Ulion

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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Adjectives

Adjectives agree in gender/number: Maculine, Feminine, Plural

When they are used as modifiers of nouns, they do not agree in case.

čēt 'big'

M čēt
F čēte
PL čētạ

When predicatives, they appear in Essive. Then, they may agree in gender/number.

M čētr
F čētre ~ čētr
PL čētrạ ~ čētr

The adverbial form is similar to singular masculine locative.
čētụ 'using much space'
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Something primary on light verbs

Tense
- non-past
- past

Tense will be taken care of by moods. Irrealis codes future.

Control
- control
- non-control


- zero
- inceptive
- causative
- cessative
- causative-cessative (make stop)

Mood
- realis
- irrealis
- subjective (I think that ...)
- negative

Subject agreement


Much of this is coded fusionally. (tense x control × (ir)realis = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 fusional forms)
Light verbs are very irregular.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 30 Aug 2021 22:25, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Ulion

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qēl 'I said' (also 'I gave', which I don't repeat)
qēc 'you said'
qēš 'he said'
qēś 'she said'
qēsa' 'they said'
qēla' 'we said'
qēcla' 'we said'
qēca' 'you all said'



subordinate clause same-subject
qē 'SS said'

Subordinate clause different-subject
qējil 'I said'
qējic 'you said'
qējiš 'he said'
qējiś 'she said'
qējisa' 'they said'
qējila' 'we said'
qējicla' 'we said'
qējica' 'you all said'
Edit: As you can see, derived verbs are like subordinate forms of light verbs.
(Normal style)
Tum qēš Čōn rẽp qējiš.
Tum qē-š Čōn rẽp qēj-i-š.
T said-SG3M J kiss.NOM give-SUBORD-SG3M
'Tom said that John gave a kiss to [him].'

(Formal style)
Tum qēš Čōn rẽpiš.
Tum qē-š Čōn rẽp-i-š.
T said-SG3M J kiss.VERB-SG3M
'Tom said that John kissed [him].'

Present tense has ō instead of ē.


Causatives and inchoatives/cessatives are formed with prefixes. The first consonant of the root is often lenited after the prefix.
q => ʀ
t => r
k => j

k(e)- 'inchoative'
t(e)- causative
p(e)- cessative
pl(e)- cessative causative
Edit: Probaly some of them should be infixes.
kr̂ēl [qʀe:l] ’I started to say’
tr̂ēl [tʀe:l] 'I made X say'
pr̂ēl [pʀe:l] 'I stopped saying'
pler̂ēl [plə'ʀe:l] 'I made X stop saying'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 30 Aug 2021 22:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

I'll add a third gender.
It is rare and used of supernatural genderless personalities. I'll call it divine gender.

Its marker in verbs is -v

uš 'he is'
uś 'she is'
uv 'the god is'
vâ 'they are'

Its marker in adjectives is -a.

čēt 'big M'
čēte 'big F'
čēta 'big DIVINE'
četâ 'big PL'
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Re: Ulion

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Motion verbs belong to the "real verbs" and have all inflectional forms.

rā 'go/move'
enã 'rise/go up'
jašū 'descend/go down'
evī 'enter/go in'
unō 'arrive'
ecā 'to visit'
?? 'approach'

(I don't know yet, how verbs like 'to run' or 'to fly' are expressed.)
Edit: Probably they are converb-like words. 'She is approaching the place running.'
ecā, enã, and jašū can appear with a direct object. When them, they express 'pass', 'go above X / on X' and 'go under/below X', respectively.

Kạrā terōn jašēš.
boy.DIR table.DIR go.PST.SG3M
'The boy went under the table.'

All of the verbs, can have a goal argument in the dative and a source argument in the ablative.

Kạrā terōnụ jašēš.
boy.DIR table.DAT descend.PST.SG3M
'The boy went down to the table.'

Kạrā terōnị jašēš.
boy.DIR table.ABL descend.PST.SG3M
'The boy fell from the table.'


As all real verbs, motion verbs can be causativized (and made inceptive or cessative).
If the verb is used to mean 'to bring under X' or 'to bring above X', it has two direct objects.

Jōri kạrā terōn tenãš.
friend.DIR boy.DIR table.DIR raise.PST.SG3M
'The friend raised the boy above the table.'
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Re: Ulion

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Trying translating a text.

Once there was a king. He was childless. The king wanted a son. He asked his priest: "May a son be born to me!" The priest said to the king: "Pray to the god Werunos." The king approached the god Werunos to pray now to the god. "Hear me, father Werunos!" The god Werunos came down from heaven. "What do you want?" "I want a son." "Let this be so," said the bright god Werunos. The king's lady bore a son.

Jūsu maqōn vaceu uš.
jūs-u maqōn-∅ vacā-u u-š
era-LOC king-DIR sitting-LOC (1) COP-SG3M
'Once there was a king.'

(1) 'Be there' or 'be somewhere' can theoretically be just 'is', but usually, some action noun expressing manner is added. here, it is vaceu 'in the sitting position'.

Jelutũ eriš.
Jelut-ũ eri-š
no child-SOS COP.NEG-SG3M
'He was childless.' (2)

(2) Literally: 'He was not with a child.'

Maqōn lāśr uš jelutān.
maqōn-∅ lāś-r-∅ u-š jelut-ā-n
king-DIR willing-ESS-SG.M COP-SG3M son-SOS
'The king wanted a son.' (3)

(3) Jelutān is a clause-like argument. Literally: 'The king wanted that he were with a son.' the copula does, however, not appear in dependent clauses so jelutān is left alone.

Neišaqụ r^āvi qēš. (4)
neišaq-ụ r^āvi-∅ qē-š
priest-DAT question-DIR say/give.PST-SG3M
'He asked his priest:'

(4) You see that this is the first sentence whose verb is not the copula. Basically, all static expressions are formed with the copula.

(formal derived verb)
Jelutān verūk mulīŋaš? (5) (7)
jelutān-∅ verū-k mulīŋ-a-š
son-DIR sg1-DAT birth-SUBJUNCT-SG3M
'May a son be born to me.'

(normal light verb)
Jelutān verūk mulīŋu unãš? (6) (7)
jelutān-∅ verū-k mulīŋ-u unã-š
son-DIR sg1-DAT birth-LOC arrive.SUBJUNCT-SG3M
'May a son be born to me.'

(5) The derived verb is derived from action noun mulīŋ 'birth'.
(6) The normal light verb construction literally means: 'May a child arrive to me in birth'.
(7) The subjunctive mood is used here (derived verbs have -a instead of -i). I don't know yet if it can be used in main clauses.

Neišaq maqōnụ qēš:
neišaq maqōn-ụ qēš
priest king-DAT he.said
'The priest said to the king:'

ạpāra Verunōsụ čukōn qē
ạpā-r-a Verunōs-ụ čukōn qē-∅
god-ESS-DIVINE V-DAT request say/give-IMP
"Pray to the god Werunos."

Maqōn ạpāra Verunōsụ rīš cēpe ạpāk čukōn qē.
maqōn ạpā-r-a Verunōs-ụ rī-š cēpe ạpā-k čukōn qē-∅
king god-ESS-DIVINE V-DAT go.PAST-SG3M for good-DAT request say/give-SS
'The king approached the god Werunos to pray now to the god.'

Venivō, lāpusā Verunōs (8)
ve-nivō-∅, lāpus-ā Verunōs
SG1.OBJ-hear-IMP, creation-ACTOR V
"Hear me, father Werunos!"

(8) In Ulion speaking cultures, it is very strict that goods are genderless. Calling any good "father" would be heresy.

ạpāra Verunōs pikućị jašūv.
ạpā-r-a Verunōs pikuć-ị jašū-v
god-ESS-DIVINE V heaven-ABL descend-SG3.DIVINE
'The god Werunos came down from heaven.'
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Re: Ulion

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Vowel stems with -n extension

"mikān" 'wife'
NOM mikān <- mikā-n
LOC mikōn <- mikā-o-n
ABL mikāŋ <- mikā-k-n (normal vowel-stem ABL -k merged with -n)
DAT mikōŋ <- mikā-ok-n (normal vowel-stem DAT -k merged with -n)
ESS mikār <- mikā-n-r (ESS is a newer case and appeared after -n extension. -n is lost before ESS -r)
SOS mikānũ <- mikā-n-ũ (SOS is a newer case and behaves like a consonant stem)


Vowels stems with -s extension.

"katīs" 'trade, market square'

NOM katīs
LOC katēs
ABL katīc <- katī-k-s (normal vowel-stem ABL -k merged with -s)
DAT katēc <- katī-ok-s (normal vowel-stem DAT -k merged with -s)
ESS katịr <- katī-s-r (ESS is a newer case and appeared after -n extension. -s extension lenites to glottalization before essive -r, a possible long vowel is shortened)
SOS katīsũ <- mikā-n-ũ (SOS is a newer case and behaves like a consonant stem)

I don't know about the plurals yet. Possible normal consonant-stem plurals.

Edit: There could also be inalienably possessed nouns, where third person possessor markers -š 'his' and -ś 'her' behave like -s extension in "katīs". The essive forms are, however, -š-r 'his' and -ś-r.
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Third-person direct-object pronoun (him, her, it, them) is coded in the verb. The pronoun coding does not appear if there is an explicit object NP.
The pronominal marker is -t, which merges with subject person suffixes.

plūš ’he hears’ - plūč ’he hears him/her/it/them’
plūś ’she hears’ - plūć ’she hears him/her/it/them’
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Re: Ulion

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Vocalic declension

Singular

'language'
NOM pr̄ạlū
LOC pr̄ạlō
DAT pr̄ạlōk
ABL pr̄ạlūk
ESS pr̄ạlur
SOS pr̄ạlõ

'son'
NOM jelutā
LOC jelutō
DAT jelutōk
ABL jelutāk
ESS jeluter
SOS jelutã

'daughter'
NOM jelutī
LOC jelutē
DAT jelutēk
ABL jelutīk
ESS jelutir
SOS jelutẽ
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Dictionary

Nouns
jelutā 'son'
jelutī 'daughter'
jōri ['jɔ:ri] 'friend'
jūs 'era'
kạrā [kʌ'r̰ɑ:] 'boy'
katīs 'tade, market place'
kjũvi ['kjũ:ʋi] 'girl'
maqōn 'king'
mikān 'wife'
miprãš [mɪ'prɑ̃:ʃ] 'event'
mēsuk [mɛ:'sʊk] 'ground'
nēšaq
pjēcạ ['pjɛ:t͡sʌʔ] 'family'
r̤āvi 'question'
pr̠ạlū [pʀʌ'l̰u:] 'language'
prēv [prɛ:v] 'house', 'home'
sịc [sɪʔt͡s] ' house'
var̄ā 'mother'
ụtā 'father'

Adjectives
čēt 'big'
ụt 'willing'
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Real verbs start getting their shape.

All of them have a consonant stem and a vowel stem. (Non)Control is marked with a vowel change.


Vowel stems are used for Singular Indicative.
The vowel change marking noncontrol forms is caused by distance assimilation of vowel (i-umlaut).

Code: Select all

Control- Noncontrol 
qā-l - qē-l <- qas-a-l - qas-i-l 'I give/say'
šē-l - šī-l <- šid-a-l - šid-i-l 'I do' 
mô-l - mū-l <- mor-a-l - mor-i-l 

-l is the marker of sg1. 
The basic vowel pattern is thus ā - ē, ē - ī, or ô - ū. There must though be newer changes of vowels that blurr the pattern, like in Germanic strong verbs.



Consonant stems are used for plural persons and for subordinate moods.
They have the same vowel changes but, because the vowels are short, they look a bit different.

Code: Select all

Control- Noncontrol 
qas-ēr - qis-ēr 'We give/say' 
šer-ēr - šir-ēr 
muř-ēr - miř-ēr 
The basic pattern is thus a/e/u - i.


There are also causative, inchoative, cessative, and perfect, which are marked by prefixes.
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Re: Ulion

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Omzinesý wrote: 21 Mar 2020 11:16 Control

Salishan languages have an interesting new feature and I'm now first time applying it in a conlang.
There are two values of the feature: Control and NonControl. (I consider Agent-Centered and Patient-Centered could actually be better names, but I'm not composing my own terms.)

Control
Either the agent is a prototypical transitive agent. It acts intentionally and volitionally and has control over what it does.
or there is no prototypical transitive patient.

NonControl
Either the patient is a prototypical transitive patient. It is affected by the action. The action is successfully completed.
or there is no prototypical transitive agent.

Control thus emphasizes the agent while noncontrol emphasizes the patient.
Control creates an unintuitive result that actions that are not successful or are hardly successful are coded as control clauses.
So one either "tries to do" but the results are not stated or one "achieves results" but it is not stated if it was purposeful.
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

Genders

Ulion has three genders: Masculine, Feminine, and Divine. Some nouns are pluralia tantum. Genders are merged in plural.
Around 2/3 of nouns are Masculine.
Around 1/3 of nouns are Feminine.
A negligible number of nouns are Divine.

Feminine
- all nouns of the ī declension
- all diminutives (consonant conjugation) but those referring to males
- all nouns referring to females
- some nouns of the consonant declension
- some nouns of the ā declension

Masculine
- all nouns of the ū declension
- all nouns referring to males
- all abstract nouns that can be used as adjectives
- most nouns of the consonant declension
- most nouns of the ā declension
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Re: Ulion

Post by Omzinesý »

While Causative must always appear with Inchoative/Inceptive or cessative, Perfect must always appear with a marker of "relevant" or "irrelevant". They can be translated as 'because' and 'though', respectively, in some contexts. Inchoative, cessative, relevance marker and irrelevance marker can well appear without Causative or Perfect.
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