Lexember 2020

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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 21

Gán Vẽi (Entry 21):

kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. (inanimate) hell; the realm of demons and the damned
2. (animate, collective) demons, evil spirits
3. (inanimate) hell, inferno, perdition, (unpleasant) afterlife
4. (inanimate) cave, cave system
5. (animate) subterranean ecosystem, cave ecosystem
6. (inanimate, informal) pain, suffering, agony
7. (animate, collective, informal) bandits, gang members, gangsters, mobsters, mafiosi
8. (animate, informal) earthquake, seismic activity
9. (inanimate, informal) a particularly dense forest or steep mountain
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (comparative kỏu ma /kow˨˩˨ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. hellish, infernal; of or pertaining to hell
2. demonic, devilish, evil; of or pertaining to evil spirits
3. of or pertaining to an unpleasant afterlife
4. cavernous; of or pertaining to caves
5. subterranean, underground; of or pertaining to the ecosystem of a cave
6. (informal) painful, suffering, in agony
7. (informal) of or pertaining to organized crime
8. (informal) seismic; of or pertaining to earthquakes
9. (informal) dense, steep, difficult to traverse (of a forest or mountain)
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/ (causative xā kỏu /ɕa˥ kow˨˩˨/)
Verb:
1. to work, to act, to cause trouble (of demons)
2. (informal) to be in prison
3. (rare) to explore underground, to go spelunking
4. (rare) to mine, to dig, to prospect
5. (rare) to live in a cave, to live underground, to hibernate (of animals)
6. (informal) to suffer, to be in pain, to be in a state of agony
7. (informal) to raid, to rob, to plunder, to extort, to racketeer
8. (informal) to shake (of the earth)
9. (rare, informal) to have a difficult time traveling
kỏu /kow˨˩˨/
Preposition:
1. (dated, poetic, rare) below, under; lower than
2. (dated, poetic, rare) under; spanning from below
3. (dated, poetic, rare) beneath, under, underneath; cradling, supporting, covering from below
4. (dated, poetic, rare) below, beneath, under, underneath; falling short of

Etymology
From Old TBD goo "hell, cave, ground, soil", from Proto-TBD *gɔɔ "earth, ground".
Usage notes
kỏu as a preposition is incredibly rare, even in older poetry and literature. It originated via analogy with the prepositional use of bỏu "heaven" (see Entry 20), and almost exclusively occurs in close proximity to it, often within the same sentence.

The use of kỏu in reference to organized crime - Sense 7 of the noun, adjective, and verb - originated due to comparisons being drawn between bandits, for instance, and the evil spirits believed to haunt certain areas at night. The intent is not necessarily, and was not originally, to imply that these people are "going to hell". Nevertheless, unlike zi /t͡si˧/ "wolf, jackal, fox, wild dog" (see Entry 12), kỏu has not been widely adopted by members of criminal organizations themselves, and it would thus be particularly inadvisable to use it in the presence of such people.

In traditional spirituality, kỏu "hell" - the unpleasant, subterranean afterlife - is not conceived of as a permanent or eternal state for deceased human souls, and neither is bỏu "heaven" - the pleasant, celestial afterlife. Immediately after death, it is believed that those who have lived "righteously", or even just "decently", find themselves in heaven, while those who have lived particularly "immoral" lives are sent to hell. However, after spending some amount of time in hell equivalent to the severity of their misdeeds on earth, the "damned" are welcomed into heaven. It is thought to be possible for souls in hell to actively work to earn their way out as well, rather than just waiting for their time to be up. Similarly, though, it is believed that souls in heaven, even those who were sent there immediately after death, have the potential to behave poorly in their afterlives and be temporarily relocated to hell as a result. These ideas about heaven and hell have lead to the use of Sense 2 of the verb, an informal way to describe spending time in prison.

Example sentence:
Kỏu mãu dũp da ye gỏm pé sīp ngàt yé.
/kow˨˩˨ maw˧˩ ɗup˧˩ ɗa˧ je˧ ɣom˨˩˨ pe˩˧ sip˥ ŋat˥˧ je˩˧/
[kɔw˨˩˨ mɑw˧˩ ɗ̪ʊp̚˧˩ ɗ̪aː˧ ʝeː˧ ɣɔ̃m˨˩˨ peː˩˧ sɪp̚˥ ŋat̪̚˥˧ ʝeː˩˧]
kỏu mãu dũp da ye gỏm=pé sīp ngàt=yé
hell at night area PROX 3s.HAB=bark roam love=HSY
Demons love to roam around and wail at night around here, they say.

Thedish (Entry 21):

yeighel /ˈjɛɪ̯xəl/ (plural yeighels /ˈjɛɪ̯xəls/)
Noun:
1. (dated) party, celebration, social gathering
2. feast, feast day, holiday (especially a minor or local one)
3. fair, fest, fête, festival, fundraiser, event
4. fairgrounds
5. fair, funfair, carnival, circus
6. farmers' market, Christmas market
7. (informal) birthday, name day, anniversary
8. jubilee

Alternative forms
yiyghel, yeeghel
Etymology
From Old Thedish jehhel, from Proto-Germanic *jehwlą. Compare Finnish juhla.
Usage notes
In theory, any holiday could be called a yeighel, but the term is more likely to be applied to minor feast days and local celebrations characteristic of particular towns or regions. Speakers may refer to major holidays this way in order to emphasize their personal connections to these celebrations or to indicate that they are specifically referring to the particular traditions of their family or town surrounding that holiday.

Frequently, yeighel refers to generally secular events, especially those that are small-scale, community-organized, and open to the public. It is also commonly used for traveling fairs, carnivals, circuses, and other kinds of amusement-oriented exhibitions, as well as for seasonal markets and periodic agricultural events.

Sense 1, referring to a private party or more intimate social gathering, is decidedly dated and likely to sound pretentious to modern ears if the speaker using yeighel in this sense fails to adequately convey their humorous intent. Sense 7 is more likely to refer to, for instance, the date on which someone was born than an event in celebration of someone's birthday.

yuel /ˈjyːl/ (plural yuels /ˈjyːls/)
Noun:
1. Christmas, Christmas day
2. Christmastime, Christmastide, Yuletide, the 12 days of Christmas
3. (archaic) December
4. (archaic, rare) January
5. the winter solstice
6. midwinter
7. (historical, Germanic paganism) Yule, Yuletide
8. (neopaganism) Yule, Yuletide
9. (rare) any midwinter or winter solstice festival

Alternative forms
yule, Yuel, Yule
Etymology
From Old Thedish jēol, from Proto-Germanic *jeulō, the nominative/vocative/accusative plural form of *jehwlą. Compare English Yule, Icelandic jól, Faroese jól, Finnish joulu.
Usage notes
When referring to a particular holiday or period of time, Yuel is often capitalized. It it still accepted as a name for the Christian holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus, although names containing Crist /ˈkrɪst/ or Kerst /ˈkɛrst/ - such as Cristmess /ˈkrɪstˌmɛs/, Kerstfeest /ˈkɛrstˌfeːst/, Cristday /ˈkrɪstˌdaɪ̯/, Kerstnaut /ˈkɛrstˌnaʊ̯t/, or Cristtyd /ˈkrɪstˌtʌɪ̯d/ - are more common. Compounds like Kerstyeighel /ˈkɛrstˌjɛɪ̯xəl/ or Cristyuel /ˈkrɪstˌjyːl/ are not unheard of. In any case, Yuel remains far more common than any of the rare alternative names for Christmas borrowed from Celtic or Romance languages, such as Noel /ˈnuːl/, Nowell /nɔʊ̯ˈɛl/, or Nadly /ˈnadlʌɪ̯/.

Example sentence:
Yuel is myn favorite yeighel! … Is det pletch?
/ˈjyːl ɪs mʌɪ̯n favɔˈriːt ˈjɛɪ̯xəl || ɪs dɛt ˈplɛt͡ʃ/
[ˈjyːɫ‿s mẽɱ ˌfaˑvəˈɾiːt̚ ˈjeːχəɫ || ɨz dət̚ ˈpl̥ɛt͡ʃ]
yuel is-Ø myn favorite yeighel || is-Ø det pletch
Christmas be.PRES-PRES 1s.GEN favorite holiday || be.PRES-PRES that boring
Christmas is my favorite holiday! … Is that boring?

yeighel and yuel are similar to wheighel "(steering) wheel" and whuel "wheel, tire", the words I used on December 2nd, in that both pairs consist of one word derived from the nominative singular form of a Proto-Germanic word - wheighel from *hwehwlą and yeighel from *jehwlą - and another derived from the nominative plural form of the same word - whuel from *hweulō and yuel from *jeulō. Most modern languages with reflexes of these words seem to have preserved the originally plural forms, although since Icelandic and Faroese apparently have reflexes of *hwehwlą and *hweulō as separate words, I was inspired to do the same for this language, but to try making the resulting pair of words even more semantically distinct.

I knew I wanted to do something similar with yeighel and yuel, despite the fact that no Germanic natlangs seem to preserve reflexes of the originally singular *jehwlą. However, while putting this post together today, I discovered a pair of words in Finnish - juhla and joulu - which seem to have been borrowed from Germanic at different points and appear to reflect *jehwlą and *jeulō, respectively. In addition, the meanings of these words matched up pretty well with what I'd already had in mind for yeighel and yuel here, so… "ANADEW" or whatever the acronym is, I suppose!
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qwed117
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 21st
müy4 /mɯj˩˥/ n story [fictional or nonfiction, solely narrative]
ëj1-hang2 /ɤɕ˧xaŋ˩˥/ v to tell [of a story, an event]

*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
n̥uːs₁dˀir-e v to speak, to utter

Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
pʰuʔ˥ v 'worship' from Proto- Hlai *pʰuc 'worship', cf. Bouhin pʰut7, Cunhua pət2, Nadouhua pʰuɛʔ4

Sardinian
paristória n 'story, fairy tale, legend, myth' from Byzantine Greek παρἱστόρια (unknown definition, probably similar to the Sardinian definition). Latin does not appear to have productive use of the Greek suffix παρ(α)-, requiring a borrowing from Byzantine Greek. Instead of spitballing, I actually found a source. The Byzantine Greek word "παριστορια" meant "false statements", not necessarily "story" or "fairytale"
Last edited by qwed117 on 26 Dec 2020 03:38, edited 2 times in total.
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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Dormouse559
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Dormouse559 »

21 lexembre - Iluhsa

Building on what I said yesterday about Iluhsa, I decided on the cardinal numbers. I'm doing a combination of base-14 and base-28. The numbers 1-4 behave mainly like adjectives in that the noun they modify is the head of the phrase. In contrast, higher numbers are more noun‑y, becoming the head of the phrase they appear in while the noun takes the genitive case. These higher numbers also have two forms: one for counting and another for quantifying nouns (I'll list those forms below in that order).

So here are the main numbers I have. I'll put some examples below:

1 - délit
2 - ani
3 - kèiru
4 - žugi
5 - ként, kinétsa
6 - satu, satura
7 - tér, térza
8 - karélti, karéltira
9 - andi, andira
10 - žim, žizza
11 - bòuð, boudétsa
12 - sahin, sahézza
13 - rin, rizza
14 - tabud, bódza

28 - kallunu, kallónura
56 - anunu, anónura
84 - kèirunu, keirónura
112 - žugunu, žugónura
140 - kéntunu, kintónura
168 - satévunu, sativónura
196 - miþu, miþura


délit unid, ani und, undoġ kinétsa
[ˈdelit ˈunid | ˈani ˈund | ˈundoŋ kiˈnetsa]
délit unid | ani und | und-òġ ként-za
one egg.SG | two egg.PAUC | egg-GEN five.ABS-PRED

one egg, two eggs, five eggs

Taġuivituk délto undo. Taġuivituk anio undo. Taġuivituk undoġ kéntora.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈdelto ˈundo | taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈani̯o ˈundo | taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ ˈkentora]
taġu-évit-k délit-òu unid-òu | taġu-évit-k ani-òu und-òu | taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-òu-za
see-PFV-1S.NOM one-DAT egg-DAT | see-PFV-1S.NOM two-DAT egg-DAT | see-PFV-1S.NOM egg-GEN five-DAT-PRED

I saw one egg. I saw two eggs. I saw five eggs. (declension example, dative)


kéntunu tabud andéhus
[ˈkentunu ˈtabud anˈdehus]
ként-unu tabud andi-hus
five-twenty_eight fourteen nine-and

one hundred sixty-three (counting form; 5 × 28 + 14 + 9)

undoġ kintónura bódza andéhus
[ˈundoŋ kinˈtonura ˈbodza anˈdehus]
und-òġ ként-ónu-za bód-za andi-hus
egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-PRED fourteen-PRED nine-and

one hundred sixty-three eggs (quantifying form)

Taġuivituk undoġ kintónuora bódora andéhus.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ kinˈtonu̯ora ˈbodora anˈdehus]
taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-ónu-òu-za bód-òu-za andi-hus
see-PFV-1S.NOM egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-DAT-PRED fourteen-DAT-PRED nine-and

I saw one hundred sixty-three eggs. (declension example, dative)
Khemehekis
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Khemehekis »

Dormouse559 wrote: 22 Dec 2020 08:08 Taġuivituk undoġ kintónuora bódora andéhus.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ kinˈtonu̯ora ˈbodora anˈdehus]
taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-ónu-òu-za bód-òu-za andi-hus
see-PFV-1S.NOM egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-DAT-PRED fourteen-DAT-PRED nine-and

I saw one hundred sixty-three eggs. (declension example, dative)
Did they count . . . or are Iluhsa speakers like Rain Man?

(And with this post I have surpassed Thakowsaizmu to become the twenty-first most prolific poster on this board!)
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 67,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!
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Dormouse559
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Dormouse559 »

Khemehekis wrote: 22 Dec 2020 08:47
Dormouse559 wrote: 22 Dec 2020 08:08 Taġuivituk undoġ kintónuora bódora andéhus.
[taŋu̯iˈvituk ˈundoŋ kinˈtonu̯ora ˈbodora anˈdehus]
taġu-évit-k und-òġ ként-ónu-òu-za bód-òu-za andi-hus
see-PFV-1S.NOM egg.PAUC-GEN five-twenty_eight-DAT-PRED fourteen-DAT-PRED nine-and

I saw one hundred sixty-three eggs. (declension example, dative)
Did they count . . . or are Iluhsa speakers like Rain Man?
The language just hit one month old. You'll have to forgive it a few contrived example sentences. [;)]

Anyway, the contrivance was in service of demonstrating the grammar. I hope that at least worked.
Iyionaku
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Lexember 22nd - Yélian

leʻitòivanasé [ˌleʔɨˌtɔʊ̯ʋɐnɐˈseː] - liberalism
Etymology: ultimately from tòivan "freedom"
leʻitòivan "freedom and equality", derived from leʻi "equal" + tòivan
leʻitòivanas "liberal", derived from leʻitòivan + adjectivizer -as
leʻitòivanasé finally is derived from leʻitòivanas + nominalizer -sé.

USAGE NOTES: leʻitòivanasé indicates the "traditional" meaning of liberalism, i.e. an ideology that wants freedom for individuals. Libertarianism would be ainrandasé.

A'broya bit o'leʻitòivanasé téviter tayet æ'iædan o'piyta èpabetál guinet.
[ɐˈbɾoːʃa bɨt ɔ̈ˌleʔɨˌtɔʊ̯ʋɐnɐˈseː ˈteːʋɨtəd̟ ˈtaːʃət əˈɪ̯œːdɐn ɔ̈ˈpa̯iːta ˌɛpɐbəˈtaːl ˈguːnət]
DEF.ANIM=man COP.3SG.ANIM DEF.GEN=liberalism REL.3SG.MASC acknowledge-3SG DEF.CONC=symbol.PL DEF.GEN=time and_then act-3SG
Liberal is who sees the symbols of the time and acts upon them. (Gustav Stresemann)

Bonus word :esp:

libertad [liβeɾˈtad] - freedom
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

22m Decembr
spornar /spɔrˈnar/ [spʊːˈnɑː] to reject, avoid, spurn, abhor; (slang) to outclass, be out of the league of
< borrowed into Old Boral as ispornar “to reject, spurn” from Old English spornan “to kick; to reject”. For comparison, see modern Wessern spurren “to misstep, trip, make a mistake” and Kentish sporn “to trample, force to the ground, crush, decisively beat”, whence Norman éporner “to vanquish, annihilate, utterly destroy”. It is possibly these Norman senses which influence the modern slang use of the verb, attested from the 1950s (and which despite the popular imagination does not originate in the Furore and Drengot Collapse).

Vail noc attendr, i te sporn total !
Don’t bother, she’s way out of your league!
/ˈvel nɔk aˈtɛn.dr̩ | i te ˈspɔrn toˈtal/
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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qwed117
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 22nd
jé3-yo1 /ɕeː˧˩˥jo˧/ n legend,
guís2-hya3 /gʷiːs˥j̊a˧˩/ adj legendary, epic, [of or relating to myths involving a human characters displaying immense bravery and courage, and strength, typically against supernatural enemies]
òis3-ang2 /ɔ˧is˩˥aŋ˥/ v to defeat, to slay [said of nonhuman animals, beasts, mythological creatures which are not fully anthropomorphicized]

*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
gapyat adj enormous, grand, giant, big

Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
kaːʔ˦˨ n 'sickle' from Proto- Hlai *kaːʔ 'sickle', cf. All Hlai, other than Nadouhua, Cunhua ka3, Cunhua kɔ3

sorry this one's pretty boring

Sardinian
giana nf 'fairy' from Latin DIANA 'Diana, the Moon Goddess', cf Galician xa 'fairy', Aromanian dzãnã 'fairy', Romanian zână 'fairy', possibly Albanian zanë 'nymph', Asturian xana 'baby-stealing river nymph'
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 22

Gán Vẽi (Entry 22):

nẽk xàu yái /nek˧˩ ɕaw˥˧ jaj˩˧/ (animate)
Noun:
1. a demonic, snake-like creature from traditional folklore and mythology
2. the name of a minor constellation
3. (informal) quack, fake doctor, incompetent healer

Etymology
From nẽk "serpent, snake" + xàu "coil, curl" + yái "to hop, to jump, to bounce".
nẽk is from Old TBD u·nơhk "(sea) snake", from Proto-TBD *wɛɛ "to flow, to swim" + *nɤk "to slide, to crawl, to creep" + *sit "to live; animal".
xàu is from Old TBD siaauʔ "to weave; coil", from Proto-TBD *sɔɔ "with, together, whole" + *jaa "to weave, to braid, to wrap" + *lɔt "rope, twine".
yái is from Old TBD k·giơi "to bounce, to reflect", from Proto-TBD *kan "against" + *ɣii "to strike, to hit".
Usage notes
The nẽk xàu yái, roughly "bouncing coil snake", is a mythological creature, a kind of demon believed to emerge from hell on particularly cold nights and prowl the forests of the world in search of human victims. A nẽk xàu yái has the head of a snake, and its body resembles a spring, corkscrew, or coil of rope in shape. It moves by hopping or bouncing against the ground, producing a faint springing sound. It is said to be able to achieve great heights this way, although it rarely chooses to do so. While "standing" relatively still, these creatures are said to be approximately 5'5", or 165 centimeters, tall. According to some stories, the coiled body of a nẽk xàu yái resembles human intestines rather than the body of a regular snake.

nẽk xàu yái are vampiric creatures, but instead of blood, they are believed to feed on snot, mucus, and phlegm. They are drawn to people suffering from minor illnesses, and attempt to lure them out of their homes at night and into the woods in search of herbal remedies. Those whose houses are right on the edge of the wilderness are thought to be particularly susceptible. According to some accounts, nẽk xàu yái actually have the ability to cause illnesses, and therefore do not have to wander about in search of people who are already sick. In any case, once its victim has been successfully lured into the forest, a nẽk xàu yái will jump on top of them, curling its body around theirs, and engulf their head in its mouth. It sucks the mucus from their body, a typically fatal process, before detaching itself and bouncing back to hell.

nẽk xàu yái are though to be capable of speech and roughly as intelligent as the average person, but are endowed with certain demonic powers beyond human capabilities. In some stories, the mere presence of a nẽk xàu yái nearby is said to have somewhat of a magnetic effect on its intended victims. It is generally believed that the only way to defeat one of these creatures is to somehow trick it into uncoiling or unfurling its body. Stories of the nẽk xàu yái potentially originated, at least in part, as explanations for why the sick should avoid going out at night when temperatures are lower than during the day.

Example sentence:
Nhěu nâ bẻ nẽk xàu yái gỏu khỏ dũp vải gỏu sròi yé.
/ɲew˧˨˧ na˦˥˧ ɓe˨˩˨ nek˧˩ ɕaw˥˧ jaj˩˧ ɣow˨˩˨ kʰo˨˩˨ ɗup˧˩ vaj˨˩˨ ɣow˨˩˨ ʂoj˥˧ je˩˧/
[ɲɛw˧˨˧ n̪aː˦˥˧ ɓeː˨˩˨ n̪ɛk̚˧˨ ɕaw˦˧ jaj˩˧ ɣɔw˨˩˨ k͡xoː˨˩˨ ɗ̪ʊp̚˧˩ ʋaj˨˩˨ ɣɔw˨˩˧ ʂœj˦˧ ʝeː˩˧]
nhěu nâ bẻ nẽk xàu yái gỏu=khỏ dũp vải gỏu=sròi=yé
sister 1s.GEN what snake coil bounce 3s=see night before 3s=believe=HSY
Apparently my sister thinks she saw a snake demon last night.

Thedish (Entry 22):

Seuvensterren /ˈsøːvənˌstɛr(ə)n/ (plurale tantum)
(Proper) Noun:
1. (astronomy) the Pleiades, Messier 45
2. (Greek mythology) the Pleiades

Alternative forms
Seuvenster, Seuvenstern, Seuvenstir, Seuvenstirn, Seuvensternen, Suevenstirren, Seuvenstirnen
Etymology
From Old Thedish seofonstierre, from Proto-Germanic *sebunstirniją.
Usage notes
In reference to the star cluster, (de) Seuvensterren is commonly used by amateur astronomers and in the context of astrology or folklore. Similarly, in reference to the seven sisters from Greek mythology, (de) Seuvensterren or (de) Seuvenster Swister are not uncommon among the general public. In academia, however, de Pleiades /də ˈplɛɪ̯əˌdɛs/ is predominantly used for both senses.

In traditional folklore, the stars of the Pleiades are seen as a group of sisters, likely due to influence from Classical mythology, and/or a group of birds, possibly due to influence from a North Germanic story identifying the stars with hens belonging to the goddess Freyja. The star cluster may also be associated with death and mourning, possibly showing Celtic influence.

rader /ˈraːdər/ (plural raders /ˈraːdərs/)
Noun:
1. night sky
2. (archaic) sky, heaven, heavens
3. (archaic) air, atmosphere, clouds
4. (dated, Christianity) heaven, paradise
5. (historical) firmament, vault of heaven
6. (historical) celestial sphere
7. (historical) empyrean, highest heaven
8. orrery; a clockwork model of celestial bodies
9. (figurative) seventh heaven, cloud nine; a state of great joy

Alternative forms
radel, rade, raed
Etymology
From Old Thedish rador, from Proto-Germanic *raduraz.
Usage notes
Senses 6 and 8 are usually countable. All remaining senses are typically uncountable, but Senses 1-3 in particular may appear as plural by default.

rader is frequently used in reference to outdated cosmological models. It is quite rare for modern speakers to use the term in reference to the concept of heaven in Christianity, but rader remains in use as part of several expressions describing bliss or elation. In addition, rader is a generally excepted word for the night sky, especially in the context of stargazing.

Example sentence:
De Seuvensterren can in de rader emb de tyd ef year nuy sewen wezen.
/də ˈsøːvənˌstɛrən kan ɪn də ˈraːdər ɛmb də ˈtʌɪ̯d ɛf ˈjɛːr nœʏ̯ ˈsøːən ˈweːzən/
[də ˈsøːvə̃nˌstɛɾn kə̃n‿ɨ̃n‿nə ˈɾaːdəɾ‿ə̃m‿mə ˈtʌɪ̯d‿əf ˈjɛːɾ nø ˈsø̃ːn ˈweːzə̃n]
de Seuvensterren can-Ø in de rader emb de tyd ef de year nuy sew-en wez-en
DEF Pleiades can-PRES in DEF nigh_sky around DEF season of DEF year now see-PST.PTCP be-L.INF
The Pleiades can be seen in the night sky at this time of year.

Any similarities between nẽk /nek˧˩/ [n̪ɛk̚˧˩] "serpent, snake" and English snake are entirely coincidental.
Iyionaku
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Jackk wrote: 22 Dec 2020 15:59
Vail noc attendr, i te sporn total !
Don’t bother, she’s way out of your league!
/ˈvel nɔk aˈtɛn.dr̩ | i te ˈspɔrn toˈtal/
I have to admit that I haven't followed your posts closely yet, but now that I see this, I might really have to go back and study all your posts. I tried to speak it with the IPA you've provided and if I got it right, Boral sounds awesome! Plus, I really like that you used such a real-life word and sentence.

Lexember 23rd - Yélian

ulapèsa [ˌuːlɐˈpɛsa] - to curse
Etymology: from ula "curse" + pèsa "to cast, cast upon", coined from the preposition pès "to, towards, indirect object marker"

Additional new words for the example sentence:
Spoiler:
apua [ɐˈpuː.a] - to work on sth. focused for a long time, while being stuck
Etymology: apua "to sit"; The idea is that you're just sitting there, you try to progress but you just can't. I used the word in this context in Lexember 2019 already, but only now formalized its usage.

espèral [əsˈpɛrɐl] - expense
Etymology: from espèra "to spend" + nominalization suffix -l

tanisé o'masacad [tɐnɨˈseː ɔ̈mɐˈsaːkɐd] - tax law
Etymology: "law of taxes"
Adésapuai pur edutsani perta liyd reo espèraun o'pídedal. Ulapèsai æ'taniséogor o'masacad!
[ɐˌdeːsɐˈpuː.aɪ̯ pʉd̟ ˈeːdʉt͡sɐni ˈpeɾta la̯iːd ˈɾeː.o əsˈpɛɾaʊ̯n ɔ̈ˈpiːdədɐl. ˌuːlɐˈpɛsaɪ̯ ətɐnɨˈseːˌoːgɔ̈d̟ ɔ̈mɐˈsaːkɐd]
already-sit-1SG for hour-PL-ENUM four because_of 1SG.POSS expense-PL DEF.GEN=transport | curse-1SG DEF.CONC=law-damned DEF.GEN=tax
I've been stuck here for four hours already because of my travel expenses. I curse the f*ing tax law!
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

Iyionaku wrote: 23 Dec 2020 10:56 I have to admit that I haven't followed your posts closely yet, but now that I see this, I might really have to go back and study all your posts. I tried to speak it with the IPA you've provided and if I got it right, Boral sounds awesome! Plus, I really like that you used such a real-life word and sentence.
---
Adésapuai pur edutsani perta liyd reo espèraun o'pídedal. Ulapèsai æ'taniséogor o'masacad!
[ɐˌdeːsɐˈpuː.aɪ̯ pʉd̟ ˈeːdʉt͡sɐni ˈpeɾta la̯iːd ˈɾeː.o əsˈpɛɾaʊ̯n ɔ̈ˈpiːdədɐl. ˌuːlɐˈpɛsaɪ̯ ətɐnɨˈseːˌoːgɔ̈d̟ ɔ̈mɐˈsaːkɐd]
already-sit-1SG for hour-PL-ENUM four because_of 1SG.POSS expense-PL DEF.GEN=transport | curse-1SG DEF.CONC=law-damned DEF.GEN=tax
I've been stuck here for four hours already because of my travel expenses. I curse the f*ing tax law!
Oh, thank you! [<3] I noticed you've got some colourful examples too ! [:D]
23m Decembr
deð apar /ˈdɛθ aˈpar/ [ˈde.ðɐˌpɑː] come on!, let’s go!, please!; an expression of encouragement, an attempt to persuade someone to go along with what you want
< attested since the Middle Boral period, when it was straightforwardly the imperative of dar apar “to hand over, let go, release; to acquiesce”, literally “to give through”. The verb dar is directly from Latin “I give, offer”, while apar is an adverbial derivation from the preposition par < Latin per “through, by, during”. The verb had become obsolote outside this expression by the early nineteenth century, supplanted by expanded use of verbs like laiscar “to let go, drop, loosen”.

Deð apar e tu broucara my grand-aldr accarnt !
/ˈdɛθ aˈpar tu ˌbru.kaˈra mi granˈdal.dr̩ aˈka.rn̩t/
Come on, you’ll enjoy visiting my grandparents!
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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Davush
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Davush »

22 and 23

puru 'leg'

purui- 'to run (away)' (from puru + i to move away)
puruma- 'to run towards'(from puru + ma to move towards)

Puruisa samoote
run-go-PST-3sg mountain-OBL
'He ran (away from here) to the mountain'

paki- 'to ascend, go up'
peema- 'to ascend, come up'

Peemarea samoote nuuse
ascend-come-IRR-3PL mountain-OBL moon-OBL
'They will come up the mountain at night'
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 23

Gán Vẽi (Entry 23):

srỏng /ʂoŋ˨˩˨/ (animate)
Noun:
1. priest(ess), high priest(ess); the chief religious authority in a given jurisdiction
2. priest(ess), head priest(ess); the person in charge of a particular shrine or temple
3. priest(ess), officiant, celebrant; someone trained to conduct religious ceremonies or assist in their performance
4. anyone who works on the grounds of a shrine or temple
5. shaman, folk healer, faith healer; an expert in traditional medicine
6. prophet, soothsayer, spirit medium, fortune teller
srỏng /ʂoŋ˨˩˨/ (comparative srỏng ma /ʂoŋ˨˩˨ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. priestly, clerical
2. of or pertaining to a shrine or temple
3. of or pertaining to religious ceremonies
4. of or pertaining to shamans
5. traditional, folk (of religion or medicine)
6. prophetic, psychic
srỏng /ʂoŋ˨˩˨/ (causative xā srỏng /ɕa˥ ʂoŋ˨˩˨/)
Verb:
1. to oversee (a shrine or temple)
2. to conduct, to perform (ceremonies and rituals)
3. to heal (of a shaman)
4. to prophesy, to commune (with spirits), to divine

Etymology
From Old TBD zrôung "to heal, to tend to, to oversee", from Proto-TBD *zii "to wash, to rinse" + *ro "to see, to know" + *hlɛŋ "to close, to shut, to hide, to conceal, to protect".
Usage notes
This is a very basic, general term for anyone whose occupation involves religion or spirituality in any way or who is employed by a shrine or temple, even as, for instance, an accountant or custodian. srỏng is thought to predate the current form of (relatively) organized religion centered around temples and shrines as permanent structures, and to have originally referred solely to the work of shamans, who traditionally operate out of their own homes. This theory is based on the word's etymology, as the job of a shaman is to see and know things (*ro) that ordinary people cannot and to use their knowledge of the supernatural to protect (*hlɛŋ) others, especially by healing/ritually purifying (*zii) them. As temples and shrines began to be built, those working in such establishments came to be seen as "cleansing" and "protecting" the physical buildings, as well as the relationships between people and the gods, in the same way that shamans "cleanse" and "protect" people's bodies and spirits. Even as the occupations of "priest(ess)" and "folk healer" have become increasingly distinct over time, srỏng has remained in use as the default term for either one.

Example sentence:
Nhěu mê rĩu da srỏng bỏu lou gai srỏng ngóu píu lảng gai vǐ mà vẽ?
/ɲew˧˨˧ me˦˥˧ ɻiw˧˩ ɗa˧ ʂoŋ˨˩˨ ɓow˨˩˨ low˧ ɣaj˧ ʂoŋ˨˩˨ ŋow˩˧ piw˩˧ laŋ˨˩˨ ɣaj˧ vi˧˨˧ ma˥˧ ve˧˩/
[ɲɛw˧˨˧ meː˦˥˧ ɻɪw˧˩ ɗ̪aː˧ ʂɔ̃ŋ˨˩˨ ɓɔw˨˩˨ ɫ̪ɔw˧ ɣaj˧ ʂɔ̃ŋ˨˩˨ ŋɔw˩˧ pɪw˩˧ ɫ̪ɑ̃ŋ˨˩˨ ɣaj˧ ʋiː˧˨˧ maː˥˧ ʋeː˧˩]
nhěu mê rĩu da srỏng bỏu lou gai srỏng ngóu píu lảng gai vǐ=mà=vẽ
sister 2s.GEN to support priest heaven real or priest grass from home or seem=but=INT
But is your sister an actual priestess at a temple, or does she just run a pharmacy from her house?

Thedish (Entry 23):

pruste /ˈpryːst/ (plural prustes /ˈpryːst(ə)s/)
Noun:
1. (Christianity) priest, cleric, reverend, minister; a member of the clergy
2. (Christianity) priest, rector, parson, vicar, pastor; the person in charge of a particular church
3. the leader of any religious community, someone with spiritual authority
4. someone trained to carry out religious rituals
5. priest; a tool for killing fish
6. (informal, dated) saint; someone with positive qualities who does good things
7. (informal, sarcastic) scoundrel, miscreant, bastard
8. cranefly

Alternative forms
pruest, preust, pruster, pruester, preustre, prevoyer
Etymology
From Old Thedish prēost, from Latin presbyter, possibly via Old English prēost. The variant prevoyer /prəˈvɔɪ̯(ə)r/ was borrowed from Old French provoire. Other variants ending in -er or -re show influence from Old French prestre. Compare English priest, French prêtre, Dutch priester, Icelandic prestur, Irish preispitéir.
Usage notes
Sense 7 originated as a sarcastic usage of Sense 6, which has itself fallen out of use in recent decades. Although the choice between the alternative forms largely comes down to dialectal differences and personal preferences, variants ending in -er or -re are more likely to be used in reference to human beings, while variants without those suffixes are more likely to be used for Senses 5 and 8.

A number of more specific terms exist for Christian priests of different ranks and with different duties, including vicare /vɪˈkaːr/ "vicar" and prelker /ˈprɛlkər/ "preacher", as well as for non-Christian religious authorities, such as rabbyn /raˈbʌɪ̯n/ "rabbi", imaem /ɪˈmaːm/ "imam", and goeru /ˈguːrʊ/ or guru /ˈgyːrʊ/ "guru". When used by members of Christian denominations which allow for the ordination of women, pruste is typically a gender-neutral term. However, specifically feminine terms like prustess /ˈpryːstɛs/ "priestess" are often used in reference to women in positions of spiritual authority in polytheistic religions.

dreute /ˈdrøːt/ (plural dreuden /ˈdrøːdən/)
Noun:
1. (folklore) witch, wizard, sorcerer
2. (folklore) seer, diviner, augur, soothsayer
3. (fiction) witch, wizard, warlock, sorcerer, magician, conjurer, spell-caster
4. (folklore) shaman, folk healer, faith healer
5. (informal) someone with a strong interest in alternative medicine
6. (informal) hippie, treehugger
7. (informal) vegetarian, vegan
8. (informal) esotericist, spiritualist, occultist, neopagan, New Age philosopher
9. (historical, Celtic paganism) druid, priest
10. (neopaganism) druid, priest
11. (dated) a figure of authority in any polytheistic tradition
12. (archaic) a figure of authority in any non-Christian or non-Abrahamic religion
13. charm, spell, amulet, talisman

Alternative forms
druet, druit, driwt, dryt, drew, drue, druy, driw, dry, dreude (pl.), drued (pl.), druid (pl.), driwd (pl.), dryd (pl.)
Etymology
Borrowed from a Celtic language. Compare Welsh derwydd, Irish draoi.
Usage notes
For modern speakers, especially younger ones, Senses 5-8 are often used humorously to affectionately make fun of friends and relatives, and would not generally be considered derogatory or insulting. However, it is worth noting that these informal senses of the word have undergone a fair amount of amelioration since the 1960s.

Likely hoping to distance themselves from associations with fantasy fiction and 1960s counterculture, scholars of religion and members of Celtic neopagan groups will semi-frequently use words like druide /ˈdrœʏ̯d/ or drueide /dryːˈiːd/ - borrowed from English or French, but ultimately from the same source - in place of dreute for Senses 9-10.

Regarding Senses 11-12, it was once generally acceptable to refer to someone seen as roughly equivalent to a Christian priest in any non-Christian religion as a dreute. As the world has become increasingly interconnected and speakers have therefore generally become familiar with more specific terms for non-Christian religious authorities, this has largely ceased to be the case. It seems that dreute first stopped being used in reference to Judaism, then stopped being used in reference to any Abrahamic or monotheistic religion, and now even its use in reference to almost any religion apart from Celtic paganism is considered dated, if not completely archaic. Note that modern speakers are unlikely to consider Senses 11-12 rude or offensive as opposed to just confusing and outdated. Some speakers may still use dreute in reference to other forms of European paganism, but even then, more specific terms - especially for Germanic polytheism - exist, including bloeter /ˈbluːtər/, harghward /ˈharxˌward/, and oaswite /ˈɔːsˌwiːt/.

Example sentence:
Ne pruste en ne dreute does in ne buersele steppen…
/nə ˈpryːst ɛn nə ˈdrøːt duːs ɪn nə ˈbyːrˌseːl ˈstɛpən/
[nə ˈpɾ̥yːst‿ə̃n nə ˈdɾøːt̚ dʊs‿ɨ̃n nə ˈbyːɾˌseːɫ ˈstɛpə̃n]
ne pruste en ne dreute doe-s in ne buersele stepp-en
INDEF priest and INDEF druid do.PRES-PRES in INDEF pub walk-L.INF
A priest and a druid walk into a bar…

Today I've been reminded of just how many words English has which, at least for me, are synonymous with "priest", but all of which seem to have slightly different shades of meaning to them, and many of which are used in different ways by different Christian denominations and/or in different countries. I'll admit I gave up on trying to grasp all of the nuances just to make this post, so my apologies if any of these terms have been used incorrectly above.
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 23rd
möy1-hé2 /məj˧xeː˥/ n heaven
hwa3-ang2 /hwa˧˩ang˥/ v to die, to pass away, to expire
as1-úy3 /as˧uːj˧˩˥/ adj holy, sacred, blessed
chí4 /t͡ɕʰiː˥˧˥/ adj supernatural, unholy, evil [said of supernatural nonhuman entities]

*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
gˀr̩p- n wound, injury, pain

Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
ŋʲɔy˧˥ adj 'ugly, frightening' from Proto-North Central Hlai *Ciɦəːy, possibly from an earlier Proto-Hlai form *ɦaːy, cf. Cunhua ɲɔː(y)1, Nadouhua ɲɔy1, Changjiang, Moyfaw ɲoːy1, Baisha ɲuay1, Yuanmen ɲuːy1

Something I realized about this language that bothers me is that there's no rhotic phoneme in this language. Proto Hlai 'rhotic like' phonemes /l hl C-l p-l Cur Cuɾ ɾj ɾ r ly/ become /l {tʰ ɕ l} l fʲ v↓ v↓ l↓ l↓ g↓ z↓/ (where ↓ represents a register change). The language looks fine, but it just has no rhotic.

Sardinian
bisare v 'to dream' from Sardinian bisu 'dream', from Latin VISUM, from LATIN VIDEO, cf. Romanian vis, Galician viso
Last edited by qwed117 on 26 Dec 2020 03:37, edited 2 times in total.
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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Shemtov
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Shemtov »

Day 22:
Maillys: "Féśyll" "Dragon (guardian of the underworld)"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Juēitz῾iḷ"Dragon (Angels of the Winged Serpent Deity)"

Day 23:
Maillys: "Gyurr" "Little Person; Goblin"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Ceōtl "Minor Demon"

Day 24:
Maillys: "Muryth" "Libation Altar"
Momṭẓʿālemeōm: Mōlitʿa "Shrine"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Iyionaku »

Lexember 24th - Yélian

pereyiano [ˌpeːɾəˈɕɪ̯aːno] - "fall-asleep thoughts", the kinds of thoughts you have shortly before falling asleep, having too many makes you ponder
Etymology: pereʻa "to fall asleep" + yiano "thought, train of thought"

Nat iytsanai desiý perínevai, treinai pereyianoparatan.
[nat a̯iːtˈsaːnaɪ̯ dəˈsa̯iː pəˈɾiːnəʋaɪ̯, ˈtɾɛɪ̯naɪ̯ ˌpeːɾəˈɕɪ̯aːnɔ̈ˌpaːɾɐtɐn]
when a_little-read-1SG before INGR-sleep-1SG, receive-1SG fallasleep_thought-few-COMP-PL
When I read a little bit before going to sleep, I tend to ponder a lot less.
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by KaiTheHomoSapien »

qwed117 wrote: 21 Dec 2020 00:12 For some reason vépos distinctly reminds me of Finnish and Estonian, so I think it's pretty cool that it's primarily used in the allative. I love the mix of aesthetics this language is developing.
I remember when I first introduced Lihmelinyan, you said the name sounded Finnish/Estonian. (It does bear a stunning resemblance to the Finnish word ihmeellinen which means "wonderful". Coincidence? I like to think it's a folk etymology. :P)

20th

Katéstā - name of goddess. Katesta is the nature goddess, associated with the color green and the spring time. The Arculese city Katéstavōr (located in the Sélbis region) is named for her. (-vōr is a suffix found in city names ultimately derived from a word for "city", vórom). The Mantians believe the gods come down to earth to test or help people; Katéstā is said to often take the form of a young woman or girl in the woods in shimmering white dress illuminated by sunlight. According to legend, if you see her and try to follow her, she's impossible to catch up with but you'll find she's led you to fresh water or a way out of the woods if you're lost.

21st

sarpāmi - I consecrate, dedicate, sacrifice

This common verb of religion has a few different meanings and is of obscure origin. It is somewhat archaic and appears mainly in formal and ritual texts.

22nd

siókos - masc. - temple

Cf. Lihmelinyan šákā

Example sentence: We walked to the temples of the city.

Siókōsde vórosjo língātomu.
temple-ALL.PL city-GEN.SG. walk-1.PL.PAST

23rd

daíkīr - masc. - priest
daíkrī - fem. - priestess (daikīr + -ī feminine suffix)

Cf. Lihmelinyan taíhēr

Example sentence: The priest consecrated the bread in the temple.

Dáikīr blétom siókei sárpād.
priest-NOM bread-ACC temple-LOC consecrate-3.SG.PAST

Note that Arculese has no augment and the verbs have been greatly reanalyzed in comparison with the archaic Lihmelinyan verbal system.

24th

Gelānnes - "Origins" (lit. "beginnings" from gelāmi "I begin") - name of one of the three principle religious texts used in the Mantian religion. The Book of Origins is primarily mythological and is the longest of the three books.
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by qwed117 »

Lexember 24th
máz4 /maːt͡s˥˧˥/ n sun
'èk4 /ʔɛk˩˥/ n sky
hë3 /xɤ˧˩/ n moon
zu1-may2 /t͡su˧maj˥/ n planet
ǒm3-chay1 /ɔː˧˩˥ t͡ɕʰaj˧/ adj dark

*S₁ŋ̩ʲːd-o Lat-u
h̩₂soːr adj bright
First time I've made a word with a syllabic laryngeal. I think it was a big mistake not adding these in the first place, but now I'll have to change a couple of rules in my language because of this. Looks vaguely similar to sol, but that's purely coïncidental


Unnamed A-Posteriori Hlai-lang
pʰuʔ˥ v 'worship' from Proto-Hlai *pʰuc, cf. Cunhua pʰət2, Nadouhua pʰuɛ4, Bouhin, Ha Em, Lauhut, Tongzha, Zandui, Jiamao pʰut7 Whoops already did that

haː˧˥ n 'sun' from Proto-Hlai *tʃʰaː, cf. Nadouhua hɔː3, Bouhin, Ha Em, Lauhut, Tongzha, Zandui, Baisha tsʰaː1, Changjiang, Moyfaw tsʰaː3*

The tone in Changjiang and Moyfaw is aberrant, probably borrowed, I'd imagine from Nadouhua, or a lost Cunhua word

Sardinian
crisare, grisare, aggrisare v 'to eclipse, to cast a shadow' from Italian eclissare 'to eclipse'*, from Latin ECLIPSIS, from Ancient Greek ἔκλειψῐς

su fumu grisat su colore asulu de s'aera
The smoke eclipsed the blue color of the air

sos ojos as grisadu e as lassadu trummentos in sos coros
The** eyes has cast a shadow and has left torments in the hearts

*Given the relatively large amount of diversity in pronunciations and very strange Sardinian-specific changes, I'm not very sure that this came from Italian, despite that being what my dictionary says.
**Sardinian is unique in how it forms possessives. It is definitely *not* "His/her/their eyes... his/her/their heart", because the possessive is formed by ARTICLE + NOUN + POSSESSIVE, ie. sos ojo suos, sos coros suos. Also the 3PL form of 3SG 'suo/suos' is 'issoro/issoros' (although suo can be written sú, the lack of an accent over the 'u' makes me more certain that it's not a possessive). This is a bit different than Spanish's su libro, sus libros.
Last edited by qwed117 on 26 Dec 2020 03:35, edited 2 times in total.
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Jackk
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by Jackk »

24m Decembr
excerpted from Folk Cusdoms and Holidays oth North: a Compendium, published 1876 in Markland by the Safford University Primers as part of a project spearheaded by the Rexam Indreck (Ymdreh Car Vantel) for outland sharing.
…during James V of Barcelon’s Cordin wardship in the late 1660s.

An account of the traditions of Borland cannot be complete without extensive discussion of the Winter Feast, or the Revillon (in Borlish, Reveglon means “vigil”). Practised on Borland by even the pre-Roman Insular Kelts, it is one of the oldest continuously-practised folk traditions in Europe.

Early evidence of the Winter Feast is given in the writings of the third-century Roman historian Ammian Marcellinus in his brief asides on the island territories. Notably his is almost the only source on the custom from the first millenium that isn’t moralising against the practice as unholy and pagan—when the Feast in mentioned in post-Classical monastic sources it is exclusively to disapprove.

Indeed, far cry from the Nativity Fast common across Christendom at the time from Aghkill [near Ballymena, NI] to Yerevan, the Revillon (at this time still held on the winter solstice itself and called the <Flidōlus>, a name of uncertain origin) comprised bustling public meals held in great halls or around bonfires to which all brought food and from which all ate well.

The appropriation of the tradition by the church was as gradual as it was inevitable. To some extent, the pre-Christian origin of the feast was simply forgotten over the centuries. As the monks of Borland began increasingly to resemble the lay population (in the early centuries much of Borland’s clergy were imported or exiled from further south), so too did the pagan and Christian traditions.

We do not need to suppose an intentional subversion of the Revillon by the Church, but in any case the link between the Winter Feast and Christmas had been firmly established by 1100, during the reign of…
terram impūram incolāmus
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Re: Lexember 2020

Post by shimobaatar »

Day 24

Gán Vẽi (Entry 24):

céu /cew˩˧/ (inanimate or animate)
Noun:
1. temple, church, house of worship; a building in which religious ceremonies are performed
2. shrine, temple, memorial; a small structure built at a holy site
3. (archaic) altar, sanctum, sanctuary
4. workshop, forge
5. (informal) any building dedicated to a single purpose
céu /cew˩˧/ (comparative céu ma /cew˩˧ ma˧/)
Adjective:
1. of or pertaining to temples
2. of or pertaining to shrines
3. (archaic) of or pertaining to an altar
4. of or pertaining to workshops
céu /cew˩˧/ (causative xā céu /ɕa˥ cew˩˧/)
Verb:
1. to visit a temple or shrine
2. (archaic) to conduct or perform religious ceremonies
3. (rare) to work, to craft, to forge, to fashion, to make, to create

Etymology
From Old TBD kieeuh "altar, table", from Proto-TBD *kiʔ "high, tall, elevated, lofty" + *jɛɛ "rock, stone, slab" + *hlas "smooth, flat, even, level".
Usage notes
As a noun, céu is almost always inanimate, but it may be treated as animate in poetry or other works of literature to emphasize the spiritual importance of the structure in question. céu originally referred only to the altar in the innermost part of a temple, but over time, the word has come to be used for any structure of religious significance. Due to the fact that, culturally, priests are seen as "spiritual artisans", so to speak, céu may sometimes also refer to the workplaces of their more worldly counterparts.

Example sentence:
Rĩu céu mê srāi vẽ?
/ɻiw˧˩ cew˩˧ me˦˥˧ ʂaj˥ ve˧˩/
[ɻɪw˧˩ t͡ɕɛw˩˧ meː˦˥˧ ʂaj˥ ʋeː˧˩]
rĩu céu mê=srāi=vẽ
to temple 2s=go=INT
Have you been to the temple?

Thedish (Entry 24):

chirk /ˈt͡ʃɪrk/ (plural chirken /ˈt͡ʃɪrkən/)
Noun:
1. church; a Christian house of worship
2. (dated, collective) Christianity, Christendom, Christians
3. church; a religious organization, particularly a Christian denomination
4. (collective) congregation, churchgoers, parishioners, members; the community formed around a particular house of worship
5. (informal) worship, service, liturgy, mass
6. (dated) any house of worship
7. (dated, collective) the members of any religion or religious community
8. religion, organized religion

Alternative forms
cherk, chierk, cheurk, chirch, sirk
Etymology
From Old Thedish ċirica, from "Proto-West Germanic" *kirikā, from Koine Greek κυριακόν (kuriakón). Compare English church, Saterland Frisian Säärke, West Frisian tsjerke, North Frisian sark.
Usage notes
Senses 2, 5, and 8 are typically uncountable. When being used in Senses 2-4, 7, and 8, the word may be written with its first letter capitalized and accompanied by the definite article (de Chirk). Sense 8 is most frequently used in political contexts, referring to religion as an institution.

chirk is the most basic word for a Christian house of worship. More specific terms may be used to specify the relative size, location, importance, or affiliation of a church, including chapele /t͡ʃəˈpeːl/, baln /ˈbaln/, cathedrale /ˌkatəˈdraːl/, and eglize /ɛˈgliːz/. Words for non-Christian houses of worship include synagogue /ˌsʌɪ̯nəˈgoːg/, mosk /ˈmɔsk/, algh /ˈalx/, and tempel /ˈtɛmpəl/.

deunst /ˈdœnst/ (plural deunstes /ˈdœnst(ə)s/)
Noun:
1. service, rite, ritual, ceremony, worship, liturgy, mass
2. a piece of liturgical music
3. something read or recited during a religious ceremony
4. (dated) a service (as offered by a business)
5. (dated) service, assistance, help
6. (dated) service, ministry; a branch of a government, military, or other organization
7. (dated) duty, work, job, occupation, employment
8. (dated) office, position, job
9. (archaic) performance, entertainment, spectacle, play, show
10. (archaic) favor, act of kindness, good deed

Alternative forms
deunest, denst, donst, dionst
Etymology
From Old Thedish þēonast, from Proto-Germanic *þewanōstaz. Compare Saterland Frisian Tjoonst, Dutch dienst, German Dienst, Swedish tjänst.
Usage notes
Sense 5 is typically uncountable, and Senses 7 and 10 may occasionally be uncountable as well. Senses 4-8 may still be encountered somewhat frequently in writing, especially in official documents, but most modern speakers prefer to use deunst only in the context of religion.

Example sentence:
Eulk year does myn cnossel toe chirk an Yule Eavend wein de midnaut deunst goa.
/ˈœlk ˈjɛːr duːs mʌɪ̯n ˈknɔsəl tuː ˈt͡ʃɪrk an ˈjyːl ˈɛːvənd wɛɪ̯n də ˈmɪdˌnaʊ̯t ˈdœnst ˈgɔː/
[ˈʔœɫk ˈjɛːɾ dʊs mẽŋ ˈknɔsəɫ tʊ ˈt͡ʃɪɾk‿ə̃n ˈjyːl‿ˈɛːvə̃nd‿wẽn‿nə ˈmɪdˌnaʊ̯t̚ ˈdœ̃nst̚ ˈgɔː]
eulk year doe-s myn cnossel toe chirk an Yule Eavend wein de midnaut deunst goa-Ø
each year do.PRES-PRES 1s.GEN family to church on Christmas Eve because_of DEF midnight service go-S.INF
Every year, my family goes to church on Christmas Eve for the midnight service.

I didn't intend for céu "temple, shrine" to resemble (orthographically) Portuguese céu "sky, heaven", but I don't mind that it does.
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