Typological voting game

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Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

The results are in for Round 15!
  • Secondary stress types - A) Trochaic: left-hand syllable in the foot is strong
  • 21B: Tense-aspect-mood (TAM) exponence - E) TAM+polarity
Round 16

So...now is the long-awaited moment in which we will get to decide on (some of) the details of the language's phonology.

Let's have a review of what we know about the phonology so far:

Segmental phonology

Consonant inventory:

/p t k kʼ/
/m n/
/s/
/w r j/

Vowel inventory:

/i iː ɨ ɨː u uː/
/e eː/
/a aː/
/ai au ei eu iu ui ɨu ɨi/

Syllable structure is more complex than CV, but no more complex than CRVC

Suprasegmentals
  • Simple tone system (two-way contrast)
  • Predictable, weight-sensitive stress, where weight is determined by presence of long vowels and closed syllables
  • Stress is unbounded, occurring on the rightmost heavy syllable in the word, and if there are no heavy syllables, it occurs on the last syllable
  • Rhythmic trochaic secondary stress occurs, with the left-hand syllable in the foot being strong
And now let's review the grammar of the language:

Overall typology
  • Consistently head-marking
  • Lacking a dominant word order
Morphology
  • Productive full and partial reduplication
  • Past tense (or other basic TAM marking) is exclusively concatenative
  • TAM marking also expones polarity
Miscellaneous
  • Hybrid vigesimal-decimal numeral system
So, this is the context in which we are nailing down the phonology. All proposals must conform to these properties which have been decided so far. However, we still have considerable freedom. Take the tone system - there are any number of ways in which a "two-way tone contrast" could be instantiated. It could be something Bantu-esque, it could be like Japanese, or Norwegian, or Somali, or something completely different.

So how will be do it? Suprasegmental phonology, allophony, and phonotactics are deeply intertwined, so it is hard to address one without addressing the other. However, I want to make sure that the project remains collaborative in nature - I don't want just one person's vision to dominate the phonology. So, I am going to open up two different submission categories:

Phonotactics and allophony and Tone-stress systems

We will take submissions for each separately, and vote on each separately. Users may submit as many proposals as they wish. A proposal should consist of a brief, general sketch. Tone-stress systems should aim to be applicable to whatever kind of phonotactics and allophony we select, and phonotactics and allophony should aim to be compatible with whatever kind of tone-stress system we select. However, if we do end up selecting phonotactics and allophony and tone-stress systems that are incompatible in some way, or require some kind of issue to be resolved, that is okay. We will resolve any incompatibilities through discussion and voting.

General guidelines and ideas for each submission category:

Phonotactics and allophony
  • Phonotactics and allophony must conform to previously-established facts about the language's segmental phonology (see above)
  • We know that the syllable structure is more complicated than CV but no more complicated than CRVC. What is the exact syllable structure? Which consonants may appear in the coda, if any? Which consonant clusters may appear in the onset, if any?
  • Are there restrictions on which vowels may appear in different kinds of syllables?
  • What kinds of consonant clusters are permitted across syllable boundaries?
  • Are there any major allophonic processes? Including any major phonologically-predictable sandhi processes?
Tone-stress systems
  • Tone-stress systems must conform to previously-established facts about the language's suprasegmental phonology (see above)
  • There is a simple tone system with a two-way contrast. What does this system look like?
  • Stress occurs on the rightmost heavy syllable in the word, and if there are no heavy syllables, it occurs on the last syllable. Weight depends on long vowels and closed syllables. How exactly do long vowels and closed syllables define syllable weight? Are there multiple levels of syllable weight?
  • Secondary stress is trochaic. How are trochees "built" and how is secondary stress assigned?
And eldin raigmore, as for agreement, we have considerable freedom with that, and it will be addressed in upcoming rounds.

Submissions for Round 16 will close at 5:00 PM GMT (12 noon US Eastern time) on Wednesday, March 17.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by shimobaatar »

Might I suggest that we push back the submission deadline for this round by a week (at most)? There's a lot to consider when trying to come up with a proposal for either category, and I haven't had much time this past week to dedicate to that. Since there apparently haven't been any submissions for this round yet, I suspect I might not be alone in that regard. Does this sound like a good/reasonable idea to anyone else?
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

Yes, that's fine. In fact, I was probably going to announce that tomorrow. We could even push it two more weeks to March 31 if people wanted.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Creyeditor »

I would welcome a later deadline. I had RL stuff and it was my turn in the cbbcrxiii. I definitely want to submit at least one idea.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by eldin raigmore »

Could I see what an example submission might look like? Because I have no idea.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Creyeditor »

My first proposal for Phonotactics and Allophony, called Maximal Contrast.

Syllable Structure:
The Syllable structure is (C)(S)V(C), where
C=all consonants,
S=all sonorants (=all nasals, rhotics and glides),
V=vowels (long, short and diphongs).
All syllable types are possible in any position of the word. This also means that all consonant clusters are allowed, including geminates. Words can have any number of syllables.

Allophony:
Lenition:
All non-ejective plosives become fricatives if they occur between vowels.
/p t k/ →[ɸ θ x]/V_C

Palatalization:
Alveolar obstruents become post-alveolar sibilants before /i/.
/t s/ → [tʃ ʃ]/_i
/j/ becomes fortified to [ʒ] before /i/.
/j/ → [ʒ]/_i
/r/ becomes lateral before /i/
/r/ → [l]/_i

Postvocalic debuccalization
/k'/ becomes glottal stop [ʔ] after a vowel.
/k'/ → [ʔ]/V_

Nasal assimilation:
/n/ assimilates in place to a following palatal, postalveolar or velar consonant.
/n/ → [ɲ]/_j
/n/ → [n̠]/_{t s}i
/n/ → [ŋ]/_{k, k'}

Vowels processes:
Low vowels become back and rounded before or after labial consonants.
/a a:/ → [ɔ ɔː]/L_
/a a:/ → [ɔ ɔː]/_L

Closed syllable laxing
Non-low vowels become lax in closed syllables.
/u/ becomes /o/ if the next syllable contains a low vowel.
/u uː/ → [o oː]/_(C)(C)(C){a, aː}

Hiatus resolution
Vowel hiatus is resolved by forming dipthongs. If the diphthong is not allowed, a glottal fricative [h] is inserted.

Some example words (without tone or stress):
/jituː/ →[ʒiθuː]
/usakwu/ → [osakwu]
/kʼnaːpsrik/ → [kʼnɔːpslik]
/juti/ →[jutʃi]
/injiːk'/ → [iɲjiːʔ]
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

Thank you, Creyeditor! That looks great. I was just about to post a sample sketch (made for Spanish, since I didn't want to influence anyone's thoughts on this language) which I'd been putting off for the past day. The sample sketch I made is just a bulleted list, but the way you did it looks perfectly fine, too.
eldin raigmore wrote: 15 Mar 2021 13:31 Could I see what an example submission might look like? Because I have no idea.
Sure. I thought of providing something like this, but the post was already big and I worried it would add more confusion. Basically I'm imagining a degree of specificity that would, say, allow us to come up with potential roots or word forms in the language, but still leaves us some corners to iron out with morphophonological processes, certain more minor allophonic details, etc.

If I were writing a phonotactics and allophony submission for Spanish, for example, it might look like this (assuming we'd already been given the phoneme and vowel inventories) (also I know this isn't perfectly accurate for Spanish):
  • Maximum syllable structure is CRGVGCs, where R is /r l/ (which may only follow a stop or /f/) and G is a semivowel
  • Word-final codas may only consist of /n d r l s θ/
  • There is a tendency to reduce medial codas to a single consonant
  • The voiced obstruents /b d ʝ g/ are realized as approximants or fricatives in all contexts except after a pause, nasal, or (for /d/ and /ʝ/) /l/
  • /r/ and /ɾ/ contrast intervocalically but are in complementary distribution elsewhere
  • Nasals assimilate in place to the following consonant
  • Fricatives assimilate in voicing to the following consonant
  • There are a variety of morphophonological alternations between /k~θ/ and /g~x/ due to historic palatalization
But you could go into a little more detail or a little less. And a tone-stress system for Spanish might look like:
  • Stress is phonemic, and is implemented mainly through pitch, with duration and loudness also playing a role
  • The language is syllable-timed
  • Nouns and adjectives are typically stressed before the last consonant
  • Some verb inflections bear stress
(A tone-stress sketch for our language will be much different, of course, and will have to go into more detail, since we have more issues to address)
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Creyeditor »

Here is my first submission for a tone stress system, called All-the-tones. I hope everything is according to what we established previously.
Tone:

Underlying tones
Four possible underlying specifications: H, L, 0, P
H is a high toned mora.
L is a low toned mora.
0 is a toneless mora that is H after a H tone and L elsewhere.
P is a polar tone that is the opposite of a preceding tone. Cannot occur on initial moras.

TBU:
The mora is the tone-bearing unit. Coda consonants and vowels count as one mora each. Therefore a CVVC syllable with a coda consonant and a long vowel/diphthong have three moras, i.e. are superheavy. They can have three tones. Syllables with CVV or CVC structure have two moras, which means two tones. Syllables without coda and dipthong/long vowel can only bear one tone.

Tonal processes:
High tone spreading:
A high tone spreads rightwards to any number of toneless moras. Spreading stops as soon as it encounters a tonally specfied mora.

Default Low Tone Insertion:
Any toneless mora, that is not specified as high due to high tone spreading, is realized as low.

Raising and Lowering:
A low tone in between two high toned moras is raised to a mid tone.
A high tone between two low toned moras is lowered to a mid tone.

Polarity:
A mora specifed as polar, gains the opposite tone of the preceding mora. If the preceding mora is high toned, the polar mora is low toned. If the preceding mora is low toned, the polar mora is high toned.

Downstep and Register Reset:
In a sequence of high tones, the overall register is lowered on the second tone. This rule does not apply between two high toned moras that gained their high tones from the same mora through high tone spreading. The register is reset at any phonological phrase boundary.

Stress:
Stress is realized by a increased articulatory precesion in vowels.

Primary stress:
If a word has a superheavy syllable stress always goes on the last superheavy syllable no matter where it is in the word.
If a word has no superheavy syllable stress goes on one of the last three syllables; which one depends on their weights.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and one of the last three syllable is heavy, this heavy syllable is stressed.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and at least two of the last three syllable are heavy, the rightmost heavy syllable is stressed.
If there is no heavy syllable, the final syllable is stressed.

Secondary stress:
Every other syllable counting from the primary stressed syllable to the right and the left receives secondary stress.

Here are some examples:

/jítuu/ →[jíˈ.túú]
/usákwú/ → [ˌù.sá.ˈꜜkwú]
/kʼnáàṕsrik/ → [ˈkʼnáāṕ.sríḱ]
/juti̽/ →[jù.tí]
/ìnjíìk'/ → [ì.nˈjīìk̀']

I use V̽ for an underlyingly polar tone. I placed tones in multimoraic syllables on doubled vowels and coda consonants, but the notation could be easily changed.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Creyeditor »

My second proposal for phonotactics and allophony, called aesthatically pleasing.

Phonotactics:
Syllable Structure
Syllable structure is (C)V(Q) or (K)RV(Q)

C=any consonant
V=any vowel or diphthong
Q=any nasal or non-ejective plosive
K=non-ejective obstruent
R=any rhotic or glide

Heterosyllabic clusters are not any further restricted.

Long vowels or diphthongs make a syllable heavy, bimoraic
Long vowels and diphthongs make a syllable superheavy, trimoraic.
All other syllables are light.

Word structure:
Words are at least bimoraic.
Only the initial syllable in a word can be onsetless.

Allophony:
Nasal Assimilation
All nasals assimilate in place to a following consonant.
N → N[α place]/_C[α place]

Voicing of plosives
Obstruents become voiced between vowels or between a nasal and a vowel.
{p, t, k, s} → {b, d, g, z}/N_V
{p, t, k, s} → {b, d, g, z}/V_V

Aspiration of plosives
Word initial plosives are aspirated.
{p, t, k} → {pʰ, tʰ, kʰ}/#_

Palatalization
Velar and alveolar non-ejective obstruents become alveolar sibilants before /i/ and /j/.
{t, d, s, z, k} → {tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ}/_{i, j}

Rhythmic lengthening
If a light syllable receives secondary stress, the vowel is lengthened.
ˌCV → ˌCVː

Lowering
All simple high vowels are lowered to mid vowels before coda nasals and after the ejective.
{i, iː, ɨ, ɨː, u, uː} → {e, eː, ə, əː, o, oː}/_N.
{i, iː, ɨ, ɨː, u, uː} → {e, eː, ə, əː, o, oː}/k'_

Some examples:
/sru:m/ → [sro:m]
/ˌswejitreip/ → [ˌswe:jitreip]
/uti/ → [udʒi]
/amtu/ → [antu]
/e:npau/ → [e:mbau]
/prai/ → [pʰrai]
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Creyeditor »

My last proposal a stress-tone system, called Naturalistic.
Tone:

TBU:
Only vocalic moras bear tone. This means that long vowels and diphthongs appear to allow contour tones, even if it really just a sequence of two tones.

Underlying tones:
H a high toned mora
L a low toned mora
0 a toneless mora

Tonological processes

Dissimilation
If two high toned moras are adjacent, the second one becomes a low tone.
HH -> HL

High Tone spreading
If a high-toned mora occurs before any number of toneless moras, the toneless moras become high-toned.
H0->HH

Downstep
In a sequence of a low toned mora sandwiched between two high toned moras, the low toned mora is changed into a high tone that is downstepped.
HLH->HꜜHH

Overwriting
Some prefixes/suffixes bear floating L or H tones. These overwrite the tone of the initial/final mora.

Default low tone insertion
Any toneless moras not affected by High Tone Spreading or Overwriting become low toned by default.
0->L

Stress
Stress is realized mostly as duration/length, but is also attracted by syllable weight. Syllables weight-wise, short monophthong open syllables count as light, whereas dipthong/long vowel closed syllables count as superheavy. All other syllable types are considered heavy.

Primary stress:
If a word has a superheavy syllable stress always goes on the last superheavy syllable no matter where it is in the word.
If a word has no superheavy syllable stress goes on one of the last three syllables; which one depends on their weights.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and one of the last three syllable is heavy, this heavy syllable is stressed.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and at least two of the last three syllable are heavy, the rightmost heavy syllable is stressed.
If there is no heavy syllable, the final syllable is stressed.
Primary stressed syllables are phonetically slightly lengthened

Secondary stress:
Every other syllable counting from the primary stressed syllable to the right and the left receives secondary stress.
Vowels of syllables that receive secondary stress are lengthened, if there is no coda. The new mora is considered toneless and can interact with tonological processes.

Some examples:
/jítuu/ →[jí.ˈtúú]
/usákwú/ → [ˌùù.sá.ˈkwù]
/kʼnáàpsrík/ → [ˈkʼnáꜜáp.srík]
/jútí/ →[jú.tì]
/ìnjíìk'/ → [ìn.ˈjíìk']
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

Thank you for the submissions, Creyeditor!

It would be great if we could get some submissions for phonotactics/allophony and tone/stress from another user so we're not just voting on one person's ideas.
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Re: Typological voting game

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I agree. And if anyone feels intimidated by these proposals, you should know that I came up with most ideas a few rounds ago. Also, I would love to see some shorter/simpler proposals.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by eldin raigmore »

I barely understand enough to vote on what’s been proposed so far, much less enough to propose an alternative.
It’s all too complicated.
...
Can someone explain it to me like I have Asperger’s?
...
Or like I’m a back-bencher MP?
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

eldin raigmore wrote: 22 Mar 2021 20:57 I barely understand enough to vote on what’s been proposed so far, much less enough to propose an alternative.
It’s all too complicated.
...
Can someone explain it to me like I have Asperger’s?
...
Or like I’m a back-bencher MP?
Okay, let's refer back to what we have established so far:
Spoiler:
Segmental phonology

Consonant inventory:

/p t k kʼ/
/m n/
/s/
/w r j/

Vowel inventory:

/i iː ɨ ɨː u uː/
/e eː/
/a aː/
/ai au ei eu iu ui ɨu ɨi/

Syllable structure is more complex than CV, but no more complex than CRVC

Suprasegmentals
  • Simple tone system (two-way contrast)
  • Predictable, weight-sensitive stress, where weight is determined by presence of long vowels and closed syllables
  • Stress is unbounded, occurring on the rightmost heavy syllable in the word, and if there are no heavy syllables, it occurs on the last syllable
  • Rhythmic trochaic secondary stress occurs, with the left-hand syllable in the foot being strong
And now let's review the grammar of the language:

Overall typology
  • Consistently head-marking
  • Lacking a dominant word order
Morphology
  • Productive full and partial reduplication
  • Past tense (or other basic TAM marking) is exclusively concatenative
  • TAM marking also expones polarity
Miscellaneous
  • Hybrid vigesimal-decimal numeral system
Your phonotactics/allophony and tone/stress proposals need to conform with what we've already decided.

So, to put it simply, it means you can have whatever kind of phonotactics and allophony you want, as long as the syllable structure is more complex than CV, but no more complex than CRVC.

And you can have whatever kind of tone system you want, as long as it has a two-way contrast. As for stress, your job is to decide how, exactly, long vowels and closed syllables contribute to syllable weight (they must both contribute), and to decide how trochaic secondary stress is assigned.

Oh, and we will also extend the submission period to March 31.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by shimobaatar »

Porphyrogenitos wrote: 22 Mar 2021 16:05 Thank you for the submissions, Creyeditor!

It would be great if we could get some submissions for phonotactics/allophony and tone/stress from another user so we're not just voting on one person's ideas.
Creyeditor wrote: 22 Mar 2021 16:52 I agree. And if anyone feels intimidated by these proposals, you should know that I came up with most ideas a few rounds ago. Also, I would love to see some shorter/simpler proposals.
The problem for me really is the amount of time/effort required to come up with something. "Real-life" responsibilities have to take priority, of course. We've been asked to submit ideas in the past, like for consonant or vowel inventories, but there's a lot more for us to keep in mind this time around.

That being said, I think I'm almost done with my "Phonotactics and allophony" proposal, at least.
Porphyrogenitos wrote: 23 Mar 2021 15:58 Oh, and we will also extend the submission period to March 31.
Ah, thank you. [tick]
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

Also, I hadn't wanted to do this - I wanted to stay completely hands-off with submissions and voting, since I have so much influence on the process as organizer - but I think I am going to make a couple of submissions myself, since things are going slowly and this is a rather crucial moment for the game.

My submissions will be aimed at satisfying the constraints in a very minimal and simple way.

Phonotactics/allophony
  • The maximum syllable is CVN
  • Any consonant may appear as C
  • N is a nasal archiphoneme (i.e. nasals are neutralized in the coda)
  • The coda nasal assimilates to the place of the following consonant
  • Word or phrase-finally, the coda nasal is realized as nasalization of the preceding vowel
  • After the coda nasal, /p t k s/ are voiced
  • Only short vowels may appear before a coda; long vowels and diphthongs may not be followed by a coda
  • [ʔ] is an optional allophone of /kʼ/ in rapid speech or "weak" positions
Tone/stress
  • A heavy syllable is a syllable that contains a long vowel, a diphthong, or a coda
  • For secondary stress assignment, the two syllables left of the primary-stressed syllable form a trochee. The next two syllables to the left form the next trochee, and so on.
  • Syllables not part of a trochee are unstressed.
  • Every primary-stressed syllable bears either high or falling tone.
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by qwed117 »

Kinda dipped out for a while, so here's a quick sketch, I might also dump a more "diachronic" one later

First some definitions, with letter abbreviations, and a full name for the category

P = /p t k m n/ (pulmonic plosives)
N = /m n/ (nasals)
S = /p t k/ (plosives)
E = /k'/ (ejectives)
R = /s w r j/ (continuants)

Vowel inventory, note that the colon notation is applied on all vowel groups:
V = any/all short vowels
V: = any/all long vowels
V(:) = any vowel
V' = any short monophthong
V< = any stressed short nucleus
V> = any unstressed short nucleus
H = /i ɨ u/ (short high vowels)
O = /e a/ (short open vowels)
F = /i e/ (short front vowels)
B = /u a/ (short back vowels)
D = /ai au ei eu iu ui ɨu ɨi/ (diphthongs)
D' = /i u/ (as diphthong termini)
D> = /ai ei ui ɨi/ (front closing diphthongs)
D< = /au eu iu ɨu/ (back closing diphthongs)

Basic maximum monosyllable structure is, in awkwords format (the pattern will give a warning, but will work because of weirdness on how awkwards deals with exclusions)
[P(R)/E/R][V(ː/D)]^ii^uu((N)

A 200 word sample with this particular monosyllable structure:
Spoiler:
jeːm taum k'u k'eːn pju k'a mrun kɨː k'un pwen ja maː k'iːm ki k'um k'em kuː pum tiu ju wum kja sem kam k'in kreː k'aːn ku pi jen k'ein run mwuː reː te saim ma k'ɨin k'au nrɨin seːn k'e kwuː raː k'i wɨ njaː k'ɨːn jan pim k'aun ne naː k'eum k'iː k'aː sa mjiː mrɨi rui k'aum pɨi teːm tɨu sun twɨːn k'uin num k'iun wi tjum kɨn sɨm k'an mjuː peːn rɨu jaːm rim jium trɨ k'eːm rɨi pa raːn sum ruːm mui tan sɨːm jiːn nu saː mjin tuːn pɨ k'ɨun jɨun wam k'ei suim k'uː k'eu k'en k'ɨm tiː nuin suin waim taim jɨːm suː pjeː sui taː pje je pu k'ɨi nɨm reu k'aːm sɨu k'ɨː kɨ raim ta nɨu nrin k'ui k'ɨn na k'eim k'ɨ k'ɨu kɨin mwui praim wɨm pru k'im se ji tji mwɨi pjɨn jaːn ksu rɨm nriun kin kwum mwu pɨːn treun wa nuːn juːn sin wu si wuː san muin siun wɨːn njuː k'uim k'uːn sɨun rɨum kjɨ ksɨ mren krɨn mjam nɨ kau ra rin wim k'iu kseː wɨːm niː k'eː reːm niːn tem k'am pseːm rem pɨim k'uːm kjin nwɨu k'ɨːm sam nɨim nse
A 100 word sample including trisyllable structure (syllables separated with a period):
Spoiler:
tuː.twiːn mwa te mja.nje.kwam sau.taː kaː.kai njuː mwum tuː pjui kɨun.nɨ.neː tjum.kin.niː kreː.kwun mɨun.pwem trɨːm pren k'uːm siː jiː nɨː.wu kaːm.maː ji nuː k'a wɨun.paum.kɨi tam.nu.me tim.nseː.rai k'ei pwɨn msaː win.meː na.psau.ki mraː k'uːn wɨː mwe.raun.jiː nu.pɨː.mjan pwim.mjam.nre ju kein.tum mrɨum nɨu.mwa.trɨu pim nwe.nra wiːm wem.kjen nwaun keum pɨːn.tiːm.pwin pseː.k'aː k'iː teː.ja.rɨm njin.kiu.mɨu tsem pu.kwɨi.muːn kjim.maːn muː rɨm miː.rɨm nweː mrau nuːm ke psei.mɨ pjan nwɨ.man.ki kam te.sɨːm.nen mim nrum ku.ksa mriːm mam.psum riː pɨu kɨ.pa kjɨum mjeː psaː krin mrɨː.mwuː ksam.pseim nwun miu waː.nam.pji pwai twim win.kaim.tiːm mwɨn trɨm.tre.nsin mriːn kem puːm k'an ra.ki nju.mu.pre pjun mam.ksa niː.kjen.nsan nɨm.ke
Note that this is minimum CV, and maximum CRVC
Allophonic rules, applied top to bottom:

S -> {f θ x} / V(:)._V(:)<
S -> {b ð ∅} / V(:)._V(:)
S -> {b d g} / N._
V -> V: / _D'N
D' -> {ĩ ũ} / _(.)N
N -> {ɻ w̃} / V(:)._V(:)
N -> {b d} / _(.)r
s -> ʃ / _[H/F](:)
s -> h / V(:)_V(:)
nw -> ŋ / _
{F u} -> {ẽ æ̃ õ} /_N
S -> {∅ θ ∅} / V(:)._j
i -> ɪ / j_
j -> ʑ / V(:)._[ɪ]
ɨ -> i / _#
E -> k / N._

Suprasegmental system:

First, I'd like to note that I think that having an unbounded weight stressed system with default final stress is mutually exclusive with trochaic stressing, since that we need (¯˘)(¯˘)(¯˘), which implies that the final syllable is unstressed, so I'll assume that that is default *penultimate* stress for now.

As a note, a syllable $ containing a coda N, diphthong D or long vowel V: is a heavy syllable, and a syllable with an initial k' is "relatively light" to a similarly shaped syllable.

Given the following polysyllabic words, they'd be syllabified as such
Spoiler:
k'im.ji.seːn.kwa -> ˌk'im.ji.ˈseːn.kwa
pjɨm.k'im.jem.psɨm -> ˌpjɨm.k'im.ˈjem.psɨm
jim.k'in.jen -> ˈjim.k'in.ˌjen
sɨu.nju.k'eun.wɨi -> ˈsɨu.nju.ˌk'eun.wɨi
k'i.ji.k'ɨ.k'an -> ˌk'i.ji.ˈk'ɨ.k'an
k'i.kɨː.k'iː.k'eːm -> k'i.ˈkɨː.k'iː.ˌk'eːm
reim.maː.pjeːn.k'iu -> ˌreim.maː.ˈpjeːn.k'iu
wu.k'an.wɨːm -> wu.ˈk'an.wɨːm
je.wi.psuːn.raː -> ˌje.wi.ˈpsuːn.raː
k'ai.puː.sɨn -> k'ai.ˈpuː.sɨn
Using to a degree the notational system in Creyeditor's post I will define a couple of categories
H = /˥/
L = /˩/
0 = toneless, takes the tone of the succeeding mora
P = polar, takes the opposite tone of the succeeding mora
Q = H L
T = H L 0 P = /V́ V̀ V V̌/

Similarly to Creyeditor's post the mora bears tones, meaning that diphthongs and long vowels may appear to have contour tones, although the underlying form is a combination of low and high tones. Unstressed syllables are all toneless by default, meaning all maximal trochaic diameters can be understood as [H/P/L/0][H/P/L/0]00

Accordingly some allophonic rules governing their distribution are as such,

0 -> P / _00
PP -> 0P / _Q
P0 -> PP / _ ! _#
{0 P} -> L / _$N# (if the succeeding syllable ends in a nasal and is word final)
0 -> Q / Q_# (takes the tone of the preceding syllable)
{0 P} -> H / [P0]_#

after which P and 0 are assigned and then

T -> L / H_HH <- operating backwards

The following words have been randomly assigned underlying tones, shown with diacritics, and then shown their real realizations with Chau tone marks
Spoiler:
ˌk'ìm.ji.ˈséèn.kwa -> L0HL0 -> LLHLL -> ˌk'im˩.ji˩.ˈseen˥˩.kwa˩
ˌpjɨ̀m.k'im.ˈjém.psɨm -> L0H0 -> LLHH -> ˌpjɨm˩.k'im˩.ˈjem˥.psɨm˥
ˈjim.k'in.ˌjèn -> 00L -> LLL -> ˈjim˩.k'in˩.ˌjen˩
ˈsɨù.nju.ˌk'ěǔn.wɨi -> 0L0PP00 -> LLLLHLHL -> ˈsɨu˩.nju˩.ˌk'eun˩˥.wɨi˩˥
ˌk'i.ji.ˈk'ɨ́.k'an -> 00H0 -> HLHH -> ˌk'i˥.ji˩.ˈk'ɨ́˥.k'an˥
k'i.ˈkɨ̀ɨ̀.k'iɨ.ˌk'ěém ->0LL00PH -> LLLLLLH -> k'i˩.ˈkɨɨ˩.k'iɨ˩.ˌk'eem˩˥
ˌrěim.maa.ˈpjeén.k'iu ->P0000H00 -> HLLLHLHH -> ˌreim˥˩.maa˥˩.ˈpjeen˥˩.k'iu˥ *****
wu.ˈk'án.wɨɨm ->0H00 - >LHHH -> wu˩.ˈk'an˥.wɨɨm˥
ˌjě.wi.ˈpsùún.raa -> P0LH00 -> HLLHHH -> ˌje˥.wi˩.ˈpsuun˩˥.raa˥
k'ai.ˈpuù.sɨn ->00PL0 -> HHHLL -> k'ai˥.ˈpuu˥˩.sɨn˩
***** it is worth noting that the form HLHLHLHH directly conflicts with the supposedly underlying P0000H00 form. In this case, the legal form P000HL00 would form the same result, and would probably be viewed as being the underlying form.

Here is the 100 word sample with the allophonic and stress rules applied (but not tone)
Spoiler:
'tuː.twiːn 'mwa 'te mja.'nje.kwam 'sau.ðaː 'kaː.ai 'njuː 'mwõm 'tuː 'pjui 'kɨːũn.nɨ.ɻeː tjõm.'kẽn.niː 'kreː.kwõn 'mɨːũn.bwæ̃m 'trɨːm 'præ̃n 'k'uːm 'ʃiː 'jɪː 'nɨː.wu 'kaːm.maː 'jɪ 'nuː 'k'a wɨːũn.'paːũm.gɨi 'tam.nu.w̃e tẽm.'nʃeː.rai 'k'ei 'pwɨn 'msaː 'wẽn.meː na.'psau.i 'braː 'k'uːn 'wɨː mwe.'raːũn.jɪː nu.'fɨː.mjan pwẽm.'mjam.dre ju 'keːĩn.dõm 'brɨːũm 'nɨũ.mwa.trɨu 'pẽm 'ŋe.dra 'wiːm 'wæ̃m.gjæ̃n 'ŋaːũn 'keːũm pɨːn.'tiːm.bwẽn 'pʃeː.k'aː 'k'iː 'teː.ja.rɨm njẽn.'kiũ.mɨu 'tʃæ̃m pu.'kwɨĩ.muːn 'kjẽm.maːn 'muː 'rɨm 'miː.rɨm 'ŋeː 'brau 'nuːm 'ke 'pʃeĩ.mi 'pjan ŋɨ.'w̃an.gi 'kam te.'ʃɨːm.næ̃n 'mẽm 'drõm 'ku.ksa 'briːm 'mam.bʃõm 'riː 'pɨu 'kɨ.ba 'kjɨːũm 'mjeː 'psaː 'krẽn 'brɨː.mwuː 'ksam.bʃeːĩm 'ŋõn 'miu waː.'ɻam.bjɪ 'pwai 'twẽm wẽn.'kaːĩm.diːm 'mwɨn 'trɨm.dre.nʃẽn 'briːn 'kæ̃m 'puːm 'k'an 'ra.i nju.'w̃u.pre 'pjõn 'mam.gsa niː.'kjæ̃n.nsan 'nɨm.ge
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

The SqwedgePad
shimobaatar
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Posts: 8118
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 23:09
Location: PA

Re: Typological voting game

Post by shimobaatar »

I would have liked to do more, especially with the tone-stress one, but since I'm not very familiar with that kind of thing in general, and I haven't had time to read up on it very much, I tried to avoid being too specific. I doubt I'll have time to submit anything else before Wednesday.

I probably should have looked at what others have submitted already before putting this together, since there are definitely some similarities, but oh well! I included examples after seeing that others had, though.

Phonotactics and Allophony Submission:

C₁(R)V(C₂)

C₁ = /p t k kʼ s m n j w r/
R = /j w r/
V = /i iː ɨ ɨː u uː e eː a aː iu̯ ɨi̯ ɨu̯ ui̯ ei̯ eu̯ ai̯ au̯/
C₂ = /p t k kʼ s m n r/

The onset clusters /jj jw jr wj ww wr rj rw rr/ are not permitted. /j/ cannot appear in the onset of a syllable containing one of /i iː iu̯ ɨi̯ ui̯ ei̯ ai̯/, and /w/ cannot appear in the onset of a syllable containing one of /u uː iu̯ ɨu̯ ui̯ eu̯ au̯/. 

/u uː/ are often lowered to [o oː] when the following syllable contains one of [e eː a aː]. Somewhat less commonly, [ui̯] may likewise be lowered to [oi̯] under these conditions. At least for some speakers, [ei̯ eu̯ ai̯ au̯] may cause lowering as well. 

/mr nr/ may be realized as [ᵐbr ⁿdr] or, especially word-initially, [br dr]. Word-finally and before /r/, the ejective /kʼ/ may be articulated somewhat more "weakly" than before a vowel or one of /j w/, but it remains distinct from /k/. 

If a syllable with one of /p t k kʼ s m n/ in its coda immediately precedes a syllable with one of /j w r/ in its onset, the resulting cluster is resyllabified, forming the onset of the second syllable. 

/p t k kʼ s m n w r/ are palatalized to [pʲ t͡ʃ c cʼ ʃ mʲ ɲ ɥ rʲ] before one of /i iː iu̯ j/, as well as in the coda of a syllable after one of /i iː ɨi̯ ui̯ ei̯ ai̯/. Coda [pʲ rʲ] are typically depalatalized before non-palatalized consonants, however, and [mʲ ɲ] likewise may be depalatalized via nasal place assimilation. In addition, /k kʼ/ may be realized as [kʷ kʷʼ] before /u uː ui̯ w/, as well as in the coda of a syllable after one of /u uː iu̯ ɨu̯ eu̯ au̯/, although labialization is often lost before other consonants.

The contrast between /m n/ is neutralized before consonants other than /j w r/. The two nasals merge as /m/ [m] before /p m/, /n/ [n] before /t s n/, /n/ [ŋ] before /k kʼ/, /m/ [mʲ] before [pʲ mʲ], /n/ [ɲ] before [t͡ʃ c cʼ ʃ ɲ], and /n/ [ŋʷ] before [kʷ kʷʼ]. 

The sequences /pp tt kk kʼkʼ ss/ are realized as geminates [pː tː~t͡ʃː kː~cː~kʷː kʼː~cʼː~kʷʼː sː~ʃː]. Otherwise, before /p t k kʼ/, /p t k s/ are realized as [ɸ~ɸʲ θ~ʃ x~ç~xʷ s~ʃ] or occasionally, in less careful speech, as [h]. /p t k s/ are realized as [β~βʲ ð~ʒ ɣ~ʝ~ɣʷ z~ʒ], or occasionally [ɦ], before /m n/. Before /p t k s m n/, /kʼ/ is realized as [ʔ]. These processes may operate across word boundaries as well, but are only obligatory word-internally. 

Intervocalically, or prevocalically following coda /m n r/, /p t k s/ may be voiced to [b~bʲ d~d͡ʒ g~ɟ~gʷ z~ʒ]. At least for some speakers, only partial voicing may take place in the onset of a stressed syllable. 

Examples:

/kʼunraː/ [kʷʼo.ⁿdraː]
/tiu̯mei̯s/ [t͡ʃiu̯.mei̯ʃ]
/prɨːnmau̯k/ [prɨːm.mau̯kʷ]
/sweptɨi̯n/ [sweɸ.tɨi̯ɲ~sweh.tɨi̯ɲ]
/kjakʼsiːr/ [cjaʔ.ʃiːrʲ]
/muːtnɨp/ [muːð.nɨp~muːɦ.nɨp]
/rimkeu̯/ [rʲiŋ.geu̯]
/neːnpui̯/ [neːm.bui̯]
/wai̯rkɨu̯t/ [wai̯r.gɨu̯t]
/juːsei̯/ [joː.zei̯]

Tone-Stress System Submission

Open syllables containing short monophthongs are considered "light". Open syllables containing long monophthongs or diphthongs and closed syllables containing short monophthongs are considered "heavy". Closed syllables containing long monophthongs or diphthongs are considered "superheavy". 

The rightmost "superheavy" syllable in a word receives primary stress. If there are no "superheavy" syllables in a word, the rightmost "heavy" syllable receives primary stress. If all of the syllables in a word are "light", the final syllable receives primary stress. 

Starting from the syllable bearing primary stress, every other syllable receives secondary stress. All remaining syllables are unstressed.

All syllables underlyingly carry high or mid/low tone. On long vowels and diphthongs, these are realized as falling and rising, respectively. The tone of a stressed syllable is carried over to adjacent unstressed syllables. 

Examples:

/páːnkɨ̀u̯mè/ [ˈpâːn.kɨ́ù̯ˌmè]
/sèjùːrmín/ [sèˈjǔːr.mìn]
/tùkʼéːrɨ́/ [túˈkʼêː.rɨ́]
/nɨ̀pèwìː/ [ˌnɨ̀.pèˈwǐː]
/jùkʼítá/ [ˌjù.kʼíˈtá]

Edit: Applying the rules outlined in both of the proposals above to both sets of examples, just for fun:
Spoiler:
/kʼúnràː/ [kʷʼòˈⁿdrǎː]
/tìu̯méi̯s/ [t͡ʃíù̯ˈméì̯ʃ]
/prɨ́ːnmáu̯k/ [prɨ̂ːmˈmáù̯kʷ]
/swèptɨ̀i̯n/ [swèɸˈtɨ̀í̯ɲ~swèhˈtɨ̀í̯ɲ]
/kjákʼsìːr/ [cjàʔˈʃǐːrʲ]
/mùːtnɨ́p/ [ˈmǔːð.nɨ̀p~ˈmǔːɦ.nɨ̀p]
/rímkéu̯/ [rʲíŋˈgéù̯]
/nèːnpùi̯/ [ˈněːm.bùí̯]
/wái̯rkɨ̀u̯t/ [wàí̯rˈgɨ̀ú̯t]
/jùːséi̯/ [jôːˈzéì̯]

/páːnkɨ̀u̯mè/ [ˈpâːŋ.gɨ́ù̯ˌmè]
/sèjùːrmín/ [sèˈjǔːr.mʲìɲ]
/tùkʼéːrɨ́/ [tóˈkʼêː.rɨ́]
/nɨ̀pèwìː/ [ˌnɨ̀.bèˈɥǐː]
/jùkʼítá/ [ˌjù.cʼíˈdá]
Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Typological voting game

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

Round 17

Okay, well, we have enough submissions to vote, I suppose. And I doubt we'll be getting any more anyways. Kind of mixed feelings about how this has gone. It seemed that everyone was quite anxious to create a more detailed phonological sketch, but it turned out it was a rather intimidating task. And selecting which of these sketches to move forward with will be a big and somewhat drastic decision.

Well, here is what we're voting on. Obviously, after we vote, we may end up with phonotactics/allophony and tone/stress that fit together rather awkwardly, but we can resolve any issues through voting and discussion.

Everyone can cast two votes (but you may not cast both votes for the same option). I will keep voting open for two weeks, to give everyone plenty of time to examine the submissions.

Phonotactics and Allophony


A
Spoiler:
Syllable Structure:
The Syllable structure is (C)(S)V(C), where
C=all consonants,
S=all sonorants (=all nasals, rhotics and glides),
V=vowels (long, short and diphongs).
All syllable types are possible in any position of the word. This also means that all consonant clusters are allowed, including geminates. Words can have any number of syllables.

Allophony:
Lenition:
All non-ejective plosives become fricatives if they occur between vowels.
/p t k/ →[ɸ θ x]/V_C

Palatalization:
Alveolar obstruents become post-alveolar sibilants before /i/.
/t s/ → [tʃ ʃ]/_i
/j/ becomes fortified to [ʒ] before /i/.
/j/ → [ʒ]/_i
/r/ becomes lateral before /i/
/r/ → [l]/_i

Postvocalic debuccalization
/k'/ becomes glottal stop [ʔ] after a vowel.
/k'/ → [ʔ]/V_

Nasal assimilation:
/n/ assimilates in place to a following palatal, postalveolar or velar consonant.
/n/ → [ɲ]/_j
/n/ → [n̠]/_{t s}i
/n/ → [ŋ]/_{k, k'}

Vowels processes:
Low vowels become back and rounded before or after labial consonants.
/a a:/ → [ɔ ɔː]/L_
/a a:/ → [ɔ ɔː]/_L

Closed syllable laxing
Non-low vowels become lax in closed syllables.
/u/ becomes /o/ if the next syllable contains a low vowel.
/u uː/ → [o oː]/_(C)(C)(C){a, aː}

Hiatus resolution
Vowel hiatus is resolved by forming dipthongs. If the diphthong is not allowed, a glottal fricative [h] is inserted.

Some example words (without tone or stress):
/jituː/ →[ʒiθuː]
/usakwu/ → [osakwu]
/kʼnaːpsrik/ → [kʼnɔːpslik]
/juti/ →[jutʃi]
/injiːk'/ → [iɲjiːʔ]
B
Spoiler:
Phonotactics:
Syllable Structure
Syllable structure is (C)V(Q) or (K)RV(Q)

C=any consonant
V=any vowel or diphthong
Q=any nasal or non-ejective plosive
K=non-ejective obstruent
R=any rhotic or glide

Heterosyllabic clusters are not any further restricted.

Long vowels or diphthongs make a syllable heavy, bimoraic
Long vowels and diphthongs make a syllable superheavy, trimoraic.
All other syllables are light.

Word structure:
Words are at least bimoraic.
Only the initial syllable in a word can be onsetless.

Allophony:
Nasal Assimilation
All nasals assimilate in place to a following consonant.
N → N[α place]/_C[α place]

Voicing of plosives
Obstruents become voiced between vowels or between a nasal and a vowel.
{p, t, k, s} → {b, d, g, z}/N_V
{p, t, k, s} → {b, d, g, z}/V_V

Aspiration of plosives
Word initial plosives are aspirated.
{p, t, k} → {pʰ, tʰ, kʰ}/#_

Palatalization
Velar and alveolar non-ejective obstruents become alveolar sibilants before /i/ and /j/.
{t, d, s, z, k} → {tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ}/_{i, j}

Rhythmic lengthening
If a light syllable receives secondary stress, the vowel is lengthened.
ˌCV → ˌCVː

Lowering
All simple high vowels are lowered to mid vowels before coda nasals and after the ejective.
{i, iː, ɨ, ɨː, u, uː} → {e, eː, ə, əː, o, oː}/_N.
{i, iː, ɨ, ɨː, u, uː} → {e, eː, ə, əː, o, oː}/k'_

Some examples:
/sru:m/ → [sro:m]
/ˌswejitreip/ → [ˌswe:jitreip]
/uti/ → [udʒi]
/amtu/ → [antu]
/e:npau/ → [e:mbau]
/prai/ → [pʰrai]
C
Spoiler:
The maximum syllable is CVN

Any consonant may appear as C

N is a nasal archiphoneme (i.e. nasals are neutralized in the coda)

The coda nasal assimilates to the place of the following consonant

Word or phrase-finally, the coda nasal is realized as nasalization of the preceding vowel

After the coda nasal, /p t k s/ are voiced

Only short vowels may appear before a coda; long vowels and diphthongs may not be followed by a coda

[ʔ] is an optional allophone of /kʼ/ in rapid speech or "weak" positions
D
Spoiler:
First some definitions, with letter abbreviations, and a full name for the category

P = /p t k m n/ (pulmonic plosives)
N = /m n/ (nasals)
S = /p t k/ (plosives)
E = /k'/ (ejectives)
R = /s w r j/ (continuants)

Vowel inventory, note that the colon notation is applied on all vowel groups:
V = any/all short vowels
V: = any/all long vowels
V(:) = any vowel
V' = any short monophthong
V< = any stressed short nucleus
V> = any unstressed short nucleus
H = /i ɨ u/ (short high vowels)
O = /e a/ (short open vowels)
F = /i e/ (short front vowels)
B = /u a/ (short back vowels)
D = /ai au ei eu iu ui ɨu ɨi/ (diphthongs)
D' = /i u/ (as diphthong termini)
D> = /ai ei ui ɨi/ (front closing diphthongs)
D< = /au eu iu ɨu/ (back closing diphthongs)

Basic maximum monosyllable structure is, in awkwords format (the pattern will give a warning, but will work because of weirdness on how awkwards deals with exclusions)
[P(R)/E/R][V(ː/D)]^ii^uu((N)

A 200 word sample with this particular monosyllable structure:
Spoiler:
jeːm taum k'u k'eːn pju k'a mrun kɨː k'un pwen ja maː k'iːm ki k'um k'em kuː pum tiu ju wum kja sem kam k'in kreː k'aːn ku pi jen k'ein run mwuː reː te saim ma k'ɨin k'au nrɨin seːn k'e kwuː raː k'i wɨ njaː k'ɨːn jan pim k'aun ne naː k'eum k'iː k'aː sa mjiː mrɨi rui k'aum pɨi teːm tɨu sun twɨːn k'uin num k'iun wi tjum kɨn sɨm k'an mjuː peːn rɨu jaːm rim jium trɨ k'eːm rɨi pa raːn sum ruːm mui tan sɨːm jiːn nu saː mjin tuːn pɨ k'ɨun jɨun wam k'ei suim k'uː k'eu k'en k'ɨm tiː nuin suin waim taim jɨːm suː pjeː sui taː pje je pu k'ɨi nɨm reu k'aːm sɨu k'ɨː kɨ raim ta nɨu nrin k'ui k'ɨn na k'eim k'ɨ k'ɨu kɨin mwui praim wɨm pru k'im se ji tji mwɨi pjɨn jaːn ksu rɨm nriun kin kwum mwu pɨːn treun wa nuːn juːn sin wu si wuː san muin siun wɨːn njuː k'uim k'uːn sɨun rɨum kjɨ ksɨ mren krɨn mjam nɨ kau ra rin wim k'iu kseː wɨːm niː k'eː reːm niːn tem k'am pseːm rem pɨim k'uːm kjin nwɨu k'ɨːm sam nɨim nse
A 100 word sample including trisyllable structure (syllables separated with a period):
Spoiler:
tuː.twiːn mwa te mja.nje.kwam sau.taː kaː.kai njuː mwum tuː pjui kɨun.nɨ.neː tjum.kin.niː kreː.kwun mɨun.pwem trɨːm pren k'uːm siː jiː nɨː.wu kaːm.maː ji nuː k'a wɨun.paum.kɨi tam.nu.me tim.nseː.rai k'ei pwɨn msaː win.meː na.psau.ki mraː k'uːn wɨː mwe.raun.jiː nu.pɨː.mjan pwim.mjam.nre ju kein.tum mrɨum nɨu.mwa.trɨu pim nwe.nra wiːm wem.kjen nwaun keum pɨːn.tiːm.pwin pseː.k'aː k'iː teː.ja.rɨm njin.kiu.mɨu tsem pu.kwɨi.muːn kjim.maːn muː rɨm miː.rɨm nweː mrau nuːm ke psei.mɨ pjan nwɨ.man.ki kam te.sɨːm.nen mim nrum ku.ksa mriːm mam.psum riː pɨu kɨ.pa kjɨum mjeː psaː krin mrɨː.mwuː ksam.pseim nwun miu waː.nam.pji pwai twim win.kaim.tiːm mwɨn trɨm.tre.nsin mriːn kem puːm k'an ra.ki nju.mu.pre pjun mam.ksa niː.kjen.nsan nɨm.ke
Note that this is minimum CV, and maximum CRVC
Allophonic rules, applied top to bottom:

S -> {f θ x} / V(:)._V(:)<
S -> {b ð ∅} / V(:)._V(:)
S -> {b d g} / N._
V -> V: / _D'N
D' -> {ĩ ũ} / _(.)N
N -> {ɻ w̃} / V(:)._V(:)
N -> {b d} / _(.)r
s -> ʃ / _[H/F](:)
s -> h / V(:)_V(:)
nw -> ŋ / _
{F u} -> {ẽ æ̃ õ} /_N
S -> {∅ θ ∅} / V(:)._j
i -> ɪ / j_
j -> ʑ / V(:)._[ɪ]
ɨ -> i / _#
E -> k / N._
E
Spoiler:
C₁(R)V(C₂)

C₁ = /p t k kʼ s m n j w r/
R = /j w r/
V = /i iː ɨ ɨː u uː e eː a aː iu̯ ɨi̯ ɨu̯ ui̯ ei̯ eu̯ ai̯ au̯/
C₂ = /p t k kʼ s m n r/

The onset clusters /jj jw jr wj ww wr rj rw rr/ are not permitted. /j/ cannot appear in the onset of a syllable containing one of /i iː iu̯ ɨi̯ ui̯ ei̯ ai̯/, and /w/ cannot appear in the onset of a syllable containing one of /u uː iu̯ ɨu̯ ui̯ eu̯ au̯/.

/u uː/ are often lowered to [o oː] when the following syllable contains one of [e eː a aː]. Somewhat less commonly, [ui̯] may likewise be lowered to [oi̯] under these conditions. At least for some speakers, [ei̯ eu̯ ai̯ au̯] may cause lowering as well.

/mr nr/ may be realized as [ᵐbr ⁿdr] or, especially word-initially, [br dr]. Word-finally and before /r/, the ejective /kʼ/ may be articulated somewhat more "weakly" than before a vowel or one of /j w/, but it remains distinct from /k/.

If a syllable with one of /p t k kʼ s m n/ in its coda immediately precedes a syllable with one of /j w r/ in its onset, the resulting cluster is resyllabified, forming the onset of the second syllable.

/p t k kʼ s m n w r/ are palatalized to [pʲ t͡ʃ c cʼ ʃ mʲ ɲ ɥ rʲ] before one of /i iː iu̯ j/, as well as in the coda of a syllable after one of /i iː ɨi̯ ui̯ ei̯ ai̯/. Coda [pʲ rʲ] are typically depalatalized before non-palatalized consonants, however, and [mʲ ɲ] likewise may be depalatalized via nasal place assimilation. In addition, /k kʼ/ may be realized as [kʷ kʷʼ] before /u uː ui̯ w/, as well as in the coda of a syllable after one of /u uː iu̯ ɨu̯ eu̯ au̯/, although labialization is often lost before other consonants.

The contrast between /m n/ is neutralized before consonants other than /j w r/. The two nasals merge as /m/ [m] before /p m/, /n/ [n] before /t s n/, /n/ [ŋ] before /k kʼ/, /m/ [mʲ] before [pʲ mʲ], /n/ [ɲ] before [t͡ʃ c cʼ ʃ ɲ], and /n/ [ŋʷ] before [kʷ kʷʼ].

The sequences /pp tt kk kʼkʼ ss/ are realized as geminates [pː tː~t͡ʃː kː~cː~kʷː kʼː~cʼː~kʷʼː sː~ʃː]. Otherwise, before /p t k kʼ/, /p t k s/ are realized as [ɸ~ɸʲ θ~ʃ x~ç~xʷ s~ʃ] or occasionally, in less careful speech, as [h]. /p t k s/ are realized as [β~βʲ ð~ʒ ɣ~ʝ~ɣʷ z~ʒ], or occasionally [ɦ], before /m n/. Before /p t k s m n/, /kʼ/ is realized as [ʔ]. These processes may operate across word boundaries as well, but are only obligatory word-internally.

Intervocalically, or prevocalically following coda /m n r/, /p t k s/ may be voiced to [b~bʲ d~d͡ʒ g~ɟ~gʷ z~ʒ]. At least for some speakers, only partial voicing may take place in the onset of a stressed syllable.

Examples:

/kʼunraː/ [kʷʼo.ⁿdraː]
/tiu̯mei̯s/ [t͡ʃiu̯.mei̯ʃ]
/prɨːnmau̯k/ [prɨːm.mau̯kʷ]
/sweptɨi̯n/ [sweɸ.tɨi̯ɲ~sweh.tɨi̯ɲ]
/kjakʼsiːr/ [cjaʔ.ʃiːrʲ]
/muːtnɨp/ [muːð.nɨp~muːɦ.nɨp]
/rimkeu̯/ [rʲiŋ.geu̯]
/neːnpui̯/ [neːm.bui̯]
/wai̯rkɨu̯t/ [wai̯r.gɨu̯t]
/juːsei̯/ [joː.zei̯]


Tone-stress system

A
Spoiler:
Tone:

Underlying tones
Four possible underlying specifications: H, L, 0, P
H is a high toned mora.
L is a low toned mora.
0 is a toneless mora that is H after a H tone and L elsewhere.
P is a polar tone that is the opposite of a preceding tone. Cannot occur on initial moras.

TBU:
The mora is the tone-bearing unit. Coda consonants and vowels count as one mora each. Therefore a CVVC syllable with a coda consonant and a long vowel/diphthong have three moras, i.e. are superheavy. They can have three tones. Syllables with CVV or CVC structure have two moras, which means two tones. Syllables without coda and dipthong/long vowel can only bear one tone.

Tonal processes:
High tone spreading:
A high tone spreads rightwards to any number of toneless moras. Spreading stops as soon as it encounters a tonally specfied mora.

Default Low Tone Insertion:
Any toneless mora, that is not specified as high due to high tone spreading, is realized as low.

Raising and Lowering:
A low tone in between two high toned moras is raised to a mid tone.
A high tone between two low toned moras is lowered to a mid tone.

Polarity:
A mora specifed as polar, gains the opposite tone of the preceding mora. If the preceding mora is high toned, the polar mora is low toned. If the preceding mora is low toned, the polar mora is high toned.

Downstep and Register Reset:
In a sequence of high tones, the overall register is lowered on the second tone. This rule does not apply between two high toned moras that gained their high tones from the same mora through high tone spreading. The register is reset at any phonological phrase boundary.

Stress:

Stress is realized by a increased articulatory precesion in vowels.

Primary stress:
If a word has a superheavy syllable stress always goes on the last superheavy syllable no matter where it is in the word.
If a word has no superheavy syllable stress goes on one of the last three syllables; which one depends on their weights.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and one of the last three syllable is heavy, this heavy syllable is stressed.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and at least two of the last three syllable are heavy, the rightmost heavy syllable is stressed.
If there is no heavy syllable, the final syllable is stressed.

Secondary stress:
Every other syllable counting from the primary stressed syllable to the right and the left receives secondary stress.

Here are some examples:

/jítuu/ →[jíˈ.túú]
/usákwú/ → [ˌù.sá.ˈꜜkwú]
/kʼnáàṕsrik/ → [ˈkʼnáāṕ.sríḱ]
/juti̽/ →[jù.tí]
/ìnjíìk'/ → [ì.nˈjīìk̀']

I use V̽ for an underlyingly polar tone. I placed tones in multimoraic syllables on doubled vowels and coda consonants, but the notation could be easily changed.
B
Spoiler:
Tone:

TBU:
Only vocalic moras bear tone. This means that long vowels and diphthongs appear to allow contour tones, even if it really just a sequence of two tones.

Underlying tones:
H a high toned mora
L a low toned mora
0 a toneless mora

Tonological processes

Dissimilation
If two high toned moras are adjacent, the second one becomes a low tone.
HH -> HL

High Tone spreading
If a high-toned mora occurs before any number of toneless moras, the toneless moras become high-toned.
H0->HH

Downstep
In a sequence of a low toned mora sandwiched between two high toned moras, the low toned mora is changed into a high tone that is downstepped.
HLH->HꜜHH

Overwriting
Some prefixes/suffixes bear floating L or H tones. These overwrite the tone of the initial/final mora.

Default low tone insertion
Any toneless moras not affected by High Tone Spreading or Overwriting become low toned by default.
0->L

Stress
Stress is realized mostly as duration/length, but is also attracted by syllable weight. Syllables weight-wise, short monophthong open syllables count as light, whereas dipthong/long vowel closed syllables count as superheavy. All other syllable types are considered heavy.

Primary stress:
If a word has a superheavy syllable stress always goes on the last superheavy syllable no matter where it is in the word.
If a word has no superheavy syllable stress goes on one of the last three syllables; which one depends on their weights.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and one of the last three syllable is heavy, this heavy syllable is stressed.
If a word has no superheavy syllable and at least two of the last three syllable are heavy, the rightmost heavy syllable is stressed.
If there is no heavy syllable, the final syllable is stressed.
Primary stressed syllables are phonetically slightly lengthened

Secondary stress:
Every other syllable counting from the primary stressed syllable to the right and the left receives secondary stress.
Vowels of syllables that receive secondary stress are lengthened, if there is no coda. The new mora is considered toneless and can interact with tonological processes.

Some examples:
/jítuu/ →[jí.ˈtúú]
/usákwú/ → [ˌùù.sá.ˈkwù]
/kʼnáàpsrík/ → [ˈkʼnáꜜáp.srík]
/jútí/ →[jú.tì]
/ìnjíìk'/ → [ìn.ˈjíìk']
C
Spoiler:
A heavy syllable is a syllable that contains a long vowel, a diphthong, or a coda

For secondary stress assignment, the two syllables left of the primary-stressed syllable form a trochee. The next two syllables to the left form the next trochee, and so on.

Syllables not part of a trochee are unstressed.

Every primary-stressed syllable bears either high or falling tone.
D
Spoiler:
First, I'd like to note that I think that having an unbounded weight stressed system with default final stress is mutually exclusive with trochaic stressing, since that we need (¯˘)(¯˘)(¯˘), which implies that the final syllable is unstressed, so I'll assume that that is default *penultimate* stress for now.

As a note, a syllable $ containing a coda N, diphthong D or long vowel V: is a heavy syllable, and a syllable with an initial k' is "relatively light" to a similarly shaped syllable.

Given the following polysyllabic words, they'd be syllabified as such
Spoiler:
k'im.ji.seːn.kwa -> ˌk'im.ji.ˈseːn.kwa
pjɨm.k'im.jem.psɨm -> ˌpjɨm.k'im.ˈjem.psɨm
jim.k'in.jen -> ˈjim.k'in.ˌjen
sɨu.nju.k'eun.wɨi -> ˈsɨu.nju.ˌk'eun.wɨi
k'i.ji.k'ɨ.k'an -> ˌk'i.ji.ˈk'ɨ.k'an
k'i.kɨː.k'iː.k'eːm -> k'i.ˈkɨː.k'iː.ˌk'eːm
reim.maː.pjeːn.k'iu -> ˌreim.maː.ˈpjeːn.k'iu
wu.k'an.wɨːm -> wu.ˈk'an.wɨːm
je.wi.psuːn.raː -> ˌje.wi.ˈpsuːn.raː
k'ai.puː.sɨn -> k'ai.ˈpuː.sɨn
Using to a degree the notational system in Creyeditor's post I will define a couple of categories
H = /˥/
L = /˩/
0 = toneless, takes the tone of the succeeding mora
P = polar, takes the opposite tone of the succeeding mora
Q = H L
T = H L 0 P = /V́ V̀ V V̌/

Similarly to Creyeditor's post the mora bears tones, meaning that diphthongs and long vowels may appear to have contour tones, although the underlying form is a combination of low and high tones. Unstressed syllables are all toneless by default, meaning all maximal trochaic diameters can be understood as [H/P/L/0][H/P/L/0]00

Accordingly some allophonic rules governing their distribution are as such,

0 -> P / _00
PP -> 0P / _Q
P0 -> PP / _ ! _#
{0 P} -> L / _$N# (if the succeeding syllable ends in a nasal and is word final)
0 -> Q / Q_# (takes the tone of the preceding syllable)
{0 P} -> H / [P0]_#

after which P and 0 are assigned and then

T -> L / H_HH <- operating backwards

The following words have been randomly assigned underlying tones, shown with diacritics, and then shown their real realizations with Chau tone marks
Spoiler:
ˌk'ìm.ji.ˈséèn.kwa -> L0HL0 -> LLHLL -> ˌk'im˩.ji˩.ˈseen˥˩.kwa˩
ˌpjɨ̀m.k'im.ˈjém.psɨm -> L0H0 -> LLHH -> ˌpjɨm˩.k'im˩.ˈjem˥.psɨm˥
ˈjim.k'in.ˌjèn -> 00L -> LLL -> ˈjim˩.k'in˩.ˌjen˩
ˈsɨù.nju.ˌk'ěǔn.wɨi -> 0L0PP00 -> LLLLHLHL -> ˈsɨu˩.nju˩.ˌk'eun˩˥.wɨi˩˥
ˌk'i.ji.ˈk'ɨ́.k'an -> 00H0 -> HLHH -> ˌk'i˥.ji˩.ˈk'ɨ́˥.k'an˥
k'i.ˈkɨ̀ɨ̀.k'iɨ.ˌk'ěém ->0LL00PH -> LLLLLLH -> k'i˩.ˈkɨɨ˩.k'iɨ˩.ˌk'eem˩˥
ˌrěim.maa.ˈpjeén.k'iu ->P0000H00 -> HLLLHLHH -> ˌreim˥˩.maa˥˩.ˈpjeen˥˩.k'iu˥ *****
wu.ˈk'án.wɨɨm ->0H00 - >LHHH -> wu˩.ˈk'an˥.wɨɨm˥
ˌjě.wi.ˈpsùún.raa -> P0LH00 -> HLLHHH -> ˌje˥.wi˩.ˈpsuun˩˥.raa˥
k'ai.ˈpuù.sɨn ->00PL0 -> HHHLL -> k'ai˥.ˈpuu˥˩.sɨn˩
***** it is worth noting that the form HLHLHLHH directly conflicts with the supposedly underlying P0000H00 form. In this case, the legal form P000HL00 would form the same result, and would probably be viewed as being the underlying form.

Here is the 100 word sample with the allophonic and stress rules applied (but not tone)
Spoiler:
'tuː.twiːn 'mwa 'te mja.'nje.kwam 'sau.ðaː 'kaː.ai 'njuː 'mwõm 'tuː 'pjui 'kɨːũn.nɨ.ɻeː tjõm.'kẽn.niː 'kreː.kwõn 'mɨːũn.bwæ̃m 'trɨːm 'præ̃n 'k'uːm 'ʃiː 'jɪː 'nɨː.wu 'kaːm.maː 'jɪ 'nuː 'k'a wɨːũn.'paːũm.gɨi 'tam.nu.w̃e tẽm.'nʃeː.rai 'k'ei 'pwɨn 'msaː 'wẽn.meː na.'psau.i 'braː 'k'uːn 'wɨː mwe.'raːũn.jɪː nu.'fɨː.mjan pwẽm.'mjam.dre ju 'keːĩn.dõm 'brɨːũm 'nɨũ.mwa.trɨu 'pẽm 'ŋe.dra 'wiːm 'wæ̃m.gjæ̃n 'ŋaːũn 'keːũm pɨːn.'tiːm.bwẽn 'pʃeː.k'aː 'k'iː 'teː.ja.rɨm njẽn.'kiũ.mɨu 'tʃæ̃m pu.'kwɨĩ.muːn 'kjẽm.maːn 'muː 'rɨm 'miː.rɨm 'ŋeː 'brau 'nuːm 'ke 'pʃeĩ.mi 'pjan ŋɨ.'w̃an.gi 'kam te.'ʃɨːm.næ̃n 'mẽm 'drõm 'ku.ksa 'briːm 'mam.bʃõm 'riː 'pɨu 'kɨ.ba 'kjɨːũm 'mjeː 'psaː 'krẽn 'brɨː.mwuː 'ksam.bʃeːĩm 'ŋõn 'miu waː.'ɻam.bjɪ 'pwai 'twẽm wẽn.'kaːĩm.diːm 'mwɨn 'trɨm.dre.nʃẽn 'briːn 'kæ̃m 'puːm 'k'an 'ra.i nju.'w̃u.pre 'pjõn 'mam.gsa niː.'kjæ̃n.nsan 'nɨm.ge
E
Spoiler:
Open syllables containing short monophthongs are considered "light". Open syllables containing long monophthongs or diphthongs and closed syllables containing short monophthongs are considered "heavy". Closed syllables containing long monophthongs or diphthongs are considered "superheavy".

The rightmost "superheavy" syllable in a word receives primary stress. If there are no "superheavy" syllables in a word, the rightmost "heavy" syllable receives primary stress. If all of the syllables in a word are "light", the final syllable receives primary stress.

Starting from the syllable bearing primary stress, every other syllable receives secondary stress. All remaining syllables are unstressed.

All syllables underlyingly carry high or mid/low tone. On long vowels and diphthongs, these are realized as falling and rising, respectively. The tone of a stressed syllable is carried over to adjacent unstressed syllables.

Examples:

/páːnkɨ̀u̯mè/ [ˈpâːn.kɨ́ù̯ˌmè]
/sèjùːrmín/ [sèˈjǔːr.mìn]
/tùkʼéːrɨ́/ [túˈkʼêː.rɨ́]
/nɨ̀pèwìː/ [ˌnɨ̀.pèˈwǐː]
/jùkʼítá/ [ˌjù.kʼíˈtá]
Voting for Round 17 will close at 5:00 PM GMT (12 noon US Eastern time) on Wednesday, April 14.
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qwed117
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Posts: 3921
Joined: 20 Nov 2014 02:27

Re: Typological voting game

Post by qwed117 »

Phonotactics/Allophony: D E A D
Stress/Tone: A D A B
Last edited by qwed117 on 09 Apr 2021 05:10, edited 3 times in total.
Spoiler:
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What is made of man will crumble away.

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