Moaduu development thread

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Moaduu development thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Moaduu [mɒ̝:'ðu:] is my newest project. It has got some inspiration from Tamil, but it's fully a-priori.
It seems to have so far that it's time to give it an own thread.


Phonology

Consonants
p t c k ʔ <p t k '>
(β) (ð) (ɣ) (ɦ) <b d g h>
s <s> x <x>
(z) <s> (ɣ) <g>
ʝ <y>
m n ŋ <m n n̂>
ɾ̪ <r>
l ʟ <l Î>


The sounds in brackets are allophones of the ones above.
- p t̪ c k ʔ are voiceless plosives word-initially and when geminated. They are voiced fricatives inter-vocally, and voiced stops in some clusters, below.
- /s/ and /x/ are voiceless fricatives word-initially, word-finally, and when geminated, and voiced fricatives between vowels.


Vowels
Short
i u <i u>
e o <e o>
æ <a>

Long
i: u: <ii uu>
e: o: <ee oo>>
æ: ɒ̝: <aa oa>

Diphthongs (considered long)
ei, ou <ei ou>
æi, ɒ̝u <ai au>

Phonotactics

The basic syllable structure is the boring (C)V(C).

- Allowed word-final consonants are: /t k ʔ, s x, n ŋ, l ʟ, r/

Consonant clusters

Consonant clusters within syllable
- Word-finally morpheme -ʔ (Genitive and Imperative) can follow a resonant consonant, creating a consonant cluster.

Consonant clusters over syllable boundary
All consonants appearing word-finally except /s x ʔ/ can begin a cluster.

Obstruent+obstruent clusters:
ts kx
tʝ kʝ

Resonant+obstruent clusters:
All obstruents can follow /n ŋ l ʟ/. /b/ can also follow /m/. When the phonemes of the cluster have same POA, the obstruent is a voiced stop, a voiced fricative in other contexts.
nβ nd nz nʝ nɣ nɦ - ŋβ ŋð ŋz ŋʝ ŋg ŋɦ - mb
lβ ld lz lʝ lɣ lɦ - ʟβ ʟð ʟz ʟʝ ʟg ʟɦ
rβ rð rz rʝ rɣ rɦ

Stress always on the second syllable.
- First syllables cannot be "extra-long", i.e. have both a long vowel and a coda.
- In two-syllable words, the second (stressed) syllable cannot be short, i.e. have a short vowel without coda. (Therefore the vowel often phonetically lengthens.)
There are no other restrictions on syllable weights.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

Post by Omzinesý »

Preliminary translation from yesterday


Once there was a king. He was childless. The king wanted a son. He asked his priest: "May a son be born to me!" The priest said to the king: "Pray to the god Werunos." The king approached the god Werunos to pray now to the god. "Hear me, father Werunos!" The god Werunos came down from heaven. "What do you want?" "I want a son." "Let this be so," said the bright god Werunos. The king's lady bore a son.

Logii nayusa pattoÎ.
[lo'ɣi: næ'juzæ pat'toʟ]
loki nacu-sa patto-Î
once rule-ACTOR_NMLZ exist.PST-RAT.SG3.M
'Once there was a king.'

Oyare punodex pattotssoasu.
[o'jæɾe pu'noðex pat'tot͡ssɒ̝:zu]
o-ca-re puno-tex patto-ssɒ̝ɒ:-su
3-OBL-to child-PART exist-NEG-RAT.PL
'He did not have any children'

Nayusaire teebaa ÎattuÎ.
[næ'juzæɾe te:'βæ: ʟæt'tuʟ]
nacusa-i-re teepa Îattu-Î
ruler-OBL-to son.NOM please-RAT.SG3.M
'He wanted a son.'

Kosu'erouxu peerenn: "teebadexxu 'umikkiÎ".
[ko'zuʔʔerouxu pe:'ɾeŋ | te:'βæðexxu ʔu'mikkilʟ]
kosu-'-'ero-u-xu peerenn | teepa-tex-xu 'umi'-ki-Î
god-man-ACC-POSS-SG3.RAT.M ask.SG3.RAT.M son-PART-POSS_RAT.SG3.M be_born-INTERROG-SG3.RAT.M
'He asked his priest(s) if any son would be born to him.'

Kosu'ero nayusaxurre coppaÎ: "Uberunoxkosuire mehuyoppa".
[ko'zuʔʔeɾo næ'juzærre cop'pæʟ | u'werunoxkozuiɾe me'ɦuyoppæ]
kosu''ero nacusa-xu-'-re copp-a-Î | Uperunos-kosu-i-re me'u-copp-o
priest king-his-OBL-to request-PST-SG3.M Werunos-god-OBL-DAT good-ask-IMPER.SG2

Nayasa kosuire paatssamaÎ mehuyoppima.
[næ'juzæ ko'zuiɾe pæ:t͡s'sæmæʟ me'ɦujoppimæ]
nacusa kosu-i-re paassam-a-Î me'ucopp-ima-∅
king good-OBL-to turn-PST-SG3M prey-OPTAT-SS

"Korjedumo, Uberunosnuulo!"
[kor'ɟeðumo | u'weɾunosnu:lo]
korc-et-um-o | uperunos-nu:lo
hear-INTENSIVE-sg1-IMPER.SG2 | Werunos-father
'Listen to me, Werunos-father.'

Uberunoxkosu podellaben sonnaÎ.
[u'weɾunoxkozu po'ðellaβen sonnæʟ]
uperunos-kosu potol-:a-pen sonn-a-Î
Werunos-gad sky-OBL-from move_down-PAST-SG3M
'Werunos-gad came down from the heaven.'

"Îattungitsse?"
[ʟæt'tuŋgit͡sse]
Îattu-n-ki-sse
please-SG2OBJ-INTERR-what

"Teebaa ÎattumuÎ."
[te:'βæ: ʟæt'tumuʟ]
teepa Îattu-m-u-Î
son please-SG1-∅-SG3M
'I want a son.'

"Noppuimaa", siinoyadex Uberunoxkosu colaÎ.
[nop'puimæ: | si:'nojaðex u'weɾunoxkozu co'laʟ]
noppu-ima-: | siinoca-tex uperunos-kosu col-a-Î
happen-OPTAT-sg.IRRAT | brightness-PART Werunos-god say-PST-SG3M
'That shall happen, the god said.'

Nayusa' mettoo teebau umittal.
[na'jusa met'to: te:'βæu u'mittæl]
nacusa-' metto teepa-u u'mi-t-a-l
king-GEN wife son-ACC be_born-CAUS-PST-SG3F
'The king's wife bore a son.'

NOTES:
In words "logii", "teebaa", the second vowel lengthens because final, stressed syllable cannot be just one mora.
Word "peerenn" [pe:'ɾeŋ] is a consonant stem, i.e. its gender agreement is fusional, "peeren" [pe:'ɾen] being its feminine form.
The lang has not phoneme /w/. In the name Werunos, it is replased by /up/ which is pronounced [uw].
The last morpheme in "Îattungitsse", is glossed as 'what' but it means 'something' in non-interrogative clauses.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Dictionary

Nouns
eeccis- 'north'
kosu 'god'
kosu'ero 'priest' (god's man)
logii 'once'
mettoo 'wife'
nayusa 'king'
podel 'sky, heaven'
puno 'child'
puunim- 'strength'
roha 'wind'
siinoo 'sun'
siinoya 'brightness'
teepa- 'son'
'ero 'man'



Verbs
cohib- 'be better (at)'
col 'to say'
copp- 'to request'
korj- 'to hear'
korjet- 'to listen'
Îattu 'want, please, like'
mehuyopp- 'prey' (good-request)
nayu 'to rule'
nopp- 'happen'
paatssam 'to turn'
patt- 'to exist'
rimbala- 'to write'
sonn- 'to descend'
toppotss- 'to dispute'
'umi'- 'to be born'
'umitt- 'to give birth to'
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak.
They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other.
Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him;
and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak.
And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

Eeccisroha lai siinoo toppotssaru, oudex 'aasaa puunimmix cohibel.
[e:c'cirroɦæ læi si:'no: top'potssæɾu ou'ðex ʔæ:zæ: pu:'nimmix co'ɦiβel]
eeccis-ro'a lai siino topposs-a-ru |o-u-tex 'aasa* puunim-m-ix cohib-e-l
north-wind and sun dispute-PST-RAT.PL | PRON-PL-PART which_one strength-OBL-LOC be_better-SUBJVE-SG3F**
'The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger'


'ottarasa 'ottaroccaÎ
[ʔot'tæɾæzæ ʔot'tæɾoccæʟ]
'ottar-a-sa 'ottar-o'-c-a-Î
walk-∅-ACTOR.NMLZ walk-VENITIVE-TEMPORAL_MOOD-PST-SG3M ***

* "oudex 'aasaa" means 'which of them'. " 'aasaa"always appears with a partitive complement, never alone.
** Northern Wind and Sun are considered feminine entities.
*** 'wrapped in a warm cloak' would need a relative clause, which I don't have yet.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Accusative is used to mark time as constant units (on Monday, tomorrow ...)
Partitive is used to mark time as continuity (during money, during tomorrow ...)
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Nouns have case marking but no gender/number/definiteness marking. There are, at least tree, declensions on nouns: Vocalic stems without consonant doubling, Vocalic stems with consonant doubling, consonant stems.
Case is defined here as a morphological case, one with which modifiers agree. There are several enclitic postpositions attached to the Obligue form of nouns but modifiers only repeat the Oblique form.

Functions of the cases

Nominative
- case of subject
- vocative
- citation form
- case of predicative

Accusative
- Case of direct object (i'm not too far in syntax so I don't know what object roles there will be)
- Case of punctual (perfective) times

Partitive
- Means 'any' in question and negative clauses
- Used of mass nouns (instead of Accusative, at least)
- Case of (imperfective) time during which something is done
(Rather corresponds to Basque Partitive than the Finnish one.)

Genitive
- Case of nominal modifiers
- There are few adjectives so many of them are abstract
- (maybe) general non-transitive relation 'conserning X'

Oblique
- Appears with postpositions (all postpositions of place, but also many others)
- In some general locations could mean to and in/on/at. (Not sure how common this is. Lexicalized place names like Latin Locative or more productive use.)

Declension





Consonant declension

Code: Select all

	mirit 'woman'	peson 'house'  

NOM	mirit		peson 
ACC	mirid-u		peson-u
OBL	miritt-(i)	pesonn-(i)
GEN	mirid-i' 	peson-'
PART	mirit-tex	peson-nex
Consonant stems end in: /t k n ŋ l ʟ r s x/.
The obstruents /t k s x/ have voiced fricative allophones [ð ɣ z ɣ], written <d g s g> between vowels.

Oblique is formed by geminating the last consonant. It may have suffix -i in some phonemic contexts.
Genitive suffix is -ʔ <'> after resonants (peson') and -Vʔ (miridi'), where V is the preceding vowel repeated, after obstruents.
Partitive suffix is -Cex, where C is the stem-final consonant geminated.

Vowel declension

Code: Select all

	nayusa 'ruler'	posuu 'dog'  

NOM	nayusa		posuu
ACC	nayusa-o*	posuu*
OBL	nayusa-h(i)**	posuu-r(e)**
GEN	nayusa-' 	posuu-'
PART	nayusa-dex	posuu-dex
Accusative ending is /u/, in principle, but there are some sandhi phenomena:
æ + u => ɒ: written a + u => ao
u + u => u:
e + u => e:
i + u => i:

** There are several Oblique endings for the vowel declension. They are lexically determined.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Moaduu could adopt some ideas of pronominal suffixes from Tibeto-Burman.

The verb is marked for first person, if there is a first person subject or object (maybe some other complement, as well?).
The verb is marked for second person, if there is a second person subject or object (maybe some other complement, as well?).
The verb is marked for 'we', if there is a first person subject and second person object, or first person object and second person subject, or 'we' as subject or object (maybe some other complement, as well?).

The role of the pronominal suffix is not coded.
"Love-M-we" can well mean 'I (Masc) love you(Fem, Masc, or Pl).' or 'You(Masc.) love me(Masc or Fem).' or 'You(Masc) love us.' or 'We love each other.'
In most contexts, it is quite evident which interpretation is accurate.

One of the main ideas in Moaduu is, however, that the verb agrees its subject in number, "rationality" and sex. That is more like a real agreement.

The pronominal suffix and the subject agreement can refer to the same participant or not.


These pronominal suffixes could code egophoricity as well, but I usually fail my projects if I try to implement egophoricity.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Verbs

Verb morphology is always the difficult part for me.

Because plural is not marked in (object) nouns, clauses 'I read a/the book.' and 'I read books.', the latter expressing a sequence of actions or a habit, must be differentiated by the verb (or context). There could thus be Habitual(-Iterative) aspect.

Inspired by Bhat's book, I could include some irrealis moods. Negation could also be expressed by them.
I'm also inspired by Greenlandic "embedded moods" but on the other hand they could be nonfinite converbs, as well (a matter of degree). At least, there are participles or a "relative mood" because many adjectival words are syntactically verbs.
There could also be speech-act moods like Interrogative.

I'have been using relative tenses lately (anterior and posterior to the main flow of events). I could still use them. Bhat's book mentioned "Relevant" and "Irrelevant" perfects. They could be interesting.
Alternatively, there could be real tenses (past, present, future), Habitual being the unmarked form.


The agreement system is quite clear. There are pronominal markers for "me". "you" or "both of us" appearing in the clause, but they don't code the roles of the speech participants as subjects, objects etc. They will be provided with egophoricity marking.

-pi '1st nonego' -pa '1st ego'
-son '2nd nonego', -suun '2st ego' (2nd person egophoric form used in questions)
-(e)nu '1st and second nonego', -(e)re '1st and 2nd ego'

Verbs agree with their subject (There are no grammatical genders. They are based on semantics of the referents.)
-Î 'Masculine singular (he)'
-l 'Feminine singular (she)'
-tu 'Rational plural (they (persons))
-∅ 'Nonrationa singular (it)'
-ta 'Nonrational plural (they (not people))


A preliminary verb template:

0 Stem
1 voice-like things (causative, anticausative, antipassive?, applicative)
2 Perfects, Habitual
3 Mood (negation, future, interrogative..., reportative) (there might be several of mood suffixes idk)
4 subject agreement
5 pronominal suffixes/egophoricity


There could also be some locational deictics (here, there) that could work as applicatives, as well.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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"Adjectives" in modifier and predicate uses could be used as perfects and perfect participles of dynamic verbs.

blushed apple 'red apple'
The apple has blushed. 'the apple is red'

heated room 'a warm room'
The room has been heated. 'The room is warm.'

It is such an ineffective way of forming them that it is interesting.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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The basic stems of verbs, agreeing gender/number but not person, could actually be (derived from) participles.

koryeÎ 'listening M'
koryel 'listening F'
koryedu 'listening PL'

koryeÎ nayusa 'a listening king'
koryel nayusa 'a listening queen'
koryedu nayusa 'listening rulers'

There are, at least, three participles

Realis Participle
Irrealis Particple
Negative Participle

koryel nayusa 'a listening queen'
korisel nayusa 'a queen that might listen'
korikkon nayusal 'a queen that does not listen'
Edit: I'm still thinking if the participles should have some voice-like distinctions. ('a falling tree' vs. a man felling a tree' or even 'a garden where a tree falls'). And if yes, should there also be a perfect participle ('a fallen tree').
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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The jumping fox clause is perfect for testing participles.

[po:'zezul nok'kæl pet'sæk joʔ'tokkoŋ po'zu:retsu:l keɦ'le:]
Poosesul nokkal petsak yo'tokkoN posuuretsuul kehlee.
poose-su-l nokka-l petsak yo'ti-kko-N posuu-re-tsuut keh-l-e
move_quickly-IRREAL.PTCP-F be_brown-REAL.PTCP.F be_active-NEG.PTCP-M dog-OBL-over jump-F-PRS
'The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.'

Fox that can move quickly and is brown jumps over a dog that is not active.

Actually, dogs and foxes are not considered rational and should not inflect with Masculine and Feminine suffixes, but let us decide that this is a folk tale with anthropomorphic animals.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Egophoric markers with Realis mood express that the information is very sure, i.e. the speaker is the epistemic authority, (1).
Egophoric markers with Irrealis mood express that the information is not sure at all, i.e. it is just the speaker's understanding or opinion, (2).
Egophoric markers with Negative mood express either, and it must be deduced from the context, (3).

(1)
Posuuretsuul kehlopa.
posuuretsuul keh-l-o-pa
over.dog jump-REAL.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I jumped over a dog.' (I know because I am the one who jumped.)

(2)
Posuuretsuul kehsulopa.
posuuretsuul keh-sul-o-pa
over.dog jump-IRREAL.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I jumped over a dog, I think.' (I interpret it that way.)

(3)
Posuuretsuul kehkonopa.
posuuretsuul keh-kkon-o-pa
over.dog jump-NEG.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I did'n jump over a dog.'

Non-Egophoric forms express that the speaker cannot know what she did, (4). She was maybe drunk or something.

(4)
Posuuretsuul kehlopi.
posuuretsuul keh-l-o-pi
over.dog jump-REAL.F-PST-1st.NEGO
'I jumped over a dog.' (I infer or I am told so.)
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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What meanings should the old copula express?

-e Present
-ax Past Imperfective, i.e. Imperfect
-o Past Perfective, i.e. Aorist (Is aspect distinction really needed?)
(future is expressed as Irrealis Present)
-us Habitual
(I think I do not need a 'used to' form.)
-' [ʔ] Imperative (with Realis mood, stricter than with Irrealis mood) (Participles always end in a resonant, so the glottal stop can always be attached without an epenthetic vowel.

Edit: Or could the "voices" appear in this slot?
Historically there could be different auxiliaries. ('The man is killed.' vs. 'The man has killed.') They could also appear in the active form of unaccusative verbs, like German "Der Mann ist gestorben."


Nouns can also be made predicates with that suffix (without the participle suffix).

Siinoo kosuus. 'The sun is a god.'
Siinoo kosuax. 'The sun was a god.'

Edit: If there was a perfect participle, there could be an inchoative ('starts') in this slot. The combination of Perfect and Inchoative could express the perfective aspect.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Verbs

Typologically, it is coherent to say that adjectives are verbs in Maoduu, but actually all verb stems are adjectives (Participles).

The verb template is:
0 Stem
1 Participle marker
2 Auxiliary marker
3 Pronominal marker

The terms Partiple marker and marker are purposefully opaque because they contain many morphological categories.

Finite verbs must have all Stem, Participle marker, and Auxiliary marker. None one them can be a zero-morpheme.
Nonfinite verbs do without Auxiliary marker.
Pronominal marker is optional. It appears if 1st or 2nd person is an argument of the clause, in any semantic role.

1 Participle marker can be divided in two subcategories: TAM and Agreement.

There are six TAM categories in this slot:

a) -us/ux/uru/ur/ura
These suffixes express Habitual-Iterative, when part of a finite verb.
They form an actor nominalization,when a nonfinite verb.

b) -(e)Î/(e)l/(e)tu/?/(e)ta
These suffixes express Non-Habitual present, when part of a finite verb.
They express simultaneous participle, when nonfinite.

c) -iN/in/imu/?/ima
These suffixes express Perfect or Perfective, depending on Auxiliary, when part of a finite verb.
They express anterior participle, when nonfinite.

d) -soN/son/sou/so/soa
These suffixes express Irrealis (stricter meaning depends on Auxiliary), when part of a finite verb.
They express Irrealis Participle, when nonfinite. That more or less corresponds to Gerundive in Latin or -able in English.

e) -kkoN/kkon/kkou/kko/kkoa
These suffixes express Negative, when part of a finite verb.
They express Negative Participle, when nonfinite.

Particles agree their head, and verbs agree their subject. Endings in e) can also agree their object, but it is considered archaic. The agreement forms are: Masculine Singular Rational, Feminine Singular Rational, Plural Rational, Singular Irrational, and Plural Irrational. The suffixes are in that order above. Only people are considered rational, but in some contexts also other anthropomorphic entities can be seen rational. Rationality is not a gender but a semantic feature, like English "he/she/it".

Words with a stem and Participle Marker can be used as participles/adjectives.

2 Auxiliary marker

There are four suffixes in the Auxiliary slot. (I may come up with more later.)

a) -e/ka
Agent-oriented Present

b) -en/e
Patient-oriented Present

Most verbs have -e 'Agent-oriented Present ' and -en 'Patient-oriented Present '. But some unaccusative verbs have -ka 'Agent-oriented Present' and -e 'Patient-oriented Present'. It is lexically determined. Historically -ka is a causative marker.

c) -ax
Agent-oriented Present

b) -o
Patient-oriented Past

e) -' [ʔ]
Imperative

All Participles end in a resonant, so the glottal stop can be added to the stem without an epenthetic vowel.


Semantics of combinations of Participle markers and Auxiliary markers

a) -us/ux/uru/ur/ura
When those suffixes appear with Present Auxiliary, the verb is Present Habitual.
When those suffixes appear with Past Auxiliary, the verb is Past Habitual.

b) -(e)Î/(e)l/(e)tu/?/(e)ta
When those suffixes appear with Present Auxiliary, the verb is Present Progressive.
When those suffixes appear with Past Auxiliary, the verb is Past Progressive.

c) -iN/in/imu/?/ima
When those suffixes appear with Present Auxiliary, the verb is Perfective.
When those suffixes appear with Past Auxiliary, the verb is (Plu)Perfect.

d) -soN/son/sou/so/soa
When those suffixes appear with Present Auxiliary, the verb is Future.
When those suffixes appear with Past Auxiliary, the verb is Conditional.

e) -kkoN/kkon/kkou/kko/kkoa
When those suffixes appear with Present Auxiliary, the verb is Negation of Present.
When those suffixes appear with Past Auxiliary, the verb is Negation of Past.

Negation thus loses much information that appear in positive clauses. Negative clauses only have two tenses, but no mood or aspect distinctions.


I'll think about voices later. Anyways, they are quite lexicalized, and are not a syntactic devise like voices in English.



3 Pronominal marker

Pronominal markers code two categories: person and Egophoricity.

There are pronominal markers for "me". "you" or "both of us" appearing in the clause, but they don't code the roles of the speech participants as subjects, objects etc. Number is coded neither.

Code: Select all

		Non-Ego	Ego
1st person	-pi	-pa 
2nd person	-son	-suun 
1st 2nd persons	-(e)nu	-(e)re

Egophoric markers with Realis mood express that the information is very sure, i.e. the speaker is the epistemic authority, (1).
Egophoric markers with Irrealis mood express that the information is not sure at all, i.e. it is just the speaker's understanding or opinion, (2).
Egophoric markers with Negative mood express either, and it must be deduced from the context, (3).

(1)
Posuuretsuul kehinaxpa.
posuuretsuul keh-in-ax-pa
over.dog jump-REAL.PERFVE.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I jumped over a dog.' (I know because I am the one who jumped.)

(2)
Posuuretsuul kehsulaxpa.
posuuretsuul keh-sul-ax-pa
over.dog jump-IRREAL.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I jumped over a dog, I think.' (I interpret it that way.)

(3)
Posuuretsuul kehkonaxpa.
posuuretsuul keh-kkon-ax-pa
over.dog jump-NEG.F-PST-1st.EGO
'I did'n jump over a dog.'

Non-Egophoric forms express that the speaker cannot know what she did, (4). She was maybe drunk or something.

(4)
Posuuretsuul kehlaxpi.
posuuretsuul keh-l-ax-pi
over.dog jump-REAL.F-PST-1st.NEGO
'I jumped over a dog.' (I infer or I am told so.)


Second person Egophoric forms are used in questions, when the speaker asks for subjective information.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Oblique case without preposition expresses unaffected object 'to speak/think... about X'.
It is the case of topic in the topic construction 'When it comes to X'
It also expresses possessor

Nayusai punodex kakkoñex.
nayusa-i puno-dex ka-kkoñ-e-x
king-OBL child-PART exist-NEG.M-V-PAST
'The king had no child.'
'When it comes to the king, any child didn't exist.'

All postpositions are also attached to the oblique.



Genitive also expresses manner.
kohul/kohuÎ/kohudu/kohuu/kohuda 'beautiful' => kohul'/kohuÎ'/kohudu'/kohu'/kohuda' 'beautifully', also 'Be beautiful!'
nessaa 'foot' => nessa' 'by foot'
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Postpositions

What I call postpositions are phonetically part of the noun, enclitics.

Moaduu is a verb-framed language. One postposition can thus express both location and goal.

-n
Recipient
General location 'at'. Institutions like 'school, station, hospital, home'
General goal (the ones above)

-aas
Location/goal 'inside'
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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The auxiliaries again

This far, there are two auxiliaries in present and past.

-e 'is'
-e-x 'was'
-o 'has'
-o-x 'had'

Historically, they were independent auxiliary verbs. Now, they are grammaticalized suffixes whose meanings are determined in combination with the participle marker.
-e is actually productively added to nouns, as well, to form copula clauses. -o only appears with some lexicalized expressions "have need, have will, have guts ...'.

That does actually resemble English syntax quite much.

simultaneous + has = habitual? 'usually does'
simultaneous + is = progressive 'is doing'
anterior + has = perfective 'did/has done'
anterior + is = passive perfective 'is/was done' (active for someverbs 'is come')


-e appears with the simultaneous participle to form progressive aspect forms, (1) (2).

(1)
Koryedele.
koryet-el-e
liste-PRS_PTCP.F-is
'She is listening.'

(2)
Koryedelex.
koryet-el-e-x
listen-PRS_PTCP-is-PST
'She was listening.'


-o appears with the anterior participle to form past perfective, (3), and pluperfect forms, (4).

(3)
Koryedino.
koryet-in-o
listen-PERF_PTCP-has
'She listened.'

(4)
Koryedinox.
koryet-in-o-x
listen-PERF_PTCP-has-PST
'She had listened.'


-e with the anterior participle expresses passive past perfective, (5), and passive pluperfect, (6).

(5)
Koryedine.
koryet-in-e
Listen-PERF_PTCP-is
'She was listened to.'

(6)
Koryedinex.
koryet-in-e-x
Listen-PERF_PTCP-is-PST
'She has been listened to.'


Some unaccusative verbs, mainly expressing change of location or state, however, form the past anterior and pluperfect with -e. That is similar to French, Italian, German, and archaic English 'She is come'.

(7)
Sonnine.
sonn-in-e
descend-PERF_PTCP-is
'She came down.'

(8)
Sonninex
sonn-in-e-x
descend-PERF_PTCP-is-PST
'She had come down.'

Those unaccusative verbs usually have a causative form with -o, (9) (10).

(9)
Sonnino.
sonn-in-o
descend-PERF_PTCP-has
'She layed something down.'

(10)
Sonninox
sonn-in-o-x
descend-PERF_PTCP-has-PST
'She had layed something down.'



I'm not sure what simultaneous + has (-el-o) should mean. I will probably choose i), the habitual. Then I could get rid of the habitual participle.

i) It could mean habitual.
"She has some reading." => 'She usually reads.'

ii) It could be a kind of applicative.
"She has a book there and she is reading." => 'She is reading there.'

iii) It could mean necessity and future.
"She has to read.'


There could also be a volitional auxiliary, which would be syntactically like -e, 'willingly be'.
There could also be an applicative auxiliary, if -o is not one.
I don't know if the reflexive should be an auxiliary marker or a pronominal marker.
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Re: Moaduu development thread

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Preliminary syntax

Moaduu is a SOV language. The order of S and O can easily vary depending on topicality. Embedded clauses can also follow the verb.

Embedded clauses are mostly nonfinite, building around particles.
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Suffixal auxiliary -e can be attached to any noun to express 'is an X'.

[u'werunos ko'zuwe]
Uberunos kosue.
Uberunos kosu-e
Warunos god-is
'Warunos is a god.'

[ko'zuɦeroweβæ]
Kosuheroeba.
kosuhero-e-pa
priest-COP-1st.EGO
'I am a priest.'
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