Pelna Juikpuna

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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

Post by Omzinesý »

I should find a name for the language.
My idea ATM is "Djuikpuna" [d͡ʒui'k͡punɐ] for the peaople and "Pelna Juikpuna" ['pelnɐʒui'k͡punɐ] 'the language of the Djuikpuna' for the people.
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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Now that open word classes, at last, work, what should I do next?
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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On subject alteration of statives
Edit: No no. This will not do. 'The hole' should be the primary argument of 'to be a home'.
Second, information structure is not coded by word order in main clauses. There should rather be a(n) (p)article like French "voilà".
(1)
[ɐm'belu o'biti su: 'bepo zu: 'ʒeɐ̯]
Ambelu "obiti" suu bepo zuu jea.
a-belu "obiti" suu LEN-pepo LEN-suu LEN-djea
STAT-live O in GEN-hole GEN-in GEN-ground
'The hobbit lives in a hole in the ground.'

(2)
[ɐm'belu 'bepo zu: 'ʒeɐ̯ o'biti]
Ambelu pepo zuu jea "obiti".
a-belu pepo LEN-suu LEN-djea obiti
STAT-home hole GEN-in GEN-ground Hobbit
'In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit.'

"Ambelu" 'to live somewhere' is the stative derived from "pelu" 'home'. Like most statives, it can have two clausal constructions.
(1), where the first argument is in the subject position, can be considered primary. The second argument has a preposition. This is a usual predicate-focus clause.
In (2), the second argument takes the subject position. The first argument behaves like a direct object. That clause is interpreted as an existential clause 'There is a hobbit living in the hole.'

--

A active verb can also be derived from "belu" or "ambelu", "embelu" 'to give home to' 'to accommodate'.

(3)
[em'belu'memem'bu:miŋ͡mg͡beβuɹe'ʒiki]
Embelu "Meme Mbuumin" gbevurejiki.
Embelu "Meme Mbuumin" gbevure-ji-ki.
Accommodate "Moominmamma" animal-DIM-PL
'Moominmamma gives home to all small animals.'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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Negation of statives

There are two negation prefixes for statives.
chi- 'complemental negation'
chu- 'contrastive negation'

If the stative is formed with the a- prefix, the a- appears inside the negation prefix.
chai-
chau-

With a Perfect or Prospective prefix, the negation prefixes are yi- and yu-.

na-yi-para 'didn't sleep'
la-yu-para 'will be awake'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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The (noun => stative) affix could actually be a suffix. The -a could form a diphthong/long vowel with the last vowel of the stem. In a consonant-final word, the final consonant is geminated after the stative -a.

sota ['sota] 'a book', 'a novel'
sotaa ['sota:] (STATIVE) 'literature, prose, literal, to be a book/novel, to belong to literature/prose'

Perfect -n and Prospective -l follow the -a.
sotaal 'will be a book'
sotaan 'was a book'

Perfect -an and Prospective -al are also used with non-derived statives.
dan 'sees'
dannan 'saw'
dannal 'will see'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

Post by Omzinesý »

Information structure - a summary

Topicality

Juikpuna is a very subject-prominent language. A normal transitive clause is always VSO, where the S is determined as the agent. In clauses with a Stative predicate, information structure somewhat affects word-order but it's just a one affecting tendency, even in them.
The pragmatic topic, which the sentence is about, is basically inferred from the preceding context, i.e. the participant that could be the topic.

Topicalization

If topicality of no participant is evident, one of the following topicalization constructions can be used. Both of them can be embedded or right-dislocated.

[Still thinking about them]


Focusing




Sentence focus
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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Complement clauses


Pseudo-relative clause is the normal way in Juikpuna to form a complement clause whose head is a predicate of expressing, causing, or perceiving. In (1), "enpakina ne" is formally a modifier of the object and thus undergoes lenition.

(1a)
Eure eon te mbaa yenpakita ne.
eure eon te maa LEN-en-pakita ne
know sg1 PREP sg2 NOMIN-PERF.ACT.insult sg3
'I know that you insulted him/her.'
Lit. 'I know about you who insulted him/her.'

(1b)
Eure ka.eon yenpakita ne.
eure ka-eon LEN-en-pakita ne
know REFL-sg1 NOMIN-PERF.ACT.insult sg3
'I know that I insulted him/her.'

As complements, Statives can be have like verbs (2a) or like nouns (2b). The preudo-relative construction in (2a) and the clausal nominalization in (2b) mean the same.

(2a)
Eure eon te mbaa buja te nde.
eure eon te maa LEN-puja te LEN-ne
know sg1 PREP sg2 NOMIN-love PREP GEN-sg3
'I know that you love him/her.'

(2b)
Eure eon te buja maa te nde.
eure eon te LEN-puja maa te LEN-ne
know sg1 PREP NOMIN-love sg2 PREP GEN-sg3
'I know that you love him/her.'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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I have been thinking about Modal Stative or Gerundive Stative.
It takes the patient as its first argument.
Its prefix is al-, which is etymologically the same as Future prefixes.

alkpelo 'is edible', 'can be eaten', 'must be eaten'

It has both potential and necessative meanings. The agent is though expressed with different prepositions in different meanings.

Alkpelo gawati. 'The bananas must/can be eaten.'
Alkpelo gawati suu ean. 'I must eat the bananas.'
Alkpelo gawati ma yeon. 'I can eat the bananas.'

Though Modal Statives are derived from verbs and resemble Prospectives of Verbs, they are not Verbs but Statives.
i) They have suffixes of statives:
-an 'Perfect', -al 'Prospective'
-chai 'Complemental Negation', -chau 'Contrastive Negation'
ii) Their syntax is organized like that of statives
Last edited by Omzinesý on 28 Jan 2021 18:23, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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"dun" means both 'to want' and 'to like', like in many Romance languages. In the meaning 'to want', it governs Prospective, while in the meaning 'to like', it governs Simple tense. What you want to do, logically happens in the future, while what you like doing, happens whenever.

(1)
Dun ka-aon wuula-ye gawati.
want/like REFL-sg1 buy-SUBJVE banana
'I like buying bananas.'

(2)
Dun ka-aon yel-gbuula-ye gawati
want/like REFL-sg1 PROSP-buy-SUBJVE banana
'I want to buy bananas.'
Edit: Or maybe I should just have "normal" complement clauses.

Dun oan el-gbuula-ye gawati.
want sg1 PROSP-buy-SUBJVE banana
'I want to buy bananas.'

Dun oan el-gbuula-ye maa gawati.
want sg1 PROSP-buy-SUBJVE sg2 banana
'I want you to buy bananas.'
Lit. 'I want [that] you buy bananas.'
(3)
Dun aon te bara.
want/like sg1 PREP sleep(ing)
'I like sleeping'

(4)
Dun aon te bara-l.
want/like sg1 PREP sleep(ing)-PROSP
'I want to sleep.'

"Gbuula" in (1) and (2) is a verb, so the sentence is organized: 'I want/like myself to buy bananas.' "Para" in (3) and (4) is a stative, so the sentence is organized: 'I want/like of sleeping.'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

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puzo 'a bird'
puzoi 'a feather'
puzoi 'to write'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

Post by Omzinesý »

Questions

WH-questions

The normal wh-word is "nai" 'who, what, which', which refers to nouns.
"nua" refers to cluases, Statives or abstract nouns.

WH-words are positioned in situ.

Pupu maa nua. 'What are you doing.'

Eure oan te ndai yenpakita ne.
know sg1 PREP WH NOMIN-PERF.ACT.insult sg3
'I know who insulted him.'
Lit. 'I know about whom that insulted him.'

Polar questions

Main clauses
Polar questions can be formed with intonation. Nothing changes compared to normal clauses.

There can also be clause final particle "ye". It is related to Subjunctive suffix.

If the speaker makes some kind of a guess on the truth value of the answer, Sujective suffix "-yu" is also used. That always happens, if the question is negative.

(1)
Para-yu maa, ye?
'Are you sleeping (I guess you are)?'

(2)
Para-chai-yu maa, ye?
'Aren't you sleeping (I guess you are not)?'



Indirect polar questions

There cannot be indirect polar questions in Juikpuna. Verbs have Subjunctive mood, if their proposition is nonfactual. Statives cannot have Subjunctive, and subordinate clauses are ambiguous in respect with factuality.

(3)
Toge oan te para maa.
ask sg1 PREP sleeping sg2
'I asked if you are sleeping.'
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Re: Pelna Juikpuna

Post by Omzinesý »

Dictionary

Nouns
djea 'ground'
dovi 'boy'
gawati 'banana'
gbevure 'animal'
meme 'parent'
morun 'seat, chair'
pelna 'language'
pepo 'hole'
puzo 'bird'
puzoi 'feather'
siiji 'girl'
sogi 'water'
sota 'book'
toka 'spouse'
unta 'stick'

Statives
belu 'live, alive'
binu 'size'
dan 'seeing'
duja 'love'
dun 'liking, wanting'
eure 'knowing'
gunaama 'sincerity'
moru 'sitting'
sogila 'rain'
sotaa 'literature'
tana 'male'
togo 'standing'
tokaa 'marriage'


Verbs
ekotoru 'to fell'
gbuula 'to buy'
kotoru 'to fall INTR'
pakita 'to insult'
para 'sleeping'
pehuni 'forest'
piti 'to walk'
pupu 'to do, to make'
puzoi 'to write'
toge 'to ask'


Pronouns
maa 'sg2'
mono 'it' (mass nouns and Statives)
nai 'what, who, which'
ne 'sg3'
nua 'what'
oan 'sg1'
tende 'sg1 (superior)'

Prepositions
ma 'dative'
pu 'as, like'
te ' ~ about'
suu 'in, into'
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