Khanarian

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Shemtov
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Khanarian

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Khanarian (also known as Pseudo-Anatolian, given that it was called Anatoli by some of the Hellenic-speaking Yonataorians who they were into contact with, whom they became a client state, and than a province of; And given the fact that many Indo-Europeanists believed in the Aryo-Anatolian or Anatolaryan hypothesis, which stated that Khanarian was a mixed language between Anatolian and PII speakers, in the decade and a half after Anatolian was discovered) was an Indo-European Language(in its own branch) spoken in the southernwestern Don Basin, and on adjecent areas on the coast of the Sea of Azov by a Kingdom influenced by the Hellenic-speaking Yonataorian Empire (descendants of a Greek colony in the Crimea), which latter was annexed by the empire, in which ethnic Khanarians became important, and to which the province of Khanaria contained many important trade cities. Khanarian is attested c.650-c.50 BCE, but the language discussed here is Early New Khanarian (c.400-c.270).

It is a Satem language, and some subscribers to the Graeco-Armeno-Aryan hypothesis place it in Graeco-Armeno-Aryan. It may have connections to Anatolian, given the treatment of the laryngeals; Thus, other subscribers to the Graeco-Armeno-Aryan hypothesis put Proto-Khanarian as a sister clade to Proto- Graeco-Armeno-Aryan. In any case, most believe Proto-Khanarian to have had an Anatolian substrate.

Sound changes from PIE:
HV initial words become /xV/
/a ĕ ŏ/ fuse to /a/, except:
h₁e/o/a>/xe/
h₃e/o/a>/xo/
e/o/ah₁>e
e/o/ah₃>o

h̩₁>e
h̩₂>a
h̩₃>o
h₁C>eC
h₂C>aC
h₃C>oC

l̩>/r̩/
m̩>/am/
n̩>/an/
RUKI rule
ḱ>t͡ʃ
tj>t͡ʃ
ǵ>d͡ʒ
dj>d͡ʒ
Vpt> Vft
w>ʋ
zd>st
Breathy voiced consonants, in syllable initial position, except after glides, long vowels, and when Grassman's Law would apply:
bʱ>f
dʱ>θ
ǵʱ>ʃ
dʱj>ʃ
gʱ>x
gʷʱ>x

Otherwise, they fuse with plain voiced.

pʋ>pf
tʋ>tf
t͡ʃʋ>f:
d͡ʒʋ>ʋ:
kʋ>kf
sw>f
t͡ʃs>ʃt͡ʃ

ā>/ʌ? ɔ?/

Phonology:
/p b t d t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g/
/f f: θ s ʃ x/
/m n/
/r l/
/j ʋ ʋ:/

/i u e o ɔ~ʌ a/
/i: u: ai̯ ei̯ eu̯ oi̯/

Numbers 1-10
/xei̯n/
/dʋe/
/trai̯ʃ/
/katfarʃ/
/panka/
/faʃt͡ʃ/
/saftam/
/xot͡ʃto/
/enaʋan/
/dat͡ʃam/
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Shemtov
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Re: Khanarian

Post by Shemtov »

Note: Unless the section is written in red, like this, everything posted will be from the perspective of a an in-universe modern linguist. Red thus signifies "meta".

Writing System:
The language was written in the Greek Alphabet, however, spelling, of course, was not standardized. At least three different graphemic representations have been found for the phoneme /ɔ/. This Grammar will follow the recommendations of the Society for Classical Studies (then known as the American Philological Association) released in 1994 as part of their cross-disciplinary work on establishing independent academia on Yonataorin studies in the former Western Bloc, as access had been limited by the USSR. This standard has been adopted by most experts in the topic from the US, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, and the EU.
The main competetor of the APA Transcription is the Eastern European Transcription (Formerly known as the Soviet Transcription), used mainly in Russia and the Ukraine.

The APA transcription is in all caps Greek letters, except for <ι> used to represent the "Short Iota" used in some digraphs.

The APA Transcription:
/p b t d t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g/ <Π Β Τ Δ Κι Γι Κ Γ>
/f f: θ s ʃ x/< Φ ΦΦ Θ Σ Σι Χ>
/m n/ < Μ Ν>
/r l/ <Ρ Λ>
/j ʋ ʋ:/ <Ί Ϝ ϜϜ>

/i u e o ɔ~ʌ a/< Ι Υ Ε Ο ΑΑ Α>
/i: u: ai̯ ei̯ eu̯ oi̯/ <Ῑ Ῡ ΑΙ ΕΙ ΕΥ ΟΙ>

Morphology
Declension of regular -ΑΣ noun "ΔΑΙϜΑΣ" "god"
Singular:
Nominative: ΔΑΙϜΑΣ
Vocative: ΔΑΙϜΑ
Accusative: ΔΑΙϜΑΜ
Genitive: ΔΑΙϜΑΣι
Dative: ΔΑΙϜΑΑΊ
Locative-Intrumental: ΔΑΙϜΕ

Plural:
Nominative: ΔΑΙϜΑΑΣ
Accusative: ΔΑΙϜΑΝ
Genitive: ΔΑΙϜΑΑΜ
Dative: ΔΑΙϜΑΦΑΣ
Locative-Intrumental: ΔΑΙϜΑΙΣ
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Khanarian

Post by Shemtov »

I forgot that /r̩/ exists in the phonology. It's transcription is <ῥ> as some texts used a small Rho with a line on top to distinguish it from the consonant. The line may be representing the Greek pronunciation, which according to this theory was [rĭ] ,or another theory says, in some dialects it may have changed to a diphthong [r̩ĭ], thus a small Iota was put above it.
Feminine -alpha nouns:
Example "ΓΑΝΑ" "woman"
Nominative: ΓΑΝΑ
Vocative: ΓΑΝΑ
Accusative: ΓΑΝΑΜ
Genitive: ΓΑΝΑΣ
Dative: ΓΑΝΑΑΊ
Locative-Intrumental: ΓΑΝΕ

Plural:
Nominative:ΓΑΝΑΑΣ
Accusative: ΓΑΝΑΝΣΑ
Genitive: ΓΑΝΑΑΜ
Dative: ΓΑΝΑΦΑΣ
Locative-Intrumental: ΓΑΝΑΦΑΣΙ
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Shemtov
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Re: Khanarian

Post by Shemtov »

I Stems, Mostly Feminine:
ΧΟϜΙΣι "Sheep"
Singular:
Nominative: ΧΟϜΙΣι
Vocative: ΧΟϜΕ
Accusative: ΧΟϜΙΜ
Genitive: ΔΑΙϜΑΣι
Dative: ΧΟϜΑΙΣ
Locative-Intrumental: ΔΑΙϜΕ

Plural:
Nominative: ΧΟϜΕΣ
Accusative: ΧΟϜΙΝΣΑ
Genitive: ΧΟϜΕΜ
Dative: ΧΟϜΙΦΑΣ
Locative-Intrumental: ΧΟϜΙΦΙΣιΥ

U-Stems, motsly Masculine
ΠῥΤΥΣι "Bridge"
Nominative: ΠῥΤΥΣι
Vocative: ΠῥΤΟ
Accusative: ΠῥΤΥΜ
Genitive: ΠῥΤΟΣ
Dative: ΠῥΤΕ
Locative-Intrumental: ΠῥΤΟϜ

Plural:
Nominative: ΠῥΤΟΣ
Accusative: ΠῥΤΥΝΣΑ
Genitive: ΠῥΤΟΜ
Dative: ΠῥΤΥΦΑΣ
Locative-Intrumental: ΠῥΤΥΣιΥ
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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