Semantic shifts for Pabappa, a language with about 4000 words. I worked for three hours last night and five hours this morning poring over the entire vocabulary and shifting the senses of the words, ending up with about 1200 semantic shifts that I consider meaningful. Keep in mind that Pabappa is spoken 4,500 years after the parent language, Play, from which I derived all of those words. So, 1200 shifts might seem a bit on the light side.
Here are a few examples of simple semantic shifts involving just one word, with the old sense in italics and the new sense in bold:
pata worker, one who gathers power > play that is fun for all involved
watibla sword > kitchen knife (they're pacifists now)
pupsi layer, stratum > sheet of paper
pipu island star in the sky
aba palm tree stationed on the immediate shore; beach
woi reason, motive strategic planning room; office
pessep the sun in eclipse strong cold wind; to blow cold; northerly cold wave
testasa comet, meteor > bird flying alone
mabada supporter, helper > coat hanger
In many cases, the words listed here will not have the exact same form on both sides of the shift, because of noun class suffixes. Pabappa doesnt have grammatical noun class suffixes, but rather derivational ones, meaning that they're optional and most words exist in their bare form .... but words that began with a suffix often need to drop it or gain a new one, and some words that were originally bare will gain a suffix as well. For example, mabada "supporter, helper" becomes mabala when it changes from an animate noun to a handheld object.
My favorite shifts are the chain shifts, where one word shifts to a new sense, another word fills the gap, a different word fills *that* gap, and so on. Here are some examples of chain shifts. I dont list the Pabappa words for these, but the notation here is that each arrow represents a link in the chain, each link involving a different pair of Pabappa words, rather than having one word throughout the entire chain:
soap > comb > to calm down
reason, motive > lamp > to anticipate
to swell, bloat > late in pregnancy > labor as sacrifice
to swim > lilypad > blanket to lie on > algae
front part > border wall > thorny bushes
joint, bending place > petal > veteran > to shoulder chronic injuries or health problems
portion, ration > to stir, agitate > to siege a city > to suck (that is, to drain the life from something)
school > to repent > trigger for a trap
rose > tulip > orange (color)
wheel > button on clothing > victim of bullying
cargo ship > rudder > wheel > goal, plan for victory (the two shifts involving the sense of "wheel" did not overlap, and the word stems did not resemble each other even to scholars)
standing up; erect > pornography > to watch people from behind
spoon > to annoy > to yell into someone's ear
carrot > roots of a tree > able to see through solid objects
energy > squirrel > to assume
The semantic shifts of some of these words may seem contrived even for a 4,500 year time span, but I explain some as random chance and others as incomplete sense shifts, ... for example, the word on the last line never exclusively meant squirrel because it was one of the many words for animals that was structurally a verb, and therefore "squirreliness" was the common trait, where squirrels were seen as being both unusually energetic and unusually frantic, assuming that every human who so much as came close was intent on eating them.
I'll take the theses, and you can have the thoses.