Sindunian

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Shemtov
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Sindunian

Post by Shemtov »

Sindunian (Native name: sˤindunan mlit͡ʃ') was a language spoken in the Yonotaorian empire, in the Taman peninsula. In the period after the reforms of Phospuros, the empire conquered them, but their were periods of rebellion and independence for the next 257 years, until they were finally permantly annexed by King Kheirtheos II the Saint. The language is related to the Northeast Caucasian languages, with some possible Northwest admixture.

Phonology:
/p pʰ p' b t tʰ t' tˤ d dˤ k kʰ k' g kʷ kʷʰ kʷ' q qʰ q' qʷ qʷʰ qʷ' ʔ/
/t͡s t͡sʰ t͡s' t͡sˤ d͜z d͜zˤ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ' t͡ʃˤ d͡ʒ d͡ʒˤ/
/f fˤ s sˤ z zˤ ʃ ʃˤ ʒ ʒˤ ç çˤ ʝ ʝˤ x xʷ X Xʷ ħ ʕ h/
/m n/
/l lˤ r rˤ/
/j w/

/i u a/
/i: u: a:/
/au ai əu əi/

Phonotactics:
(C)(C)(C)CV(C)


Permitted initial clusters:
Fricative + Stop/Affricate/Nasal
m/n+labial/alveolar stop
labial/alveolar stop+m/n
Fricative+m/n+labial/alveolar stop
Fricative+ labial/alveolar stop+m/n
Any other consonant or above cluster + r/l/w/j


Nouns have no gender and come in singular and plural. Regular nouns decline as follows:
Noun "zduçˤrin" "star"
Singular:
Absolutive: zduçˤrin
Ergative: zduçˤrinak'
Dative: zduçˤriniħ
Genitive: zduçˤrinan
Instrumental-Locative: zduçˤrina:s
Lative: zduçˤrinu:lˤ
Ablative: zduçˤrinaqʷʰi


Plural:
Absolutive: zduçˤrinəur
Ergative: zduçˤrinəurak'
Dative: zduçˤrinəuriħ
Genitive: zduçˤrinəuran
Instrumental-Locative: zduçˤrinəura:s
Lative: zduçˤrinəuru:lˤ
Ablative: zduçˤrinəuraqʷʰi
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

DV82LECM
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Re: Sindunian

Post by DV82LECM »

Mouth twister. Some of the things you make, my man. Jesus.

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Shemtov
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Re: Sindunian

Post by Shemtov »

DV82LECM wrote:
22 Jul 2020 06:04
Mouth twister. Some of the things you make, my man. Jesus.
Given that I'm saying that it's related to the NE Caucasian languages, with influence from NW Caucasian, the inventory is practically normal. The Caucasian sprachbund is known for having complex phonotactics. At least it's not related to Kartvelian, of which Georgian is a part, and the word /gvpt͡skvni/ is attested in that language. So yeah, ANADEW.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

DV82LECM
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Re: Sindunian

Post by DV82LECM »

I did not see that. It explains it.

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Re: Sindunian

Post by Shemtov »

Verbs:
Note that while I said nouns have no gender, I meant that they have no gender markers in the declension. However, for agreement, there is a natural gender split between animate and animate. Note that "zduçˤrin" "star" is animate, as the pre-Yonotaorian religion featured astrolatry heavily. Also, though the nominal declensions are ERG-ABS, verbal agreement is NOM-ACC (This is attested in Warlpiri and Burushaski)
Verbs have three slots: Agreement, Root and Synthetic TAM
The marker for animate nouns has different allomorphs, depending on the class of the verb.
Class I M- Vowel initial roots
Class II N- Vowel initial roots
Class III M- Labial stop initial roots
Class IV N- Alveolar stop initial roots
Class V Na- Other roots
Class VI: Ma- Other roots
Class VII: N(first vowel of root)- Other roots.

Plural inanimates may have the verb take the optional plural marker d͜zˤəi-

The TAM marker has three TAs and two evidential moods.
Non-Past sensory: ʔu:
Non-past reported: ʔau
Past sensory: ħra
Past reported: ʕur
Past perfect sensory: ʔla
Past perfect reported: ʔləi

zduçˤrinəurak' t͡ʃ'a namla:ʔau
zduçˤrin-əur-ak' t͡ʃ'a-∅ na-mla:-ʔau
star-PLR-ERG blood-ABS ANIM-drink-NNPST.RPRT
"[It is said] the stars drink blood"

ʒdˤəuʝəurak' zduçˤrinəur məiXʔəirʔla

ʒdˤəuʝ-əur-ak' zduçˤrin-əur-∅ məi-Xʔəir-ʔla
person-PLR-ERG star-PLR-ABS ANIM-worship-PAST.PERF.WIT
"People have worshipped stars [and I've seen it]"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Sindunian

Post by Shemtov »

The Future is expressed by using the auxillary verb dnrəi after the stem of the lexical verb.

fp'iXʷak' qri qʷa:t͡sʰ madnrəiʔau
fp'iXʷ-ak' qri-∅ qʷa:t͡sʰ ma-dnrəi-ʔau
boy-ERG stone-ABS throw ANIM-FUT-REP
"It is said that the boy will throw a stone"


If the aux takes the past suffix, it has a purposive meaning

fp'iXʷak' qri qʷa:t͡sʰ madnrəiʕur, ʒdˤəuʝəurak' zduçˤrinəur Xʔəir madnrəiʔu
fp'iXʷ-ak' qri-∅ qʷa:t͡sʰ ma-dnrəi-ʕur ʒdˤəuʝ-əur-ak' zduçˤrin-əur-∅ Xʔəir ma-dnrəi-ʔu
boy-ERG stone-ABS throw ANIM-FUT-PST.REP person-PLR-ERG star-PLR-ABS worship ANIM-FUT-NPST.WIT
"The boy will throw the stone so that people will worship the stars"

With the past perfective it has a conditional meaning.


fp'iXʷak' qri qʷa:t͡sʰ madnrəiʔləi, ʒdˤəuʝəurak' zduçˤrinəur Xʔəir madnrəiʔu
fp'iXʷ-ak' qri-∅ qʷa:t͡sʰ ma-dnrəi-ʔləi ʒdˤəuʝ-əur-ak' zduçˤrin-əur-∅ Xʔəir ma-dnrəi-ʔu
boy-ERG stone-ABS throw ANIM-FUT-PST.PERFREP person-PLR-ERG star-PLR-ABS worship ANIM-FUT-NPST.WIT
"If the boy will throw the stone, people will worship the stars"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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