A short Uralic lang

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Omzinesý
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A short Uralic lang

Post by Omzinesý »

This project utilizes ideas from Mordvic languages but it is not meant to be part of the Mordvic branch. At this state, I don't bother making it purely a-posteriori.


Verbs
- Two aspects: Habitual (the habitual-iterative) and Eventive (the non-habitual, i.e. the telic and durative meanings)
- Three synthetic tenses Present (the non-past), Past 1, and Past 2.
- Subject agreement at least

Consonant stems (The vowel in Present Eventive differs by verb. I'm not sure if the vowel in Eventive Past 2 should be the same or always /o/, from West-Uralic "oli" 'was'.
Val- 'to say'

Eventive

Present
Sg1 vala
Sg2 valat
Sg3 val
Pl1 valma
Pl2 valta
Pl3 valt


Past 1
Sg1 vali
Sg2 valit
Sg3 valj
Pl1 valmæ
Pl2 valtæ
Pl3 valtj

Past 2
Sg1 valli
Sg2 vallit
Sg3 valolj
Pl1 valolmæ
Pl2 valoltæ
Pl3 valoltj

Habitual

Present
Sg1 valun
Sg2 valut
Sg3 valu
Pl1 valuma
Pl2 valuta
Pl3 valuj

Habitual Past 2 does not exist.

Past 2
Sg1 valuli
Sg2 valulit
Sg3 valulj
Pl1 valulmæ
Pl2 valultæ
Pl3 valulj
Last edited by Omzinesý on 18 Jun 2020 14:39, edited 1 time in total.

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Omzinesý
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Re: A short Uralic lang

Post by Omzinesý »

Vowels

i (ɨ) u
e o
æ ɑ

Romanized
i y u
e o
æ a

Cyrillic
и ы у
е/э* о
я/э* а

*/e/ and /æ/ are written with <э> word-initially and after a vowel, that is rarely.

In this lang, /æ/ and /ɑ/ are distinct phonemes, though there is some sporadic vowel harmony in non-initial syllables. <ьа> is fully possible, in Cyrillic.


All consonants are palatalized before front vowels. Dentals can be palatalized before back vowels, which is written with <j> in Romanization and <ь> in Cyrillic.

The satus of ɨ is unclear. It only appears in non-first syllabes after non-palatalized consonants but it cannot be seen as an allophone of /i/ either because palatalization is not always phonemic.

Consonants

p t tʲ k
m n nʲ
s sʲ t͡ʃ~ʃ*
r rʲ
l lʲ
v j

*/t͡ʃ~ʃ/ is usually a sibilant after vowels and an affricate elsewhere. There is some free variation though.

Romanized
p t t/tj k
m n n/nj
s s/sj ch
r r/rj
l l/lj
v j*

*/j/ cannot appear after a consonant.

Cyrillic
п т т/ть к
м н н/нь
с с/сь ч/ш
р рь
л ль
в й/∅*

*In this language, <й> can appear before vowels. Before <e> and <я> it is not used.

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Omzinesý
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Re: A short Uralic lang

Post by Omzinesý »

Nouns
koo 'house/home'

Nominative: koo
Partitive: kooja
Translative: kooch
Exessive: koota
Instrumental: ?

Inessive: koos
Ellative: koost
Illative: koosj

Adessive: koon
Ablative: koont
Allative/Dative: koonj

Genitive: ?

All Nominative, Partitive, Translative, Exessive, and Instrumental can appear as "objects" or complements of verbs.

The function of Partitive is similar to that of Finnish, i.e. object of incomplete action, material words, some other random stuff
Translative and Exessive encode effected action, i.e. something that is either created or destroyed, respectively. I'm not sure if they can appear as subjects. They also appear as secondary predicatives, "Make him happy" for example.
Instrumental is the complement of the verb 'to use'.
If none of the above applies, the object has Nominative Case.

Nouns can also be inflected like verbs to form copula clauses. Their Present sg3 form is like Nominative.

There are also some possessor markers.

I'm still not sure of number. Probably, Plural in only marked in Nominative and Partitive.

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