Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

This is the language of the Old Momṭẓʿālemeōm Empire, which, though it has died out as a vernacular, is used as the official court language of the (current) Cuātlicañ Dynasty of the New Momṭẓʿālemeōm Empire, who rule west of the Maill Confederation, and to the southwest of Fuhe (Though mostly seperated from Fuhe by mountains).

The above, with some changes:
/p t̪ t̪ʰ t̪͡s̪ t̪͡s̪ʰ t̪͡ɬ̪ t̪͡ɬ̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ ʈ͡ʂ ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ꞎ ʈ͡ꞎʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ k kʰ kʷ kʷʰ ʔ~h/ <p t tʿ tz tzʿ tl tlʿ ṭ ṭʿ ṭẓ ṭẓʿ ṭl ṭlʿch chʿ c cʿ cu~uc cʿu~ucʿ h>
/f s ʂ ʃ x xʷ/ <f z ẓ x j ju~uj>
/m n ɳ ɲ/ <m n ṇ ñ>
/l ɭ/ <l ḷ>
/j w/ <y hu~uh>

/ i o ɛ a/ <i o e a>
/i: o: e: a:/ <ī ō ē ā>
/ɛi ai oi ao ɛo/ <ei ai oi ao eo>
/a:ɪ o:ɪ e:ɪ a:o e:o/ <āi ōi ēi āo ēo>
/ɐi: oi: ɛi: ɐo: ɛo: / <aī oī eī aō eō>

(C)V(C)
The glottal stop is realized as [h] before another stop.

Nouns come in three genders: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter. They only impact the declension of marked-gender nouns, which we will discuss in a later post.

The case system must be understood in the context of the language having a tense-based split-erg system.

The Declension of a regular non-gender-marked noun: Juētl "Spear" (neut):
Singular:
Nominative-Absolutive: Juētl
Accusative-Ergative: Juētlāh
Dative-Allative: Juētleñ
Locative-Instrumental: Juētlāiuh
Ablative: Juētlō
Genitive: Juētlom

Paucal (2-4):
Nominative-Absolutive: Juētloiuh
Accusative-Ergative: Juētloihuāh
Dative-Allative: Juētloihueñ
Locative-Instrumental: Juētloihuāiuh
Ablative: Juētloihuō
Genitive: Juētloihuom

Plural:
Nominative-Absolutive: Juētlē
Accusative-Ergative: Juētlehēuh
Dative-Allative: Juētlehēñ
Locative-Instrumental: Juētlēiuh
Ablative: Juētlēo
Genitive: Juētleōm
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Gender-marked nouns are nouns that are explicitly marked for gender. They cannot be in the paucal.
Take the root Lāhcʿuēz "Adult Sheep". It must be marked for gender like so:
Lāhcʿuēzatāḷ "Ram"
Lāhcʿuēzōciuh "Ewe"
Lāhcʿuēzīxeṭẓʿ "Mutton; slain sheep"

However, these full markers are only used for the NOMABS.SING. In the plural, for example, we see these shortened forms, and the same would apply to the marked cases, singular and plural:
Lāhcʿuēzaṭlē "Rams"
Lāhcʿuēzojuē "Ewes"
Lāhcʿuēzichʿē "Peices of mutton; slain sheep (plr)"

Some roots can be optionally marked. Ahuīn "Foal" could either be a colt or a filly, even though it is masculine. But Ahuīnatāḷ is always a colt and Ahuīnōciuh is always a filly.

These suffixes can be used productively- Juētl "spear" Juētlatāḷ "Spearman".
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Dependent possesive pronouns come after the gender marking, and before plural/case markers. In the latter case, some have allomorphs from the nom.abs.sing form.

Example:
Juētl "Spear" (neut)
1P sing: Juētlañēo
1P plr: Juētlamīuc
2P sing: Juētlitza
2P plr: Juētlitzī
3P sing masc-fem: Juētlōij
3P sing neut: Juētlōicʿ
3P plr: Juētlāṭlo


Plural:
1P sing: Juētlañahē
1P plr: Juētlamōhē
2P sing: Juētlitzē
2P plr: Juētlitziajē
3P sing masc-fem: Juētloxē
3P sing neut: Juētlochʿē
3P plr: Juētlaṭlē
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Creyeditor
MVP
MVP
Posts: 4149
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 19:32

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Creyeditor »

This looks very Aztec-like [:)]
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Creyeditor wrote: 02 Dec 2020 13:29 This looks very Aztec-like [:)]
Yes, it's supposed to be a mix of Nahuatl and Indo-Aryan languages, with some inspiration from Farsi and Hungarian.

Anyway:
The existensial verb is irregular, as most verbs are marked for person and number, while the existensial is marked for number and gender. There are also suppletive roots for the existensial, one for masculine and feminine nouns, and one for neuter nouns.
Declension of the existensial:
Masculine singular: Huēlaṭl
Masculine plural: Huēlaṭlōtl
Feminine sing: Huēlaṭliuj
Feminine plural: Huēlaṭliujōtl
Neuter sing: Paihhuāṭẓ
Neuter plr: Paihhuāṭẓōtl

Thus:
Huēlaṭliujōtl lāhcʿuēzojuañahē
"I have ewes"
(lit. My ewes exist)

Paihhuāṭẓ juētlañēo
"I have a spear"
(Lit. My spear exists)
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Creyeditor wrote: 02 Dec 2020 13:29 This looks very Aztec-like [:)]
Yes, it's supposed to be a mix of Nahuatl and Indo-Aryan languages, with some inspiration from Farsi and Hungarian.

Anyway:
The existensial verb is irregular, as most verbs are marked for person and number, while the existensial is marked for number and gender. There are also suppletive roots for the existensial, one for masculine and feminine nouns, and one for neuter nouns.
Declension of the existensial:
Masculine singular: Huēlaṭl
Masculine plural: Huēlaṭlōtl
Feminine sing: Huēlaṭliuj
Feminine plural: Huēlaṭliujōtl
Neuter sing: Paihhuāṭẓ
Neuter plr: Paihhuāṭẓōtl

Thus:
Huēlaṭliujōtl lāhcʿuēzojuañahē
"I have ewes"
(lit. My ewes exist)

Paihhuāṭẓ juētlañēo
"I have a spear"
(Lit. My spear exists)
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Verbs:
The citation form of regular verbs depends on whether the stem ends in a consonant or a vowel:
Consonant stem: Cʿīmhala "To walk"
Vowel stem: Huachʿecāh "to kill
Present conjugation of Cʿīmhala:
1P singular: Cʿīmhalim
1P plr: Cʿīmhalimā
2P sing: Cʿīmhalitz
2P plr: Cʿīmhalizā
3P sing Masc-Fem: Cʿīmhalī
3P plr Neuter: Cʿīmhal
3p plr : Cʿīmhalō

3P object Present conjugation of Huachʿecāh
1P singular: Huachʿecām
1P plr: Huachʿecāmā
2P sing: Huachʿecātz
2P plr: Huachʿecāzā
3P sing Masc-Fem: Huachʿecāye
3P plr Neuter: Huachʿecā
3p plr : Huachʿecāhuo

Huachʿecāhuo Lāhcʿuēzojuañahlehēuh juētlēiuh
Huachʿecā-huo Lāhcʿuēz-oju-añah-lehēuh juētl-ēiuh
Kill-3P.PLR.3P sheep-Fem-1P-PLR.ACC spear-INSTR
"They are killing my ewes with spears."

1P object conjugation:
1P singular: Huachʿecāfe
1P plr: Huachʿecāfē
2P sing: Huachʿecātli
2P plr: Huachʿecālī
3P sing Masc-Fem: Huachʿecāche
3P plr Neuter: Huachʿejā
3p plr : Huachʿecāpo

2P object conjugation of Huachʿecā:


1P singular: Huachʿecān
1P plr: Huachʿecānā
2P sing: Huachʿecāzat
2P plr: Huachʿecāzāta
3P sing Masc-Fem: Huachʿecāx
3P plr Neuter: Huachʿecās
3p plr : Huachʿecāuhto

Huachʿecānā
"We are killing you"

Huachʿecālī
"You all are killing me/us"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Tense and aspect:
In the non-present tenses, a suffix for TA is added that comes after the Sub.Obj marker. Note that in these tenses, only the singular Subject markers are used, as there are seperate number suffixes for the tenses.

Past tense singular: -(h)ax
Past tense plural: (a)huix
Future tense singular: (h)īh
Future tense plural: (hu)aīh

The perfective, when on its own, is in the past tense. There is also a special form that attaches to the future tense. Both trigger Erg-abs alignment on the verb:
Perfective singular: ñēo
Perfective plural: ñēhua
Perfective future: ñē

The repetitive aspect is in the present tense, but may attach to the past or future markers with a special form that attaches to the fut/pst suffix. This can also stack with the perfective:
Repetitive singular: ṭʿāo
Repetitive plr: ṭʿāhua
Repetitive conective: ṭʿā

Huachʿecāyeñēo Lāhcʿuēzojuañahē juētlēiuh
Huachʿecā-ye-ñēo Lāhcʿuēz-oju-añah-ē-∅ juētl-ēiuh
Kill-3P.3P-PST.PLR sheep-Fem-1P-PLR-ABS spear-INSTR
"S/he has killed my ewes with spears."

Huachʿecāyeñēo Lāhcʿuēzojuañahē juētlēiuh
Huachʿecā-ye-ñēo Lāhcʿuēz-oju-añah-ē-∅ juētl-ēiuh
Kill-3P.3P-PERF sheep-Fem-1P-PLR-ABS spear-INSTR
"S/he has killed my ewes with spears."


Huachʿecāyehih Lāhcʿuēzojuañahlehēuh juētlēiuh
Huachʿecā-ye-hih Lāhcʿuēz-oju-añah-lehēuh juētl-ēiuh
Kill-3P.3P-FUT sheep-Fem-1P-PLR.ACC spear-INSTR
"S/he will kill my ewes with a spear."

Huachʿecātzṭʿāñēhih Lāhcʿuēzojuañahē juētlēiuh
Huachʿecā-tz-ṭʿā-ñe-hih Lāhcʿuēz-oju-añah-ē-∅ juētl-ēiuh
Kill-2P.3P-REP-PERF-FUT sheep-Fem-1P-PLR-ABS spear-INSTR
"You will have kept killing my ewes with a spear."
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Numbers are base-20 and come in four versions: Human, Non-Human Masculine, Non-Human Feminine, and Neuter.

Human:
1 Ōl
2 ṭaō
3. Til
4. Fēicual
5. Feīñeh
6. ṭẓʿix
7. ṭẓʿēp
8. Aṭl
9. Noil
10 Jatziteiuc
11. Jatzonōl

12 Jatzoṇṭaō
13. Jatzontil
14. Jatzomfēiuc
15. Teiuclīfēiñ
16. Teiuclīfēiuc
17. Teiuclītil
18. Teiuclīṭaō
19. Teiuclīhol
20. Teiuc

Masculine non-human:
1 Ōlāḷ
2 ṭāhuotāḷ
3. Teilāḷ
4. Fēiuclatāḷ
5. Feīñehāḷ
6. ṭẓʿixāḷ
7. ṭẓʿēpāḷ
8. Aṭlāḷ
9. Noilāḷ
10 Jatziteiucāḷ
11. Jatzonōlāḷ

12 Jatzoṇṭahuāḷ
13. Jatzonteilāḷ
14. Jatzomfēiucāḷ
15. Teiuclīfēiñāḷ
16. Teiuclīfēiucāḷ
17. Teiuclīteilāḷ
18. Teiuclīṭahuāḷ
19. Teiuclīholāḷ
20. Teiucāḷ

Feminine:
1 Ōliuh
2 ṭāhuociuh
3. Teiliuh
4. Fēiuclaciuh
5. Feīñehiuh
6. ṭẓʿixiuh
7. ṭẓʿēpiuh
8. Aṭliuh
9. Noiliuh
10 Jatziteiuciuh
11. Jatzonōliuh

12 Jatzoṇṭahuiuh
13. Jatzonteiliuh
14. Jatzomfēiuciuh
15. Teiuclīfēiñiuh
16. Teiuclīfēiuciuh
17. Teiuclīteiliuh
18. Teiuclīṭahuiuh
19. Teiuclīholiuh
20. Teiuciuh

Neuter:
1 Ōleṭẓʿ
2 ṭāhuoxeṭẓʿ
3. Teileṭẓʿ
4. Fēiuclaxṭẓʿ
5. Feīñeheṭẓʿ
6. ṭẓʿixeṭẓʿ
7. ṭẓʿēpeṭẓʿ
8. Aṭleṭẓʿ
9. Noileṭẓʿ
10 Jatziteicueṭẓʿ
11. Jatzonōleṭẓʿ

12 Jatzoṇṭahueṭẓʿ
13. Jatzonteileṭẓʿ
14. Jatzomfēicueṭẓʿ
15. Teiuclīfēiñeṭẓʿ
16. Teiuclīfēicueṭẓʿ
17. Teiuclīteileṭẓʿ
18. Teiuclīṭahueṭẓʿ
19. Teiuclīholeṭẓʿ
20. Teiuceṭẓʿ
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Non-Motion verbs my be motion marked by directionals. Directionals mean that the coming or going is done for the purpose of the main verb. The directional morpheme comes immediatly after the stem.
Coming with proximal source: ṭʿōi
Coming with distal source: Huā
Going with proximal destinantion: Zel(a)
Going with distal destination: ī after consonants, ñi after vowels

The directional sentence often has the unspecified source or destination marked with a noun, and it is common to indicate the source with coming directionals and destination with going directionals.

Example:
Huachʿecāñinṭʿāhīh mōlitʿeñ
Huachʿecā-ñi-n-ṭʿā-hīh mōlitʿ-eñ
kill-go.DIST-1P.2P-REP-FUT shrine-ALL
"I will keep going to the far-away shrine to kill you"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

The reflexive verb is formed by using the following conjugations of the transitive verb:
1P singular: Huachʿecāme
1P plr: Huachʿecāmē
2P sing: Huachʿecānil
2P plr: Huachʿecāntli
3P sing Masc-Fem: Huachʿecāñe
3P plr Neuter: Huachʿeñā
3p plr : Huachʿecāmo

Huachʿecāmehīh juētlēiuh
"I will commit suicide using a spear"

The reflexive may be used as a passive for an unspecified actor

Huachʿecāhuāñehax
Huachʿecā-huā-ñe-hax
kill-come.DIST-RELFX.3P-PST
"Someone came from far away to commit suicide"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
User avatar
Shemtov
runic
runic
Posts: 3086
Joined: 29 Apr 2013 04:06

Re: Classical/Cuātlicañ Court Momṭẓʿālemeōm

Post by Shemtov »

Modal proclitics occur before the verb to mark mood.

This post will discuss the one of the most complicated one, the Optative-Imperative: Cʿuōl
Based on tense and/or context, this proclitics may have optative or permissive modality when preceding a verb with person markers:
Cʿuōl maliyehīh mālcʿuṭẓ
Cʿuōl mali-ye-hīh mālcʿuṭẓ
OPT live-3P.MASC-FUT king
"May the king continue to live"

Cʿuōl cʿīmhalīhōhuix juētlatāḷē
Cʿuōl cʿīmhal-īh-ō-huix juētlatāḷ-ē
PERM walk-go.DIST-3P.PLR-PST.PLR spearman-PLR
"The spearmen should have walked away"

The verb may drop the person marker to be an imperative:
Cʿuōl huachʿecā cāzliñāh
Cʿuōl huachʿecā cāzliñ-āh
IMPER kill thief-ACC
"Kill the thief!"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
Post Reply