Tulemo

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Omzinesý
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Re: Tulemo Sentences and clause-external syntax

Post by Omzinesý »

One of the interesting features of Tulemo is that conjunctions appear in main clauses. In (1), conjunction 'a 'then' appears in the main cause. Subordinate clauses, on the other hand, are somewhat reduced and less finite. They lack Auxiliary (Conjunction as well) and thus much of grammatical meanings of main clauses.

(1)
Sohilu, 'aþaso pu sefuki.
sohil-u, 'a-þ-a-so pu sefuki
eat-V, then-ANIM.S-SENSORY-SG1 to outdoors
'When I had eaten, I went outdoors.'
Literally: 'eat, then I went outdoors.'

Word order in subordinate clauses (in adverbial clauses at least) is always SVO, but arguments can be dropped. Arguments aren't however expressed as genitive attributes or anything like that.

(2)
Uso sohilu pupoli, mama 'aþa pu sefuki.
uso suhil-u pupol-i, mam-a 'a-þ-a pu sefuki
SG1 eat-V breakfast.INDEF , mum-DEF then-ANIM.S-SENSORY to outdoors
'When I had eaten breakfast, mum went outdoors.'

Conjunctions can either express relations between the main clause (superordinating conjunction ?) and a subordinate clause or between two main clauses (coordinating conjunctions). They can well refer to the addressee's comment, as well.

(3)
þaso sohilu. 'aþaso pu sefuki.
þ-a-so sohil-u. 'a-þa-so pu sefuki.
ANIM.S-SENSORY-SG1 eat-V. then-ANIM.S-SENSORY-SG1 to outdoors
'I ate. Then I went outdoors.'

The final system of Conjunctions is still developing.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 17 May 2020 09:49, edited 1 time in total.

Khemehekis
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

Mun? Do you mean Mum?
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Khemehekis wrote:
16 May 2020 15:15
Mun? Do you mean Mum?
Yes. Corrected.
I'm very surprised if that is the only typo.

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Re: Tulemo - Prepositions

Post by Omzinesý »

Prepositions

I want that
- Prepositions and verbs are similar but there are some differences
- Tulemo is a satellite-framed language, i.e. prepositions express direction, not verbs.

Prepositions vs. Verbs

Both verbs and prepositions have -u form and -e form. -u form is used independently, (1) (3), while -e form is a head of a phrase that modifies a noun or an NP, (2) (4).

(1)
þaso sohilu.
þ-a-so sohil-u
ANIM.S-SENSORY-SG1 eat-V
'I ate.'

(2)
pupola sohileso
pupol-a sohil-e-so
breakfast-DEF eat-E-SG1.S
'the breakfast that I ate'

(3)
Uti θa 'okúlu pu sula.
ut-i θ-a 'okúl-u p-u sul-a
person-INDEF INTR.ANIM_S-SENSORY walk-V to-U forest-DEF
'A person walked to the forest.'

(4)
'okúla pe sula
'okul-a p-e sul-a
step-DEF to-E forest-DEF
'the step to the forest'

The distinction between verbs and prepositions is more blurred because there is no general verb 'to move' but zero is used, i.e. the prepositions of goal is the only verby word in the clause.

(5)
Uti θa pu sula.
ut-i θ-a p-u sul-a
person-INDEF INTR.ANIM_S-SENSORY to-U forest-DEF
'A person went to the forest.'


Prepositions do, however, have special Reflexive form with -a. It appears in Location Clause Construction, (6).

(6) (appeared in an earlier message)
Sula pa sulí (ixa)
sul-a p-a suli (ix-a)
forest-DEF INANIM.IO-SENSORY tree-INDEF (in-REFL)
'There is a tree in the forest.'
Lit. 'The forest has a tree (in it).'

System of Prepositions


Location

Code: Select all

		FROM		AT	THROUGH		TO
IN		ixelu		ixu	ixasu		ixú
ON		lomelu		lomu	lomasu		lomú
NEARBY 		titelu		titu	titasu		titú
UNDER/BELOW	xelimelu	xelimu	xelimasu	xelimú
OVER/ABOVE 	tokoelu		tokou	tokoasu		tokoú
Now that I found up that accents can differentiate AT and TO, I could overdo the system and also use accents to differentiate TO and TOWARDS.

with (comitative)
with (instrumental)
without
for (benefactive)
to (recipient)
? (theme)
because of
for (final)
concerning
according to
around
about (in a concrete sense)
What else?
Last edited by Omzinesý on 24 May 2020 18:40, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

What could I handle next?
I think the basics are there.

I should of course redo Auxiliary. It has too much info in too little phonological material but it is still progressing slowly.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 20 May 2020 15:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

What other prepositions?

From the LCV:

===Prepositions or Postpositions and Cases===
Spoiler:
ga (subject)
o (object)
wa (focus)
(ergative)
(absolutive)
(intransitive, in tripartite languages)
(reversal of animacy hierarchy)
(oblique: it was I)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adjective to noun, e.g. white house)
na, -g, -ng (connecting determiner to noun, e.g. this life)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to adjective, e.g. die young)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to adverb, e.g. eat slowly)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adjective to adverb, e.g. very good)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to verb, e.g. try to win)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adverb to adverb)
na, -g, -ng (connecting pronoun to adjective)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to pronoun)
na, -g, -ng (connecting conjunction to adverb)
na, -g, -ng (connecting noun to noun)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adverb to noun)
of, ’s (for alienable things – common nouns)
of, ’s (for body parts)
of, ’s (for kinship terms)
of, ’s (for location/home – common nouns)
of, ’s (for other inalienable things – common nouns)
of, ’s (for alienable things – proper nouns)
of, ’s (for location/home – proper nouns)
of, ’s (for other inalienable things – proper nouns)
of (Queen ~ England)
of, with (a quality)
with (a boy ~ blue eyes)
in (~ a skirt)
in (~ black)
(possessed)
of (piece ~ cake)
of (three ~ them)
on (~ the student council)
in (a kid ~ my class)
in (~ the army)
from (John Lennon ~ the Beatles)
of (done to)
of (kind ~ bird)
of (number ~)
of (color ~)
of (three pounds ~ meat)
of (glass ~ water)
of (bunch ~ bananas, group ~ tourists)
from, out of, of (substance)
into (make ~)
in, into (cut ~ half)
from (translate ~ English)
into (translate ~ German)
(translative – made me a prince)
from (tell red ~ green)
from (separate the boys ~ the girls)
in (six feet ~ height; six feet tall)
to (not much ~ it)
about, on (of a book, movie, etc.)
about (talk ~, think ~)
on (a report ~ bats)
regarding
about (Lily saw a doctor ~ her knee)
into (an investigation ~ the murder)
of (map ~ Japan)
as for
as far as _ is concerned
in terms of
for (easy ~ me)
to (be nice ~ your sister)
towards (attitude ~)
with (wrong ~)
with (done ~)
of (picture ~)
at (good ~)
with (help ~)
with (covered ~, filled ~)
with (Ellie sang ~ her eyes closed)
with (it is ~ great sadness)
with (a hot dog ~ ketchup)
without (a hot dog ~ ketchup)
without (~ cheating)
with (Ryan walked ~ Anne)
with (denoting host: I stayed ~ Josh)
with (do you have any money ~ you?)
with (Dave walks ~ light steps)
with (what’s wrong ~ Robin?)
under (~ the circumstances)
full of (the glass is ~ water)
full of (the food was ~ insects)
between (shared by)
among (shared by)
among (unemployment ~ our youth)
between (I had to choose ~ love and fame)
in (event: ~ this lesson, ~ the war)
on (a drug)
to (dative)
for, in exchange for
for (as payment for: I bought the doughnut for 50 cents)
for (purpose)
to (an answer ~ my question)
to (expressing a match: the key ~ this door)
for (destination: Dan left ~ work)
for (apple pie ~ breakfast)
for, to (intended for: a letter ~ Becky)
to (Natalie added sugar ~ her coffee)
for (suitable for: books ~ children)
for (~ my birthday)
for the sake of
for (benefactive)
for (I cut the toddler’s food ~ him)
for (agent ~ the government)
for (adiós is Spanish ~ good-bye)
for (a cure ~ AIDS)
for (in preparation for: Kelly studied ~ her finals)
for (in favor of)
against (opposed to)
against, counter to
versus, vs. (up against, as in sports)
versus, v. (in a legal case)
versus, vs., as opposed to (vis-à-vis: what boys like ~ what girls like)
with (war ~ Iraq)
with (agree ~)
with (disagree ~)
into (interested in)
up to (What are you ~?)
after (in pursuit of)
for (drill ~ oil)
by, by means of, via, over
by (pay ~ check)
by (with verb: won ~ cheating)
on (runs ~ gas)
by, on (mode of transportation)
on (Destiny always talks ~ her phone)
on (Justin played “Eight Days a Week” ~ the guitar)
with (write ~ a pencil)
in (medium: ~ oil paint)
by, alongside, beside
at (location: ~ home)
at (location: ~ school)
at (location: store, park, station, etc.)
at (location: ~ the concert)
at (site of an action: Joey cooks ~ home)
at (site of an action: Tom studies ~ Lopez High)
at (site of an action: store, park, station, etc.)
at (site of an action: Becky took photos ~ the Taylor Swift concert)
on (street)
in (city)
in (country)
in (compass point: ~ the east)
on (planet)
on
on (hit Rick ~ the head)
on (~ the ceiling)
on (be ~ a bus/train)
off
on (the left or right)
on (~ television)
on (I’m ~ my cellphone)
to (~ the east of Texas)
in (placement: Tom is ~ the living room)
in (action: Tom threw a party ~ the living room)
in (~ the air, sun)
in (vehicle)
out of (~ the hospital, prison)
against (~ the wall)
inside
outside
outside (~ the door)
above
below
up (the cat is ~ a tree)
up (they live ~ the street)
down (they live ~ the street)
on top of, atop
beneath, underneath
in front of, before
ahead of (in space)
behind, after
behind (hidden by)
before (in alphanumeric sequence)
after (in alphanumeric sequence)
to the left of
to the right of
from (50 miles ~ home)
within
within (~ 5 miles)
throughout (space)
near
next to
towards (facing)
between
among (in the middle of)
around, round (placement)
across (on the opposite side of)
across (lie ~ the bed)
over (it’s ~ the hill)
from (direction: a road ~ Rome)
to (direction: a road ~ Los Angeles)
beyond (in space)
past
through (past: go ~ customs)
at the house of, at _’s
through (go ~ the window/door)
through (tunnel)
through (house)
through (park)
through (among: clouds, air)
through (look ~ the window)
through (the rumor spread ~ town)
up
down
from (I took it ~ Vanessa)
from (a present ~ Julie)
away from, from (five miles ~ from my home)
away from (stay ~ the lion’s cage)
off (take a book ~ the bookshelf)
from (I come ~ Germany)
from (music ~ the seventies)
from (released ~ prison)
to, towards
to (go ~ school/the movies)
to (person: ~ Sharon’s, ~ my parents’)
from (flight ~ Paris)
to (destination: flight ~ Tokyo)
to (an island)
to (planet: a trip ~ Mars)
to (invited Mark ~ dinner)
at (smiling ~ me)
at (towards: Jason threw his hat ~ me)
from, out of (drink ~ a glass)
into (walk ~ a store)
into (put it ~ your purse)
into (Danielle looked ~ the mirror)
out of, out (ran ~ the door)
over
under
over (trip ~ some glass)
onto (the parrot flew ~ Jim’s shoulder)
onto (post ~ the wall/door)
onto (get ~ the bus)
off (the handle fell ~ the cup)
into (crash ~)
along
around, round (in a movement encircling)
across, over (movement)
around, round (to every part of)
past, by (I walk ~ it going home from school)
in reach of, within reach of
out of reach of
until, till (from the view of before the turning point)
until, till (from the view of after the turning point)
from . . . on
since
not until (from the view of before the turning point)
not until (from the view of after the turning point)
before, prior to (in time, past)
after (in time, past)
before, prior to (in time, not past)
after (in time, not past)
during
over (~ the weekend)
ahead of (in time)
from (~ 9 to 5)
to (from 9 ~ 5)
at (time when: I got married ~ age 37)
at (time when: ~ 3:15)
at (time when: ~ night)
at (starting point: this meeting begins ~ 11:30 a.m.)
at (end point: George died ~ age 95)
at (end point: this meeting ends ~ 4:15 p.m.)
in (~ the afternoon)
on, upon (at a particular date: on the seventeenth)
on, upon (month and day: on September 8)
on (at a recurring date: every Sunday)
in (month)
in (season)
in (year)
on, at (holiday/festival)
before (the week ~ last)
after (the week ~ next)
for (I have been waiting ~ an hour)
for (it will last ~ a week)
in (finished the project ~ three weeks)
in, for (she hasn’t eaten ~ a week)
for (scheduled time: it won’t be ready ~ a week)
in (I’ll be ready ~ ten minutes)
for (~ the third time)
by (time)
throughout (time span)
into (10 minutes ~ the class)
ago
from now
to, before (15 minutes ~ 8:00)
past, after (9 minutes ~ 6:00)
within (time range)
like (dive ~ a turtle)
like (similar to)
like, such as
unlike (different from)
like (sounds ~ hip-hop)
like (sounds ~ a good idea)
as (in the form or incarnation of)
as (essive)
for (a carrot ~ a nose)
for (for this case: too much food ~ me)
for (compared to others of one’s type: your English isn’t bad ~ a foreigner)
of (how selfish ~ him)
as opposed to (men, ~ boys)
as well as
in addition to
besides, other than, aside from
including
except, but
aside from, except for
among (one/some of, of a thing: Los Angeles is ~ the world’s largest cities)
among (one/some of, of a person: Jennifer is ~ the smartest kids in her class)
beyond (in degree, extent)
limited to
in (a doctor ~ the family)
over (more than)
under (less than)
under (children ~ 6)
over (children ~ 6)
in (~ his twenties)
over (more than an amount of money)
under (less than an amount of money)
at least
at most, as many as
because of, due to
because of, thanks to
of, from (die ~ cancer)
with (shake ~ fear)
for (charge or reason)
on (spend money ~ food)
despite
as for, as of, in (~ height)
in (a field, such as mathematics)
at, at the rate of
per, a, an, out of (60 miles ~ hour)
per, a, an (three days ~ week)
per, a, an ($6 ~ pound)
per, a, an ($2.50 ~ person)
out of, in (4 ~ 5 dentists)
to (come six ~ a box)
from (children ~ 6 to 11)
to, up to, through (12 through 18 = 12-18 not inclusive)
to, up to, through (12 to 18 = 12-18 inclusive)
to (count ~ ten)
instead of
regardless of, whatever, no matter
according to (a source)
across (~ many fields)
depending on
to (beautiful ~ me)
on (by the criterion of, e.g. ~ strength alone)
worth (of financial value)
worth (of abstract value)
for (a check ~ $2,000)
ahead of (the poll showed Watanabe ~ Yamada)
ahead of (in scoring points)
ahead of (more advanced than)
in (a certain language)
in (the kids all stood ~ a circle)
in (~ a quiet voice)
for (drove ~ miles)
by (increased ~ three points)
in (~ Romeo and Juliet)
with _ on
with _ off
by (author)
by (with passive verb)
of (city ~ Tokyo)
(appositive: my brother Alex)
easy to (~ peel)
difficult to, hard to (~ solve)
fun to (~ eat)
nice to (~ have)
Last edited by Khemehekis on 24 May 2020 04:54, edited 1 time in total.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 65,595 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Omzinesý
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Khemehekis wrote:
18 May 2020 16:49
What other prepositions?

From the LCV:

===Prepositions or Postpositions and Cases===
Spoiler:
ga (subject)
o (object)
wa (focus)
(ergative)
(absolutive)
(intransitive, in tripartite languages)
(reversal of animacy hierarchy)
(oblique: it was I)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adjective to noun, e.g. white house)
na, -g, -ng (connecting determiner to noun, e.g. this life)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to adjective, e.g. die young)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to adverb, e.g. eat slowly)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adjective to adverb, e.g. very good)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to verb, e.g. try to win)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adverb to adverb)
na, -g, -ng (connecting pronoun to adjective)
na, -g, -ng (connecting verb to pronoun)
na, -g, -ng (connecting conjunction to adverb)
na, -g, -ng (connecting noun to noun)
na, -g, -ng (connecting adverb to noun)
of, ’s (for alienable things – common nouns)
of, ’s (for body parts)
of, ’s (for kinship terms)
of, ’s (for location/home – common nouns)
of, ’s (for other inalienable things – common nouns)
of, ’s (for alienable things – proper nouns)
of, ’s (for location/home – proper nouns)
of, ’s (for other inalienable things – proper nouns)
of (Queen ~ England)
of, with (a quality)
with (a boy ~ blue eyes)
in (~ a skirt)
in (~ black)
(possessed)
of (piece ~ cake)
of (three ~ them)
on (~ the student council)
in (a kid ~ my class)
in (~ the army)
from (John Lennon ~ the Beatles)
of (done to)
of (kind ~ bird)
of (number ~)
of (color ~)
of (three pounds ~ meat)
of (glass ~ water)
of (bunch ~ bananas, group ~ tourists)
from, out of, of (substance)
into (make ~)
in, into (cut ~ half)
from (translate ~ English)
into (translate ~ German)
(translative – made me a prince)
from (tell red ~ green)
from (separate the boys ~ the girls)
in (six feet ~ height; six feet tall)
to (not much ~ it)
about, on (of a book, movie, etc.)
about (talk ~, think ~)
on (a report ~ bats)
regarding
into (an investigation ~ the murder)
of (map ~ Japan)
as for
as far as _ is concerned
in terms of
for (easy ~ me)
to (be nice ~ your sister)
towards (attitude ~)
with (wrong ~)
with (done ~)
of (picture ~)
at (good ~)
with (help ~)
with (covered ~, filled ~)
with (Ellie sang ~ her eyes closed)
with (it is ~ great sadness)
with (a hot dog ~ ketchup)
without (a hot dog ~ ketchup)
without (~ cheating)
with (Ryan walked ~ Anne)
with (denoting host: I stayed ~ Josh)
with (do you have any money ~ you?)
with (Dave walks ~ light steps)
with (what’s wrong ~ Robin?)
under (~ the circumstances)
full of (the glass is ~ water)
full of (the food was ~ insects)
between (shared by)
among (shared by)
among (unemployment ~ our youth)
between (I had to choose ~ love and fame)
in (event: ~ this lesson, ~ the war)
on (a drug)
to (dative)
for, in exchange for
for (as payment for: I bought the doughnut for 50 cents)
for (purpose)
to (an answer ~ my question)
to (expressing a match: the key ~ this door)
for (destination: Dan left ~ work)
for (apple pie ~ breakfast)
for, to (intended for: a letter ~ Becky)
to (Natalie added sugar ~ her coffee)
for (suitable for: books ~ children)
for (~ my birthday)
for the sake of
for (benefactive)
for (I cut the toddler’s food ~ him)
for (agent ~ the government)
for (adiós is Spanish ~ good-bye)
for (a cure ~ AIDS)
for (in preparation for: Kelly studied ~ her finals)
for (in favor of)
against (opposed to)
against, counter to
versus, vs. (up against, as in sports)
versus, v. (in a legal case)
versus, vs., as opposed to (vis-à-vis: what boys like ~ what girls like)
with (war ~ Iraq)
with (agree ~)
with (disagree ~)
into (interested in)
up to (What are you ~?)
after (in pursuit of)
by, by means of, via, over
by (pay ~ check)
by (with verb: won ~ cheating)
on (runs ~ gas)
by, on (mode of transportation)
on (Destiny always talks ~ her phone)
on (Justin played “Eight Days a Week” ~ the guitar)
with (write ~ a pencil)
in (medium: ~ oil paint)
by, alongside, beside
at (location: ~ home)
at (location: ~ school)
at (location: store, park, station, etc.)
at (location: ~ the concert)
at (site of an action: Joey cooks ~ home)
at (site of an action: Tom studies ~ Lopez High)
at (site of an action: store, park, station, etc.)
at (site of an action: Becky took photos ~ the Taylor Swift concert)
on (street)
in (city)
in (country)
in (compass point: ~ the east)
on (planet)
on
on (hit Rick ~ the head)
on (~ the ceiling)
on (be ~ a bus/train)
off
on (the left or right)
on (~ television)
on (I’m ~ my cellphone)
to (~ the east of Texas)
in (placement: Tom is ~ the living room)
in (action: Tom threw a party ~ the living room)
in (~ the air, sun)
in (vehicle)
out of (~ the hospital, prison)
against (~ the wall)
inside
outside
outside (~ the door)
above
below
up (the cat is ~ a tree)
up (they live ~ the street)
down (they live ~ the street)
on top of, atop
beneath, underneath
in front of, before
ahead of (in space)
behind, after
behind (hidden by)
before (in alphanumeric sequence)
after (in alphanumeric sequence)
to the left of
to the right of
from (50 miles ~ home)
within
within (~ 5 miles)
throughout (space)
near
next to
towards (facing)
between
among (in the middle of)
around, round (placement)
across (on the opposite side of)
across (lie ~ the bed)
over (it’s ~ the hill)
from (direction: a road ~ Rome)
to (direction: a road ~ Los Angeles)
beyond (in space)
past
through (past: go ~ customs)
at the house of, at _’s
through (go ~ the window/door)
through (tunnel)
through (house)
through (park)
through (among: clouds, air)
through (look ~ the window)
through (the rumor spread ~ town)
up
down
from (I took it ~ Vanessa)
from (a present ~ Julie)
away from, from (five miles ~ from my home)
away from (stay ~ the lion’s cage)
off (take a book ~ the bookshelf)
from (I come ~ Germany)
from (music ~ the seventies)
from (released ~ prison)
to, towards
to (go ~ school/the movies)
to (person: ~ Sharon’s, ~ my parents’)
from (flight ~ Paris)
to (destination: flight ~ Tokyo)
to (an island)
to (planet: a trip ~ Mars)
to (invited Mark ~ dinner)
at (smiling ~ me)
at (towards: Jason threw his hat ~ me)
from, out of (drink ~ a glass)
into (walk ~ a store)
into (put it ~ your purse)
into (Danielle looked ~ the mirror)
out of, out (ran ~ the door)
over
under
over (trip ~ some glass)
onto (the parrot flew ~ Jim’s shoulder)
onto (post ~ the wall/door)
onto (get ~ the bus)
off (the handle fell ~ the cup)
into (crash ~)
along
around, round (in a movement encircling)
across, over (movement)
around, round (to every part of)
past, by (I walk ~ it going home from school)
in reach of, within reach of
out of reach of
until, till (from the view of before the turning point)
until, till (from the view of after the turning point)
from . . . on
since
not until (from the view of before the turning point)
not until (from the view of after the turning point)
before, prior to (in time, past)
after (in time, past)
before, prior to (in time, not past)
after (in time, not past)
during
over (~ the weekend)
ahead of (in time)
from (~ 9 to 5)
to (from 9 ~ 5)
at (time when: I got married ~ age 37)
at (time when: ~ 3:15)
at (time when: ~ night)
at (starting point: this meeting begins ~ 11:30 a.m.)
at (end point: George died ~ age 95)
at (end point: this meeting ends ~ 4:15 p.m.)
in (~ the afternoon)
on, upon (at a particular date: on the seventeenth)
on, upon (month and day: on September 8)
on (at a recurring date: every Sunday)
in (month)
in (season)
in (year)
on, at (holiday/festival)
before (the week ~ last)
after (the week ~ next)
for (I have been waiting ~ an hour)
for (it will last ~ a week)
in (finished the project ~ three weeks)
in, for (she hasn’t eaten ~ a week)
for (scheduled time: it won’t be ready ~ a week)
in (I’ll be ready ~ ten minutes)
for (~ the third time)
by (time)
throughout (time span)
into (10 minutes ~ the class)
ago
from now
to, before (15 minutes ~ 8:00)
past, after (9 minutes ~ 6:00)
within (time range)
like (dive ~ a turtle)
like (similar to)
like, such as
unlike (different from)
like (sounds ~ hip-hop)
like (sounds ~ a good idea)
as (in the form or incarnation of)
as (essive)
for (a carrot ~ a nose)
for (for this case: too much food ~ me)
for (compared to others of one’s type: your English isn’t bad ~ a foreigner)
of (how selfish ~ him)
as opposed to (men, ~ boys)
as well as
in addition to
besides, other than, aside from
including
except, but
aside from, except for
among (one/some of, of a thing: Los Angeles is ~ the world’s largest cities)
among (one/some of, of a person: Jennifer is ~ the smartest kids in her class)
beyond (in degree, extent)
limited to
in (a doctor ~ the family)
over (more than)
under (less than)
under (children ~ 6)
over (children ~ 6)
in (~ his twenties)
over (more than an amount of money)
under (less than an amount of money)
at least
at most, as many as
because of, due to
because of, thanks to
of, from (die ~ cancer)
with (shake ~ fear)
for (charge or reason)
on (spend money ~ food)
despite
as for, as of, in (~ height)
in (a field, such as mathematics)
at, at the rate of
per, a, an, out of (60 miles ~ hour)
per, a, an (three days ~ week)
per, a, an ($6 ~ pound)
per, a, an ($2.50 ~ person)
out of, in (4 ~ 5 dentists)
to (come six ~ a box)
from (children ~ 6 to 11)
to, up to, through (12 through 18 = 12-18 not inclusive)
to, through (12 to 18 = 12-18 inclusive)
to (count ~ ten)
instead of
regardless of, whatever, no matter
according to (a source)
across (~ many fields)
depending on
to (beautiful ~ me)
on (by the criterion of, e.g. ~ strength alone)
worth (of financial value)
worth (of abstract value)
for (a check ~ $2,000)
ahead of (the poll showed Watanabe ~ Yamada)
ahead of (in scoring points)
ahead of (more advanced than)
in (a certain language)
in (the kids all stood ~ a circle)
in (~ a quiet voice)
for (drove ~ miles)
by (increased ~ three points)
in (~ Romeo and Juliet)
with _ on
with _ off
by (author)
by (with passive verb)
of (city ~ Tokyo)
(appositive: my brother Alex)
easy to (~ peel)
difficult to, hard to (~ solve)
fun to (~ eat)
nice to (~ have)
Thanks.
I'll think how to translate them.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Omzinesý wrote:
01 May 2020 01:30
Attempt for the auxiliary
Spoiler:
The morphological pattern:
[conjunction] *[verb class, agreement] *[epistemic] *[focus/polarity/question] [pronominal clitics]

* The morphemes marked with * are obligatory.


1) conjunction

//al// 'then'
//ol// 'before that'

//as// 'later'
//os// 'earlier'

//akl// 'though'
//okl// 'but ~ however'

//akn// 'yes, and'
//okn/ 'no but ~ rather'

//ah// '(when ~because) then' factual condition
//eh// '(if does) then' nonfactual condition'
//uh// '(if did) then would' counterfactual condition


2) verb agreement

//t// monovalent, singular inanimate subject
//þ// monovalent, singular animate subject
//tn// monovalent, plural animate subject
//tl// monovalent, plural inanimate subject

//p// bivalent, singular inanimate indirect object
//f// bivalent, singular animate indirect object
//pm// bivalent, plural animate indirect object
??

//k// bivalent, singular inanimate direct object
//x// bivalent, singular animate direct object
//kn// bivalent, plural animate direct object
//kl// bivalent, plural inanimate direct object


3) epistemic

//a// sensory evidential
//e// fact ~ generally known
//o// reportative
//i// inferred
//u// uncertain


4) Pronominal clitics (their order still unknown)

sg1 subject
sg1 direct object
sg1 indirect object

sg2 subject
sg2 direct object
sg2 indirect object

pl1 subject
pl1 direct object
pl1 indirect object

pl2 subject
pl2 direct object
pl2 indirect object

impersonal subject
impersonal direct object
impersonal indirect object

wh subject 'who' ~ 'what'
wh direct object
wh indirect object
The "core" of Auxiliary are:
- agreement (number and animacy of S, O, IO)
- Argument structure (monovalent, bivalent with DO, bivalent with IO*)
- epistemic (some evidentiality some modality),
- clause type (affirmative, question, request)
- polarity (I think polarity will be integrated in other paradigms. Evidentiality is not so important in negative cluases. In questions, you rather assume a negative answer than ask anything negative.)
- I'm not sure if some focus marking appear.

* Because they are syntactic constructions, they shouldn't apparently be called transitive, like we once discussed.

Because Auxiliaries only appear in main classes, no subjunctive or such is needed.

Conjugation precedes the "core" and pronouns are just enclitics.

What I want:
- A South-American style evidential system. You lie if you use a wrong evidential. + some marking of certainty. (I don't know if I want to have egophoricity. I never succeed to integrate it nicely in my morphology.)
- The most frequent forms (direct evidential affirmative) are just one syllable long.
- Accent plays some role. Or maybe Auxiliaries are unaccented and unstressed.
- Epistemic forms should not be diffentiated by one vowel like in my first attempt.


Code: Select all

		Affirmative	Question	Negation 	
EVIDENTIAL			
Direct 		a		u		i
Inferential	osi 		a'u 		otu 
Reportative 	ona 		itne 		ofa
OTHER EPISTEMIC
Fact 		iso 		ato 		itlu
Uncertain	ikla 		ui 		ame
OTHER
Request*	upo		imu 		afe 

Agreement and Argument structure 

		Monovalent 	Bivalent with DO	Bivalent with IO 
Inanimate	t		k			p
Inimate 	þ		x			f	

Plural is expressed by reduplicating the first syllable of the "core". 


*Pure imperative is expressed without Auxiliary, like in Basque. So the request form is rather an optative.

In wh-questions, negation has a logical meaning. They do, however, always have Question form of the "core" and there are two different pronominal enclitics 'who/what does' and 'Who/what doesn't'.




There is also Performative conjunction 'hereby'.
It could also work as a sentence focus marker, which initiates a discourse.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 20 May 2020 17:33, edited 4 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Pronominal enclitics

In main clauses, pronominal enclitics are usually attached to Auxiliary. In subordinate clauses, they are usually attached to the lexical verb.
If the pronouns is emphasized, word etle is used in situ, and the pronominal enclitics after Auxiliary mark the person.

Code: Select all

			
sg1 		so	'I, me'
pl1 excl. 	siso	'we'	
pl1 incl. 	niso	'we'	
sg2		nu	'you'	
pl2 		nino	'you'	
Q/Impersonal 	li 	'one, somebody, something' 			
Q NEG/Impersonal		pmo	'who doesn't' 	


The clitics usually appear in the following order: Q, Impersonal, sg2, pl2, pl1 incl., pl1excl., sg1.
Personal clitics have a tone, i.e. the second peak in accent 1 or accent 2, if they appear after Auxiliary. The tone is rising (accent 2) if the last personal clitic is the subject, and the tone is lowering (accent 3) if the last personal clitic is the object. I think this can be seen as an inverse marking, but because it only applies to pronominal clitics, the term maybe just messes up the phenomenon. The "core" of Auxiliary also agrees the object, which is not to do with the tone of pronominal clitics.
If there are is no pronominal clitic, Auxiliary is unaccented and unstressed. In subordinate clauses, where personal clitics are attached to the lexical verb, they do not have a tone and their role can be ambiguous.

If no subject/object is explicitly marked, a third person subject/object is automatically presupposed.

(1)
θanusó oxinu.
θ-e-nu-so-´ oxin-u
ANIM.DO-DIR-sg2-sg1-S love-V
'I love you.'

(2)
θanusò oxinu.
θ-a-nu-so-` oxin-u
ANIM.DO-DIR-sg2-sg1-O love-V
'You love me.'

(3)
Talisó oxinu.
T-e-li-so-´ oxin-u
INANIM.DO-DIR-IMPERS-sg1-S love-V
'I love something.'

(4)
θalinù oxinu.
θ-a-li-nu-` oxin-u
ANIM.DO-DIR-IPERS-sg2-O love-V
'Somebody loves you. ~ You are loved.'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 29 May 2020 23:28, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I think the easiest description (pedagogally at least) is that só means 'I' and sò means 'me' and tone is dropped on non-last pronominal enclitics.

It's an interesting point in one's career as a conlanger when you start thinking how to analyse your conlang not just how it is.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

Omzinesý wrote:
20 May 2020 14:49
Thanks.
I'll think how to translate them.
You're welcome.

Glad to've helped.

BTW, since I posted that list, I've added two new entries to the LCV, both in the adpositions/cases category:

about (Lily saw a doctor ~ her knee)
for (drill ~ oil)
Omzinesý wrote:
22 May 2020 10:19
It's an interesting point in one's career as a conlanger when you start thinking how to analyse your conlang not just how it is.
[+1]
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Motion verbs and motion prepositions could have the lowering tone in venitive (come) and the rising tone in irative (go). So they obligatorily expresses deixis.

It is historically related to the tones of pronominal enclitics.
If I is the patient, a transitive action kind of comes to I, while if I is the agent, a transitive action kind of goes away from I.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

I got interested in dvandva compounds, which Pabappa mentioned in L&N Q&A thread.

Tulemo will also have them. If mother and father are boringly mam-a and pap-a, parents is mapmápa or papmàma. Auxiliary agrees it as an animate plural. I cannot find up how it morphologically differ from a normal compound.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

Omzinesý wrote:
24 May 2020 20:18
I got interested in dvandva compounds, which Pabappa mentioned in L&N Q&A thread.

Tulemo will also have them. If mother and father are boringly mam-a and pap-a, parents is mapmápa or papmàma. Auxiliary agrees it as an animate plural. I cannot find up how it morphologically differ from a normal compound.
Not mampápa?
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Khemehekis wrote:
24 May 2020 20:37
Omzinesý wrote:
24 May 2020 20:18
I got interested in dvandva compounds, which Pabappa mentioned in L&N Q&A thread.

Tulemo will also have them. If mother and father are boringly mam-a and pap-a, parents is mapmápa or papmàma. Auxiliary agrees it as an animate plural. I cannot find up how it morphologically differ from a normal compound.
Not mampápa?
Tulemo does not allow coda.

mam + pap
1) If the first root ends in a resonant, the second root has a rising tone.
mampáp
2) If the first root ends in a resonant and the second root is a stop, metathesis happens and they form a prestopped resonant.
ma.pmáp-a

It's explained in a message above.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

I see.

I suppose if a human speaker were to try to begin a syllable with [mp], s/he would end up with prenasalization.
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Khemehekis wrote:
24 May 2020 20:49
I see.

I suppose if a human speaker were to try to begin a syllable with [mp], s/he would end up with prenasalization.
That is surely how most languages would develop. But I don't think it is the only or inevitable direction.
Prestopping is a thing in Tulemo (and I happen to like it). Maybe it is an areal feature. Maybe there is a strong tendency for increasing sonority in onset.

Prenasalized consonants are not part of Tulemo phonology.
Edit: Now that you sai it.
The matathesis rule is complicated and complicated rules aren't productive for a long time. So, I might change the system so that new compounds just lose the nasal, what always with obstruents. Mapmápa is an uhralt word anyways.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 24 May 2020 21:19, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

I just checked out the Wikipedia article on prestopped consonants. Fascinating stuff. I ought to put them in one of my future conlang inventions for the Lehola Galaxy.
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Re: Tulemo

Post by Omzinesý »

Khemehekis wrote:
24 May 2020 21:17
I just checked out the Wikipedia article on prestopped consonants. Fascinating stuff. I ought to put them in one of my future conlang inventions for the Lehola Galaxy.
They are fun. And pronouncing them isn't as hard as it first seems.


- Maybe, prestopped consonants first appeared in words like papmàma.
- Then metathesis of /l/ happened. (That happened in Proto-Slavonic, for example. Slavonic though allowes any cluster of a stop + a liquid.)
Pal + pap => pa.tlápa
- Then metathesis also happened to nasals analogically with /l/, when prestopped nasals already belonged to the phoneme inventory.


Honestly, I just came up with the metathesis thing, in order to find a way for presopped resonants to be followed by the rising tone.

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Re: Tulemo

Post by Khemehekis »

Omzinesý wrote:
24 May 2020 21:40
Honestly, I just came up with the metathesis thing, in order to find a way for presopped resonants to be followed by the rising tone.
Oh, OK. But it's a good metathesis thing.
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