This first post will solely deal with the phonology.
/m/ <m> /n/ <n> /ɳ/ <ṇ>
/p/ <b> /ph/ <p> /mb/ <mb> /t/ <d> /th/ <t> /nd/ <nd> /ʈ/ <ṭ> /k/ <g> /kh/ <k> /ᵑg/ <ng>
/s/ <s> /ʃ/ <ṡ> /ʂ/ <ṣ> /ħ/ <h>
/ɭ/ <l> /ɻ/ <r> /j/ <j,i> /w/ <w,u>
/i/ <i> /y/ <y> /u/ <u> /o/ <o>
/ɛ/ <e> /ɒ/ <a>
There may be some tweaks to this, plus etymological spellings, once I've more firmly established historical processes and the place of the language in its area.
Allophones and synchronic sound changes
- In onset, the prenasalisation of the voiced stops is not realised by all speakers, except in careful speech; when following a consonant in a cluster, it is never realised; and when following a vowel, it is realised as the corresponding nasal consonant
- Aspirated consonants are only realised with audible aspiration in coda position; however, an aspirated onset raises vowels as per the following pattern:
Code: Select all
ɒ > ʌ; o > ɯ; ɛ > e
- Unstressed [ʌ] is commonly realised as schwa, but not by all speakers
- Unstressed /i/ is realised as [ɨ], which is in turn lowered to schwa unless it carries secondary stress (constituents of compounds, incorporated nouns and some other morphological elements of verbs may carry secondary stress)
- Word-final schwa can be deleted
- /w/ and /j/ in coda can only follow the vowel directly, and they form the following diphthongs with the vowels:
Code: Select all
j: [ɒ,ʌ]+ /j/ > [aɪ̯]; [o,u,ɯ] + /j/ > [ɔɪ̯]; [ɛ,e] + /j/ > [eɪ̯]; [i,y,ɨ] + /j/ > [i:] if stressed; otherwise [ɪi̯] w: [ɛ,e] + /w/ > [eu̯]; [i,y,ɨ] + /w/ > /ju/; [ɯ,u] + /w/ > [u:] if stressed, [u] otherwise; [o,ʌ,ɒ] + /w/ > [aʊ̯] if stressed; otherwise [oʊ̯]
- Consonant assimilation rules, in sequence:
1. Geminate plain consonants block assimilation
2. Plain consonants assimilate next to aspirated consonants if possible (i.e. if they have an assimilated counterpart)
3. Plain consonants assimilate next to retroflex consonants if possible (i.e. if they have a retroflex counterpart)
Ruritanian has a maximum syllable structure of CCCVCC.
In a three-consonant cluster, which can only occur in onset (except for syllable boundaries, where these rules don’t apply)) the third consonant must be a liquid or semivowel, and the sonority hierarchy principle must be followed:
Stop – Fricative – Nasal - Liquid – Semivowel
The reverse of this hierarchy applies in the coda.
Clusters of two stops, fricatives or nasals can occur in onset only (again, with the exception of syllable boundaries).
Let me know if you have any thoughts, I will hopefully get the real deal soon - the grammar of the language, and the althist of the conworld! [/s]
This is no longer up-to-date; please see the later posts for the current incarnation of the language!