknown)

sg1 subject
sg1 direct object
sg1 indirect object

sg2 subject
sg2 direct object
sg2 indirect object

pl1 subject
pl1 direct object
pl1 indirect object

pl2 subject
pl2 direct object
pl2 indirect object

impersonal subject
impersonal direct object
impersonal indirect object

wh subject 'who' ~ 'what'
wh direct object
wh indirect object
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Re: Tulemo: Nouns and NPs

Post by Omzinesý »

I'm clarifying the morphology of compounding introduced in:
Omzinesý wrote:
22 Apr 2020 13:03
The modifying root precedes the modified root, just like in English. (Nearly) all roots end in a consonant. (The vowel ending is added to it in one-root words.) Because Tulemo phonotactics does not allow CC clusters, processes happen on the border of the two roots.


If the first (modifying) root ends with a stop (/p/, /t/, /k/ or /ʔ/)and the second (modified) root begins with a resonant, the resonant is prestopped. The tone on the first syllable of the second root is falling (accent 3) ), see viewtopic.php?p=300707#p300707 below.
- If the last consonant of the first root is /k/ and the first consonant of the second (modified) root is an alveolar resonant (/n/ or /l/) the new prestopped consonant is a velar (/kŋ/ or /kʟ/ respectively).
- If the last consonant of the first root is /p/, /t/ or /ʔ/ (or /k/ when followed by /m/), the POA of the new prestopped resonant is that of the first consonant of the second root.

If the first root ends in a resonant and the second root starts with a stop, the results are the same as above, i.e. metathesis happens. The tone on the first syllable of the second root is rising (accent 2) ), see viewtopic.php?p=300707#p300707 below.

If the the consonants are not a combination of a resonant and a stop, the last consonant of the first root is elided.



The first consonant is on the left and the second consonant is on the top of the table.

Code: Select all

	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
	
p	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	.pm	.tn	.tl
t	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	.pm	.tn	.tl
k	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	.pm	.kɲ 	.kʟ
ʔ	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	.pm	.tn	.tl
f	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
θ	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
x	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
h	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
s	p	t	k	ʔ	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
m	.pm	.tn	.kɲ	.pm	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
n	.pm	.tn	.kɲ	.tn	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
l	.tl	.tl	.kʟ	.tl	f	θ	x	h	s	m	n	l
Last edited by Omzinesý on 07 May 2020 15:22, edited 6 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I try translating the story on viewtopic.php?f=9&t=6627 . Probably, I will not finish it before I start a new lang, but you always can try.

'Once upon a time, there were two friends, Ron and John. They decided to travel and see the world together. One day, they decided to go to the forest. The forest was very big and they knew that anything bad could happen to them at any time. They promised each other that they would stick together in case anything bad happened to them. Suddenly, they heard a terrifying roar and then saw a big bear coming in their direction. They were seized by fear. Ron ran quickly and climbed a tree which was nearby, leaving John behind. John didn't know how to climb the tree so he asked Ron: "Can you help me climb the tree? The bear is going to eat me! Please, help me!" I can't come down! The bear is getting close. And there's no space up here. Now, go and find a place to hide. Ron didn't help John, but John was a clever child. At school, he heard the teacher say that bears don't eat dead meat. So, using his wisdom, he lay down on the ground without breathing, pretending to be dead. The bear came near to where he was lying. It sniffed at his ears and slowly left that place because bears don't touch dead meat. After the bear left, his friend came down from the tree and asked John. "What did the bear say into your ear? "The bear told me not to listen to fake friends who leave me at a time of problems." '


Ihina somo heki ole'oti, Lono Sonohe.
ihan-a so-m-o heki ole'-ut-i, Lon-o Son-o-he
story-DEF earlier-INTR.PLSUBJ-REP two good-person-INDEF, L-PROPRN S-PROPRN-and
"The story had two friends, Ron and John."
'Once upon a time, there were two friends, Ron and John.'

Klo suknohu 'eapele kohe 'eahahe.
kl-o suknoh-u 'eah-pel-e koh-e 'eah-a-he
TR.PLDO-REP decide-V world-go-PTCP see-PTCP world-DEF-and
"They decided about them travelling and seeing the world."
'They decided to travel and see the world together.'

θieku, klo suknohu pe suli
θieku, kl-o suknoh-u p-e sul-i
once, TR.PLDO-REP go-PTCP forest-INDEF
'One day, they decided to go to the forest.'

Sula xotnu, haklo asalu keepmi foxomopme pa kehisu
sul-a xotn-u, ha-kl-o asal-u keepmi foxom-opm-e p-a kehisu
forest-DEF big-V, thus-TR.PLDO-REP know-V anything happen-POT-PTCP to-REFL anytime
"The forest being big, they thus knew about anything being able to happen to themselves."
'The forest was very big and they knew that anything bad could happen to them at any time.'




'They promised each other that they would stick together in case anything bad happened to them.'


DEF 'definite'
INDEF 'indefinite'
INTR 'intransitive'
PLDO 'plural direct object'
PLSUBJ 'plural subject'
PROPRN 'proper name'
REFL 'reflexive'
REP 'reportative evidential'
TR 'transitive'
POT 'potential'
PTCP 'participle'
V 'verb'

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Re: Tulemo: Accent

Post by Omzinesý »

Accent

I got inspired by Swedish accentuation.

Root lexemes have two accents:
1) A rising tone on the first syllable
2) A rising tone on the first syllable and a rising tone on some other syllable.

The second rising tone of accent 2) is marked with the acute <á>. The first rising tone is not marked because it appears in every word, excluding some unstressed particles.
The accent is lexically determined, but sometimes it's also used as a derivational method, (1a) and (1b). Collectives/plurals often have the accent 1).

(1a) suli 'a forest'
(1b) sulí 'a tree'

When to two roots are compounded, the new word has two possible accents:

2) A rising tone on the first syllable of the first root and a rising tone on the first syllable of the second root.
3) A rising tone on the first syllable of the first root and a lowering tone on the first syllable of the second root.

The lowering tone is marked with the grave <à>.
Accent number 3) appears if the last consonant of the first root (the consonant usually omitted) is an obstruent (p, t, k, ʔ, f, θ, x, h, s). In (2), the last consonant of the first root ole' is /ʔ/, so the first syllable of the second root has a folling tone.

(2)
ole'ùti
ole'-ùt-i
good-person-INDEF
'friend'

The history behind accent 3) is that the obstruent caused a high tone appear on the boundary of the roots. That tone moved to the beginning of the second root and made it a dipping tone (High Low High). It later simplified to the falling tone (High Low).

If compound words are compounded, the peaks appear on the first syllables of the first node compounds.



Some simple tone sandhi may appear.

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Re: Tulemo

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Clause types

Copular clause

There is no verbal copula. The clause is just:

[subject] [auxiliary] [predicative]

If the subject is dropped or expressed by a clitic pronoun after the auxiliary, the first slot is empty. The verb has intransitive agreement.

(1)
Pusukita ta iti.
pusakit-a t-a it-i
pusaki_fruit-DEF INTR.INANIM_S-SENSORY fruit-INANIM
'Pusuki fruit is a fruit.'


Intransitive clauses

[subject] [auxiliary] [verb]

(2)
Uti θa 'okúlu.
ut-i θ-a 'ukul-u
person-INDEF INTR.ANIM_S-SENSORY walk-V
'A person is walking.'


Transitive clauses

There are two transitive flames, the first of which can be seen as the active.'

1) [actor] [auxiliary] [verb] [undergoer]
2) [undergoer] [auxiliary] [actor] [verb]


[...]

Ditransitive clauses

There are two verbs for 'to give'. Pu takes an recipient as the argument it agrees with while solu takes the theme the argument it agrees with. It agrees with the less focused argument that appears after the verb. The more focused argument is in the end of the clause.

Mama xa pu Oko upefoni.
mam-a x-a pu Oko upefon-i
mum-DEF ANIM.IO-DIR give Oko toy-INDEF
'Mum gave Oko a toy.

Mama ta solu upefoni Oko.
mam-a t-a solu upefon-i Oko
mum-DEF INANIM.DO-DER give toy-INDEF Oko
'Mum gave a toy to Oko.'



Possession and location clauses

Possession clauses are expressed:
[possessor] [auxiliary] [possessed]

Location clause is expressed:
[location] [auxiliary] [thing being there] ( [preposition specifying the location] )

In both clauses, the auxiliary has Indirect-Object Agreement. The thing being there/possessed is seen as the subject and the location/possessor is seen as the IO.

(3)
Uta fa iti.
ut-a f-a it-i
person-DEF ANIM_IO-SENSORY fruit-INDEF
'The person has a fruit.'

(4)
Sula pa sulí (ixa)
sul-a p-a suli (ix-a)
forest-DEF INANIM.IO-SENSORY tree-INDEF (in-REFL)
'There is a tree in the forest.'
Lit. 'The forest has a tree (in it).'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 20 May 2020 18:34, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote:
29 Apr 2020 22:45
Now that -e, again, marks adjectives instead of the posessed, there should be a new way for expressing possession.

Juxtaposition could actually do.

Oko iti 'Oka's fruit'

It contrasts with compounding.

okiti 'an honor fruit' (whatever it is)

I think that adjectives will follow their head.

Oko oke 'the honorable Oko'

There is, I think, some tendency that genitives cannot precede their heads if adjectives don't. Maybe I have to change the order of both the posessed one and the possessor, and the roots in a compound.
I think a genitive attribute will also follow its head.
It is just juxtaposed after the hea

If two NPs are joined, clitic -he is added after the second on, like Latin -que.


Iti sulí 'a fruit of a tree'
Sulìti 'a wooden fruit' (a fruit that has nothing to eat)

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