Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

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teotlxixtli
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by teotlxixtli »

teotlxixtli wrote: 02 Aug 2022 19:17 On WALS online I see Eyak has neither bilabials nor nasals and Maxakalí has no fricatives nor nasals, so I have to wonder… what about a language with no bilabials or fricatives? I may have to revisit that idea
Now that I’ve got the time to think more about it, here’s a Pama-Nyungan-type possibility for the aforementioned constraints:

n ɳ ɲ ŋ
t ʈ c k
ɻ j w
r
l ɭ ʎ

i u
a

(C)V(C) syllable structure
Vowels in sequence are pronounced separately
Vowels of the same quality do not appear adjacently
Only nasals, stops, and lateral approximants appear in the coda
Germinate consonants are pronounced doubly long
Only homorganic clusters occur
Initial fixed stress
Trochaic rhythm type

Nasals and lateral approximants are devoiced word-finally
/t ʈ c k/ are realized as /d ɖ ɟ g/ respectively between voiced segments
/w/ is realized as /ɰ/ prior to /i a/
/i u a/ are realized as /ɪ ʊ ɐ/ respectively in closed syllables
teotlxixtli
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by teotlxixtli »

teotlxixtli wrote: 02 Aug 2022 19:17 On WALS online I see Eyak has neither bilabials nor nasals and Maxakalí has no fricatives nor nasals, so I have to wonder… what about a language with no bilabials or fricatives? I may have to revisit that idea
Here's another, possibly more exotic possibility:

n ŋ
t d k g q ʔ
tʰ kʰ qʰ
t’ k’ q’
w
ɾ

i ɯ u
e ɤ o
a

C(C)V syllable structure
Onset clusters take the following forms:
- /n ŋ t d k g q tʰ kʰ qʰ t’ k’ q’/ + /w/
- /t d k g q tʰ kʰ qʰ/ + /ɾ/
Vowels must be separated by at least one consonant
Ultimate fixed stress
No rhythmic stress
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Omzinesý
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

p' t' k'
p t k
f s ɬ h
m n ŋ
l v j

(Some flapping of stops might happen intervocally. It might be minimally contrastive so that some morphological processes have it and some don't.)

i u
e o
ɛ ɔ
ä

There is an ATR harmony of mid vowels.
Diphthongs with a closed second component appear.

Vowel length is contrastive.

Phonotactics

P = {p' t' k' p t k f s ɬ h}
L = {m n ŋ l v}

(P)(L)VV(L)

/j/ is a semivowel and does not appear in clusters.

There are two tones: H, L.
All words are autosegmentally of the pattern: LHL. All tones can spread to any number of syllables. All tones don't have to be combined to any syllables. (Long vowels or diphthongs bear only one tone, ie. Contours do not appear.)


Possible other features
- stative verbs instead of adjectives
- a mood for relative clauses
- mostly suffixing
- vowel length and tones are also morphological devices
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Omzinesý
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

plain stop: p t k
ejective stop: p' t' k'
affricate stop: pɸ tɬ ts kx qχ
ejective affricate stop: pɸ' tɬ' ts' kx' qχ'
nasal: m n ŋ
"affricate nasal": mV᷈, nV᷈, ŋV᷈
fricative: ɸ ɬ s x χ
liquid: l r
semivowel: j
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

p t t͡s k͡p k ʔ
f θ s ʍ x h
ʙ ɾ (inter-vocally only)
m n ŋ͡m ŋ
j w

/ʙ ɾ/ appear only nter-vocally
/ŋ ʔ h/ don't appear word-initially

long - short - reduced
i: - i - ɪ
ie - je: - ɪ
u: - u - ʊ
uo - wo - ʊ
e: - e - ɪ
o: - o - ʊ
ɑ: - ɑ - ʌ

Phonotactics is veru simple CV, but word-final reduced vowels elide if the preceding syllable does not have a long vowel, creating CVC syllables.

Vowel length is a morphological, not lexical, phenomenon, so, DEFINITE PLURAL could be long.short.long, for example.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Omzinesý
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Something very simple

p t k
b d t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ g
f s h
m n
l j w

i u
e o
ä

Syllable structure (C)V(C)
The only allowed coda consonants are s, h and before voiced stops N.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Sequor
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Sequor »

Creyeditor wrote: 18 Mar 2022 15:31 I was reading something on tone circles in South America and started to wonder if there could be vowel circles or consonant circles. So in a tone circle, tones alternate in some context in a circular fashion. T1 becomes T2, T2 becomes T3, T3 becomes T4, T4 becomes T5 and T5 becomes T1.
A vowel example could be that in final position /a/ becomes [e], /e/ becomes [ i], /i/ becomes [ u ], /u/ becomes [o] and /o/ becomes [a].

An example would be the root /ka/. In isolation it would [ke]. But if you attach a suffix /te/, the resulting form would be [kati]. If you attach another suffix /mi/ you get [katemu]. And if you attach a suffix /su/ you get yet a different change with the form [katemiso]. And finally, a suffix /bo/ would get full circle [katemisuba].

/ka/ -> [ke]
/kate/ -> [kati]
/katemi/ -> [katemu]
/katemisu/ -> [katemiso]
/katemisubo/ -> [katemisuba]
By the way, it appears a vowel circle is attested in Dinka.
For Dinka, enough evidence has been available from tape recordings, transcriptions at least partially reliable, and the notes and impressions of a most observant missionary, the Rev. Talmadge Wilson, to arrive at a tentative analysis of the vowel system. If this analysis is correct, it is also remarkable, because the system is quite unlike any other known to me, especially when the morphophonemic alternations operating within it are considered. There appear to be contrasts between (1) very long vowels with extremely clear, “brassy” quality and extreme articulatory positions, (2) breathy vowels of intermediate length and somewhat more neutral (i.e., toward central) tongue positions, and (3) very short, centralized vowels; of the last type, any two vowels with adjacent tongue positions are very hard to distinguish. There are seven contrasting positions for each type. Thus the vowel diagram is like an eight-spoke wheel with the top spoke missing (or, if preferred, like a horseshoe, rather than like the usual vowel “triangle” or trapezoid). The vowel diagram may be depicted as follows; a macron indicates length, a dieresis indicates breathiness, and a breve indicates shortness and centralization:

Image

This analysis is reinforced by a morphophonemic pattern: alternations between noun singulars and plurals appear to involve most commonly a movement clockwise to the next spoke, but in the same position on the spoke; that is, if the singular has /ü/, the plural has /ö/; if the singular has /ö/, the plural has /ɔ̈/; and so on around until if the singular has /ë/, the plural has /ï/; but if the singular has /ï/ there is no change in the plural (since there is no spoke in the next position clockwise). A less common pattern is precisely the reverse, with the alternation in the plural one spoke counterclockwise from the vowel of the singular; if the singular is on the /u/ spoke, there is no change in the plural. Still other alternations are one step in or out on the same spoke: /ō/ to /ö/, /ă/ to /ä/, and the like. If the above diagram is filled in with lines—three concentric horseshoes and seven spokes—then the morphophonemic alternations permit single moves on any line, never more than one space and never across a gap in a line.
Source: Welmers, W.E. 1973. African Language Structures. pages 28-29.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

The phoneme inventory of the night

t k q
b d
f s h
m n
l ɾ
j

y i u
ø e o
a

r + dental could realize as a retroflex.

CVC(s/f)

It's not really ready at all.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by ɶʙ ɞʛ »

/n̪ ɳ ȵ ŋ ɴ/
/t̪ ʈ ȶ k q~ʡ ʔ/
/d̪ ɖ ȡ g ɢ~ʡ̬/
/s̪ s z χ~ħ h1 h2 h3/
/l̪ ɾ j ɛ̯ ɞ̯ ʁ̞~ʕ/
/i i: e e: a a: o o: u u:/

/s̪ih1ŋe:ȶh3oz n̪aɖɛ̯oχ ɳizn̪at̪ ʈa:t̪n̪a h2e:ɴɾoȡoz s̪uɞ̯ŋɛ̯at̪ ɢuh1qa:n̪at̪ h3el̪ȶi:ȵ n̪ɞ̯a | n̪a ɖuɾχoz n̪a ɳi:h1zag ŋe:ȶɾa suh3ʁ̞oz/

Might turn this into a protolang someday, although I'm not sure what to do with /h1 h2 h3/. One of them might turn out to be /ɞ̯̊/ in fact if it ends up as /ɞ̯/ or /ɸ/ in descendants, while another might be /ɛ̯̊/.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

A 7-phoneme thing

/a i u/

/n/
/b k/
/s/

Maximal CVC syllable structure

Consonants are [ɾ β k z] intervocalically; [n ɸ k s] word-finally

All possible cross-syllable clusters:

/nn/ [nn]
/nb/ [mb]
/nk/ [ŋg]
/ns/ [nz]
/bn/ [βn]
/bb/ [bb]
/bk/ [ɸk]
/bs/ [ɸs]
/kn/ [ɣn]
/kb/ [ɣb]
/kk/ [kk]
/ks/ [ks]
/sn/ [zn]
/sb/ [zb]
/sk/ [sk]
/ss/ [ss]
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Shemtov »

Something I might work on while I get over my conlangingblock on Rïvśɠaàɫ Pòòzbirh.
/ ᵐ̥b t̪ ⁿd̪ ʈ ⁿɖ c ⁿɟ k ᵑg k͡p ᵐ̥ᵑg͡b/
/m n̪ ɳ ɲ ŋ ŋ͡m/
/ʰn̪ ʰɳ ʰɲ/
/s̪ ʂ ç/
/ɬ/
/l/
/w ʍ ɹ̪ ɻ j /

/ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ/
/ǀʰ ǃʰ ǂʰ/
/ᵑǀ ᵑǃ ᵑǂ/
/ᵑ̊ǀ ᵑ̊ǃ ᵑ̊ǂ/
/ᵑǀʱ ᵑǃʱ ᵑǂʱ/
/ᵑ̊ǀʰ ᵑ̊ǃʰ ᵑ̊ǂʰ/

/i u/
/ɪ ʊ/
/e o/
/ɛ ɔ/
/ɐ/
/a/

/˥ ˧ ˩/
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by n-Dimensional Argyle »

The conlang doesn't yet have a formal name yet, I'm referring to it as Proto-Western-Archipelagic, or, PWA.

The setting is on an Earthlike planet, a sort of science fantasy setting. The language is spoken by a non-Terran human variety and it's intended to be naturalistic with a small dash of idiosyncrasy that I can handwave as "common amongst this variety of humans".

Consonants
  • Nasals: /m n ŋ/ m n ŋ
  • Unvoiced Stops: /p t t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ k ʔ/ p t c tl ch k ʔ
  • Unv. Asp. Stops: /pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ɬʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ ʔ͡h/ pà tà cà tlà chà kà ʔà
  • Voiced Stops: /b d d͡z d͡ʒ g/ b d dz j g
  • Fricatives: /f θ s ɬ ʃ x h/ f th s lh sh kh h
  • Laterals: /l ʎ ʟ/ l ly ł
  • Approximants: /j w/ y w
  • Taps & Trills: /ⱱ r/ v r
Vowels
  • Short: /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/ i e ɛ a ɔ o u
    Long: /iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/ ī ē ɛ̄ ā ɔ̄ ō ū
Notes
  • Aspiration is indicated via diacritics on the vowels following, or preceding the vowel (depending on context). Structurally, the way aspiration is marked is as follows:
      Example I: Cʰa > Cà
      Example II: (C)aCʰ > Cá
      Example III: CʰaCʰ > CâC
    Notably with long vowels, the macron occurs below the grave, acute, or circumflex accents ā̀ ā́ (Notably, the macron + circumflex combo does not display in the box here).
  • Aspirated stops can occur at onset or coda, even in word-final position.
  • PWA doesn't have any diphthongs. An epenthetic -w- is inserted between two vowels in the event of their juxtaposition.
  • The velar nasal /ŋ/ occurs at onset as well as medial position but does not occur in word-final position.
  • /ʔ/ is phonemic (I mean, can't you see those slashes? It's clearly phonemic.) however, it is not realized as a phoneme in initial position, and is only discernible and reproducible by native speakers medially and finally.
  • Stress occurs on the second syllable quite reliably throughout. I'm still working on potential exceptions to this, but on the whole, stress the second syllable.
  • The word-level syllable structure is #(C(C(w,r))V(C).(C(w,r))V(C).(C(w,r))V(CF)#. The final consonant in a word has a small number of restrictions - the final consonant of a word can be any consonant except for /ŋ, ʔ͡h, ʎ, ʟ, j, w/. Notably, these sounds can be thought of as being suppressed, or as being realized differently in word final position, as there are a few examples of suffixes after /n, ʔ/ and /l/ eliciting their form as /ŋ, ʔ͡h, ʎ, ʟ/ in intervocalic position.
  • Two consonant clusters include:
       Nasal Initial: mh, ml, mj, nh, nj, nr, ŋh, ŋw, ŋr
       Unvoiced Unaspirated Stop Initial: ps, ks, pʃ, kʃ, px, tx, t͡sp, t͡sk, t͡sn, pj, tj, kj, pr, tr, kr, kw,
       Unvoiced Aspirated Stop Initial: pʰt, kʰt, tʰk, pʰtʰ, t͡sʰtʰ, t͡ɬʰtʰ, t͡ʃʰtʰ, kʰtʰ, pʰt͡sʰ, kʰt͡sʰ, pʰt͡ɬʰ, kʰt͡ɬʰ, pʰt͡ʃʰ, kʰt͡ʃʰ, tʰkʰ, t͡sʰkʰ, t͡ɬʰkʰ, t͡ʃʰkʰ, pʰθ, kʰθ, pʰs, kʰs, kʰɬ, pʰʃ, kʰʃ, pʰr, tʰr, kʰr,
       Voiced Stop Initial: bd, gd, d͡ʒd, bⱱ1, br, dr, gr
       Fricative Initial: ft, ftʰ, st, stʰ, sk, ɬt, ɬtʰ, ɬk, ɬkʰ, skʰ, xp, xt, xtʰ, xt͡s, fx, sx, xl, sr, xr, xn, xw
  • Three-consonant clusters include: psr, ksr, pʃr, kʃr, t͡spr, t͡skr, t͡skw, pʰtr, bdr, gdr, skr, ɬkr, skw
  • A number of dialects also have some clusters which break the aforementioned phonotactics, containing the following: vr, wr, wl, psk, psx
      
1. /ⱱ/ is primarily present intervocalically, but it does occur in other positions. Incidentally, there are two major variations present in the /bⱱ/ cluster - the bilabial trill [ʙ], and the voiced labiodental affricate [b͡v].


The clusters, though many in number, will be moderately present in the language, and they are still under some work so they may likely change, though not much.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Omzinesý »

The phoneme inventory of the night

p t t͡ɕ k (tl cʎ)
s ɕ
v ɹ j ɣ
v̰ ɹ̰ j̰ ɣ̰
m n ɲ
m̰ n̰ ɲ̰
l ʎ
l̰ ʎ̰

Palatals could appear only before /i/ and /ɪ/, and thus be restricted to onsets. They could be written in the Czech way, being followed by <i> instead of <y>.

i u
ɪ
e o
æ ɑ

(C)V(C)(C)(C)

Because laterally released consonants can be analyzed as single phonemes, there are no onset clusters.
I'm not sure what are the allowed coda clusters.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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