(Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
sangi39
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2812
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 01:53
Location: North Yorkshire, UK

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by sangi39 »

Omzinesý wrote: 19 Jul 2021 11:25 Maybe the hard question is still where such a consonant system could appear.
I mean, barring the lack of /b d g f/, it's basically got the same consonants as Dutch and various Frisian languages, the latter of which also saw (some) fronting of velars, and a merger of the dental fricatives into the alveolar plosives (I think). So you could do something like:

Code: Select all

Stage 0) m n p b t d k  ɡ  kʷ ɡʷ ɸ θ ð s z x xʷ j w l r (Proto-Germanic)
Stage 1) m n p b t d ts dz kʷ ɡʷ ɸ θ ð s z x xʷ j w l r (Fronting of Velars)
Stage 2) m n p b t d ts dz k  ɡ  ɸ θ ð s z x x  j w l r (delabialisation)
Stage 3) m n p b t d ts dz k  ɡ  ɸ θ ð s r x x  j w l r (rhoticization of *z)
Stage 4) m n p b t d ts dz k  ɡ  ɸ t d s r x x  j w l r (fortition of dental fricatives)
Stage 5) m n p b t d ts dz k  ɡ    t d s r x x  j w l r (loss of *ɸ ~ also becomes /x/ in certain environments)
Stage 6) m n p b t d ts z  k  ɡ    t d s r x x  j w l r (deaffrication of /dz/)
Stage 7) m n p β t ð ts z  k  ɣ    t d s r x x  j w l r (lenition of voiced plosives)
Stage 8) m n p ʋ t D ts z  k  ɣ    t d s r x x  j w l r (changes to fricatives)
Stage 9) m n p ʋ t D ts z  k  ɣ    t d s r x x  j ʋ l r (merger of *w into /ʋ/)
Stage 6 (if you ignore the missing /ɸ/) is, from what I can tell, a fairly standard consonant system for the various Frisian languages and Dutch, it's just the unconditional shift of the voiced plosives to voiced fricatives (barring /g/ > /ɣ/ which seems relatively common in the area) that stands out

That would make it fairly typical for a continental Germanic language near the North Sea, and then it just takes the shift of the voiced plosives to voiced fricatives a couple of steps further (Proto-Germanic already conditionally saw variation between the two sets, and this seems to have continued through to Old Dutch as well, so that "Stage 7" doesn't even have to be one step, it could just be the last step in a number of conditional changes that had been going on for centuries)
You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.
User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1712
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by All4Ɇn »

In addition to the above, I think it'd be interesting to maybe add-in early devoicing of /b d ɡ/ in certain situations. If you're looking for Finnic influence you could have /p t k/ occur finally and alternate in grammatical forms with /ʋ z ɣ/.
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Omzinesý »

VaptuantaDoi wrote: 14 Jul 2021 11:07 I've been reading Dixon's Ergativity, and it's got me wanting to make a (believable) ergative romlang. I've come up with two possible ways an ergative system could develop, namely:

1. A Gallo-Romance language in which the marked nominative incentivises an ergative-absolutive system, first only in masculine nouns but later spreading to feminine nouns, articles, adjectives and third-person pronouns. First- and second- person pronouns would remain nominative-accusative, which is a relatively common split for a split-S language to have. I already have an idea for where to place this an an althistory.

2. An Eastern Romance language in which the passive voice was used extensively until it becomes the only form for transitive sentences, which then had a subject in the absolutive and an object in the nominative. This would affect all nouns and pronouns, making it a fully ergative language; it would also preserve the Latin passive which could be interesting, and I also have a vague idea of where to set this one.

My question is, which one would be more realistic/interesting? Should I make a thread about one of them? Or about both?
I think this was a good one:
Esteval and Myhill 1988: Formal and theological aspects of the development from passive to ergative systems
This might also be interesting:
https://www.academia.edu/12126567/From_ ... ldai_2008_
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Omzinesý »

Thank you. It actually doesn't seem that strange anymore. Northern Germany could be good, close enough to Dutch and Danish.
I find making anything based or affected by Finnish a bit hard.

Actually, Danish seems to have /t/ => /ts/ and *d realizing as /t/. I remembered it was only allophonical before /i/ or something.
I don't know how naturally it could be combined with /g/ > /ɣ/.

But probably
1) aspiration of/p t k/
2 /t/ => /ts/
3) /g/ > /ɣ/ (at any state)
4) because /ph/ and /b/ are the only phonemes where aspiration/voicing is distinctive, they merge word-initially. That coul coappear with /ɣ/ => /x/ word-initially as in Dutch.

Word-medially, Proto-Germanic representation of voiced fricatives could be preserved all the time.

I must try googling about Frisian. Wikipedia says quite little about them.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
teotlxixtli
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 63
Joined: 05 Jan 2021 04:37

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by teotlxixtli »

I'm trying to develop a tense system with four past tenses and two future tenses, but I have no idea how to go about generating those endings organically. How does such a system evolve in the real world?
User avatar
eldin raigmore
korean
korean
Posts: 5949
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 19:38
Location: SouthEast Michigan

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by eldin raigmore »

teotlxixtli wrote: 21 Jul 2021 15:55 I'm trying to develop a tense system with four past tenses and two future tenses, but I have no idea how to go about generating those endings organically. How does such a system evolve in the real world?
In at least one natlang the four past tenses are accomplished with a stem-alternation and an auxiliary.
Like:
Immediate past : stem
Recent past: aux stem
Intermediate past: stam
Remote past: aux stam

Or something like that.

Is that understandable?

….

What semantics are you intending to communicate via your four past tenses and two future tenses?

More than one natlang with three pasts and two futures has:
Pre-hesternal past (before yesterday)
Hesternal past (yesterday)
Hodiernal past (earlier today)
Present
Hodiernal-and-crastinal future (later today or tomorrow)
Post-crastinal future (after tomorrow).

Are you intending something like that?

….

Are you doing degrees-of-remoteness? Like today vs yesterday vs before yesterday, or this year vs last year vs before last year?

Or, perhaps instead, stacking of relative tenses?
Like
Past;
Future within past;
Past within past;
Future within future within past;
Past within future within past;
Future within past within past;
Past within past within past?

Though simpler than that, I’d guess!
teotlxixtli
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 63
Joined: 05 Jan 2021 04:37

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by teotlxixtli »

eldin raigmore wrote: 21 Jul 2021 17:17
teotlxixtli wrote: 21 Jul 2021 15:55 I'm trying to develop a tense system with four past tenses and two future tenses, but I have no idea how to go about generating those endings organically. How does such a system evolve in the real world?
In at least one natlang the four past tenses are accomplished with a stem-alternation and an auxiliary.
Like:
Immediate past : stem
Recent past: aux stem
Intermediate past: stam
Remote past: aux stam

Or something like that.

Is that understandable?

….

What semantics are you intending to communicate via your four past tenses and two future tenses?

More than one natlang with three pasts and two futures has:
Pre-hesternal past (before yesterday)
Hesternal past (yesterday)
Hodiernal past (earlier today)
Present
Hodiernal-and-crastinal future (later today or tomorrow)
Post-crastinal future (after tomorrow).

Are you intending something like that?
This exactly! I remember watching an Artifexian video that talked about Yemba (I think) and I wanted to have something like that. What I don't know, however, is what auxiliaries to use for different degrees of remoteness. At least one will have to be used to establish one degree, then to create the stem change you described I'd need to generate an umlaut-type vowel change with an affix that's lost over time, so that's another auxiliary to combine to the root...
User avatar
VaptuantaDoi
sinic
sinic
Posts: 445
Joined: 18 Nov 2019 07:35

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Davush wrote: 15 Jul 2021 11:18 I think some Iranic and Neo-Aramaic(s) use the ergative only in the past/perfective forms, but I think it would be reasonable for the ergative-marked forms to spread into non-past verbs, especially if previous person-marking on non-past verbs had become very eroded or obscured. Some Neo-Aramaic actually developed ergativity, but then gradually generalized the ergative forms for all subjects of both transitive and intransitive verbs, leading back to a nom-acc alignment. So essentially you'd just need to decide how intransitive verbs don't end up with the same subject marking (either via retention or innovation)...
That's good enough for me [xD] I think I should be able to keep subject marking separate by innovating something for imperfect transitive verbs, probably based off auxiliaries.
Omzinesý wrote: 20 Jul 2021 11:32 I think this was a good one:
Esteval and Myhill 1988: Formal and theological aspects of the development from passive to ergative systems
This might also be interesting:
https://www.academia.edu/12126567/From_ ... ldai_2008_
Thanks! Although I couldn't find the first one online, I found a bunch of other papers which reference it and sound like they'll be useful.
shimobaatar wrote: 18 Jul 2021 13:38 To address the last point here, I'd be interested in seeing a thread about both. [:)]
I think I'll work on them offline until I'm relatively happy with them, then I'll make a thread comparing the two of them.
User avatar
eldin raigmore
korean
korean
Posts: 5949
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 19:38
Location: SouthEast Michigan

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by eldin raigmore »

In those split-ergative languages in which the split is based on something about the verb rather than (or in addition to?) something about the noun,
being past and/or perfective and/or realis increases the odds the patient will be unmarked absolutive while the agent will be marked Ergative;
while being future and/or imperfective and/or irrealis increases the odds the agent will be unmarked nominative while the patient will be marked accusative.

….

The OP of this thread is about how the actual marking arises diachronically, rather than how it correlates with the semantics.
Any information about that question is news to me! And I’ve enjoyed reading it and look forward to more!
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3159
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Shemtov »

Is it possible to have noun-like adjectives that don't decline for case, even though the nouns do?
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
WeepingElf
sinic
sinic
Posts: 257
Joined: 23 Feb 2016 18:42
Location: Braunschweig, Germany
Contact:

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by WeepingElf »

Shemtov wrote: 26 Jul 2021 18:32 Is it possible to have noun-like adjectives that don't decline for case, even though the nouns do?
Wouldn't they be no longer noun-like then?
... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3159
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Shemtov »

I'm asking if it's possible for the adjectives to mark gender and number and not case, even if nouns decline for all three.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
LinguistCat
sinic
sinic
Posts: 254
Joined: 06 May 2017 07:48

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by LinguistCat »

Shemtov wrote: 26 Jul 2021 19:06 I'm asking if it's possible for the adjectives to mark gender and number and not case, even if nouns decline for all three.
I don't see why not, especially if they tend to stay near the nouns they modify. But I don't know if it's attested anywhere.
User avatar
CarsonDaConlanger
sinic
sinic
Posts: 238
Joined: 02 Nov 2017 20:55

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by CarsonDaConlanger »

Shemtov wrote: 26 Jul 2021 19:06 I'm asking if it's possible for the adjectives to mark gender and number and not case, even if nouns decline for all three.
I'd expect it in a language where adjectives tend to be closer to verbs than nouns. Since verbs are very commonly marked for number and gender but not case, you'd expect the same for adjectives. The question is would they be in the same spot in relation to the root as the verbal affixes?
He/they bisexual weeb
User avatar
Omzinesý
runic
runic
Posts: 3219
Joined: 27 Aug 2010 08:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Omzinesý »

Shemtov wrote: 26 Jul 2021 18:32 Is it possible to have noun-like adjectives that don't decline for case, even though the nouns do?
Theoretically interesting question!

What is a noun-like adjective?

Noun as a comparative concept: say, words that typically express things and words that are morpho-syntactically part of the same category
Noun as a language-internal descriptive category: say, English nouns can typically be preceded be an article and have two numbers.

I think, noun-like adjectives must be noun-like in the sense of descriptive category.
If nouns in that language have case inflection, adjectives can be noun-like in other respects but not in that if they lack it. So, noun-likeness is quantitative rather than qualitative. In the least extreme situation, it's enough that adjectives are not verb-like.

My conlangs often express characteristics as genitives of abstract nouns "man of honour". There could still be something making adjectives noun-like instead of nouns, say, they form comparatives.

Latin, famously, inflects nouns and adjective similarly:
silva densa
silvae densae
silvas densas
silbibus densibus
...


Of course, it is also possible that adjectives have a case paradigm but it does not appear in all contexts.
Hungarian for example does not (usually) inflect adjectives when they modify nouns but inflects them when they are predicates. (Source: http://www.hungarianreference.com/Adjec ... tives.aspx )

a boldog fiú 'the happy boy'
a boldog fiúk 'the happy boys'

But
A fiú boldog. 'The boy is happy.'
A fiúk boldogok. 'The boys are happy.'
Shemtov wrote: 26 Jul 2021 19:06 I'm asking if it's possible for the adjectives to mark gender and number and not case, even if nouns decline for all three.
It's funny that no language comes to my mind. But I'm sure there are some. Adjective agreement is such a redundant phenomenon that it can basically choose any category to agree with without increasing/decreasing info.

Hungarian comes close (but its adjectives modifying nouns do sometimes inflect).

There could actually be syntactic reasons for adjectives not to have case inflection. If they never appear as heads and don't agree as modifyers, they don't appear in syntactic positions where cases are needed, if we don't interpret the unmarked nominative in the predicate form a case. Even if, adjectives could sometimes appear as heads and then have a full case paradigm, we can interpret them zero-derived nouns. (Finnish plural adjectives can appear in Nominative or Partitive as predicatives (with subtle semantic differences), so this was not to say adjectives couldn't have case inflection in those syntactic positions.)


Probably, the question was if adjectives as modifiers of nouns can have number/gender agreement but lack case agreement.
No language come to mu mind, but surely it happens in some lang.

If cases are a new innovation, it could be very likely. Estonian has some cases (actually it's questionable if they are syntactically cases and not postpositions because they don't cause agreement, but anyways) that don't cause agreement:

suure auto-ga
big car-COM
'with a big car'

suur-te auto-de-ga
big-PL car-PL-COM
'with big cars'
(I'm not sure if the examples are corrects (my skills are limited) but they should convey the idea.)
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3159
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Shemtov »

In the end, I decided that since in the conlang I was talking about the genitive and dative are based on the "oblique" stem, which on its own is the accusative, I could have the adjective inflect only for nominative, "oblique" and vocative.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
yangfiretiger121
sinic
sinic
Posts: 337
Joined: 17 Jun 2018 03:04

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by yangfiretiger121 »

How can I make the language below sound more Slavic? I'd prefer it remaining miminalist.

Consonants
/t d k g ʔ/ <t d k g q>
/ʁ ɫ/ <r l>
/ŋ/ <n>

Vowels
/ɐ́ ɐ̀ ɐ̄ é̞ è̞ ē̞ í ì ī ó̞ ò̞ ō̞ ú ù ū/ <á à a é è e í ì i ó ò o ú ù u>

Allophony
[j, w] of [ī, ū] before vowels
>[jw] of [īū] before vowels
[ɕ, ʑ, ç] of [tī, dī, kī] before vowels
>[ɕw, ʑw, çw] of [tīū, dīū, kīū] before vowels
[j̃] of {gī, ŋī} before vowels
>[j̃w] of {gīū, ŋīū} before vowels
[h] of {tīʔ, kīʔ} before vowels
>[hw] of {tīʔū, kīʔū} before vowels
[ɦ] of {dīʔ, gīʔ, ŋīʔ} before vowels
>[ɦw] of {dīʔū, gīʔū, ŋīʔū} before vowels
[c] of [ʔī] before vowels
>[ɟ] of [ʔī] when stressed before vowels
[tw, dw, kw, gw] of [tū, dū, kū, gū] before vowels
[m] of [ŋū] before vowels
[p] of [ʔū] before vowels
>[ b] of [ʔū] when stressed before vowels
Alien conlangs (Font may be needed for Vai symbols)
Mizzytastic
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 4
Joined: 04 Aug 2021 16:05

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Mizzytastic »

1) I'm looking to develop an ablaut like system of vowel gradation through historical development. I understand that it will likely involve a bunch of trial and error to find something I like and application of analogy to regularise it, but I'm unsure what sort of sound changes I should be looking for to develop those sorts of vowel quality changes while getting rid of the conditioning environment to the point where it is not obvious.

2) I'm considering a word order where pronouns are clitics that fall after the first stress in a clause. How much pressure would there be to move them to not be in the middle of an unrelated noun phrase, for example. Could this result in a language where person marking goes not on the verb but different words depending on clause structure or would them becoming affixes cause more pressure to move them to a particular spot?
Salmoneus
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2460
Joined: 19 Sep 2011 19:37

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by Salmoneus »

Mizzytastic wrote: 04 Aug 2021 16:42 1) I'm looking to develop an ablaut like system of vowel gradation through historical development. I understand that it will likely involve a bunch of trial and error to find something I like and application of analogy to regularise it, but I'm unsure what sort of sound changes I should be looking for to develop those sorts of vowel quality changes while getting rid of the conditioning environment to the point where it is not obvious.
Anything that reflects one or more of:
- patterns of stress
- the vowels in nearby syllables
- adjacent consonants

To get a complex ablaut system, you need at least two conditioning variables: one to create ablaut in the first place, and then one to make the system more complicated by creating multiple verb classes (assuming you want that).

As you probably know, Germanic ablaut is underlying the result of (to simplify) pre-PIE stress alternations based on a single vowel. But you could just as easily create ablaut entirely from vowel affection. It's harder to make the core ablaut derive from adjacent consonants, because they tend not to change inflectionally inside a root (though infixation is a thing!), but they can certainly shape the development of verb classes.


Let's create an ablaut system!

1.

We'll start with three vowels: a, i, u. Let's have some verbs:

takin
sarin
tarrin
ponut
panum
fahus
gawak
salak
tafap
layir
mitay


2. The past tense is formed with -tan; the future, with -ti; plural subject is marked with -ru. The perfect is formed from the past tense plus reduplication of the initial syllable.

takin - takintan - takinti - tatakintan; takinru - takintanru - takintiru - tatakintanru
sarin - sarintan - sarinti - sasarintan ; sarinru - sarintanru - sarintiru - sasarintanru
tarrin - tarrintan - tarrinti - tatarrintan; tarrinru - tarrintanru - tarrintiru - tatarrintanru
punut - punuttan - punutti - pupunuttan; punuttru - punuttanru - punuttiru - pupunuttanru
panum - panumtan - panumti - papanumtan; panumru - panumtanru - panumtiru - papanumtanru
fahus - fahustan - fahusti - fafahustan; fahusru - fahustanru - fahustiru - fafahustanru
gawak - gawaktan - gawakti - gagawaktan; gawakru - gawaktanru - gawaktiru - gagawaktanru
salak - salaktan - salakti - sasalaktan; salakru - salaktanru - salaktiru - sasalaktanru
tafap - tafaptan - tafapti - tatafaptan; tafapru - tafaptanru - tafaptiru - tatafaptanru
layir - layirtan - layirti - lalayirtan; layirru - layirtanru - layirtiru - lalayirtanru
mitay - mitaytan - mitayti - mimitaytan; mitayru - mitaytanru - mitaytiru - mimitaytanru

3. umlaut!


tekin - tekintan - tekinti - tatekintan; tekinru - tekintonru - tekintiru - tatekintonru
serin - serintan - serinti - saserintan; serinru - serintonru - serintiru - saserintonru
terrin - terrintan - terrinti - taterrintan; terrinru - terrintonru - terrintiru - taterrintonru
punut - punuttan - punytti - pupunuttan; punuttru - punuttonru - punyttiru - pupunuttonru
ponum - ponumtan - ponymti - paponumtan; ponumru - ponumtonru - ponymtiru - paponumtonru
fohus - fohustan - fohysti - fafohustan; fohusru - fohustonru - fohystiru - fafohustonru
gawak - gawaktan - gawekti - gagawaktan; gawakru - gawaktonru - gawektiru - gagawaktonru
salak - salaktan - salekti - sasalaktan; salakru - salaktonru - salektiru - sasalaktonru
tafap - tafaptan - tafepti - tatafaptan; tafapru - tafaptanru - tafeptiru - tatafaptanru
leyir - leyirtan - leyirti - laleyirtan; leyirru - leyirtonru - leyirtiru - laleyirtonru
mitay - mitaytan - miteyti - mimitaytan; mitayru - mitaytonru - miteytiru - mimitaytonru

4: stress falls on antepenultimate syllable, unless either of last two syllables has a sonorant coda, in which case it falls on the penultimate syllable. Secondary stress every two syllables before primary. Unstressed syllables become lax: i>e, u>o, a>@. But @ assimilates to following vowel.

teken - tekint@n - tekinti - tatekint@n; tekinru - tekentonru - tekintiru - tetekentonru
seren - serint@n - serinti - saserint@n; serinru - serentonru - serintiru - seserentonru
terren - terrint@n - terrinti - taterrint@n; terrinru - terrentonru - terrintiru - teterrentonru
punot - punutt@n - punytti - pupunutt@n; punuttru - punottonru - punyttiru - popunottonru
ponom - ponumt@n - ponymti - paponumt@n; ponumru - ponomtonru - ponymtiru - poponomtonru
fohos - fohust@n - fohysti - fafohust@n; fohusru - fohostonru - fohystiru - fofohostonru
gaw@k - gawakt@n - gawekti - gagawakt@n; gawakru - gawoktonru - gawektiru - gagawoktonru
sal@k - salakt@n - salekti - sasalakt@n; salakru - saloktonru - salektiru - sasaloktonru
taf@p - tafapt@n - tafepti - tatafapt@n; tafapru - tafoptonru - tafeptiru - tatafoptonru
leyer - leyirt@n - leyirti - laleyirt@n; leyirru - leyertonru - leyirtiru - leleyertonru
mitey - mitayt@n - miteyti - mimitayt@n; mitayru - miteytonru - miteytiru - memiteytonru

5: loss of unstressed medial and final vowels; remaining @>i

teken - tekintin - tekint - tatkintin; tekinr - tekntonr - tekintir - tetekntonr
seren - serintin - serint - sasrintin; serinru - serntonr - serintir - seserntonr
terren - terrintin - terrint - tatrrintin; terrinr - terrntonr - terrintir - teterrntonr
punot - punuttin - punytt - pupnuttin; punuttr - punttonr - punyttir - popunttonr
ponom - ponumtin - ponymt - papnumtin; ponumr - ponmtonr - ponymtir - poponmtonr
fohos - fohustin - fohyst - fafhustin; fohusr - fohstonr - fohystir - fofohstonr
gawik - gawaktin - gawekt - gagwaktin; gawakr - gawktonr - gawektir - gagawktonr
salik - salaktin - salekt - saslaktin; salakr - salktonr - salektir - sasalktonr
tafip - tafaptin - tafept - tatfaptin; tafapr - tafptonr - tafeptir - tatafptonr
leyer - leyirtin - leyirt - lalyirtin; leyirr - leyrtonr - leyirtir - leleyrtonr
mitey - mitaytin - miteyt - mimtaytin; mitayr - mititonr - miteytir - memititonr

6: cluster reduction

teken - tekintin - tekint - takintin; tekinr - tekntonr - tekintir - tetekntonr
seren - serintin - serint - sarintin; serinr - serntonr - serintir - seserntonr
terren - terrintin - terrint - tarrintin; terrinr - terrntonr - terrintir - teterrntonr
punot - punutin - punyt - punutin; punutr - puntonr - punytir - popuntonr
ponom - ponuntin - ponynt - panuntin; ponumr - pontonr - ponyntir - poponmtonr
fohos - fohustin - fohyst - fafustin; fohusr - fostonr - fohystir - fofostonr
gawik - gawakin - gawekt - gagwakin; gawakr - gawtonr - gawekir - gagawkonr
salik - salakin - salekt - saslakin; salakr - saltonr - salekir - sasalkonr
tafip - tafapin - tafept - tafapin; tafapr - taftonr - tafepir - tatafponr
leyer - leyirtin - leyirt - lalirtin; leyirr - leyrtonr - leyrtir - leleyrtonr
mitey - mitaytin - miteyt - mintaytin; mitayr - mititonr - miteytir - memititonr

7: epenthetic vowels; unstressed umlaut; assimilation; loss of final vowels; loss of final -n; loss of obvious reduplicants; assimilation...

teke - tikinti - tekin - takinti; teki - tekanto - tikintir - tekanto
sere - sirinti - serin - sarinti; seri - sernto - serintir - sernto
tere - tirinti - terin - tarinti; teri - terurno - terintir - terurno
punat - punuti - punit - punuti; punuta - punto - punitir - popunto
ponam - ponunti - ponin - panunti; ponum - ponto - ponintir - ponunto
fós - fausti - foist - fustin; fausr - fosto - foistir - fofosto
gauk - gwaki - gwekt - gagwaki; gwaka - gauto - gwekir - gagauko
salik - salaki - salekt - saslaki; salaka - salto - salekir - sasalko
tafip - tafapi - tafept - tafapi; tafapa - tasto - tafepir - tafaspo
lír - lirti - lirt - lalirti; lír - lírto - lírtir - lelírto
mití - mitoiti - mitít - mintoiti; mitoir - mitito - mitítir - memitito



....and you have a complex ablaut system!
User avatar
KaiTheHomoSapien
greek
greek
Posts: 572
Joined: 15 Feb 2016 06:10
Location: Northern California

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Post by KaiTheHomoSapien »

Do most of you prefer using <k> as opposed to <c> to represent the /k/ sound in your languages?

I've been thinking of using <c> in Arculese, in part because /k/ is pronounced more like /c/ before front vowels, but unfortunately whenever I do this Arculese starts to have, for me, a "Romance" like aesthetic, and no offense to romlangs, but it's just not what I'm going for. [:S]
Post Reply