Gallo-Tuscan

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All4Ɇn
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

I'm currently working on adjectives before nouns and I've run into a bit of a conundrum. Before "impure s" there are currently two groups of adjectives:
1. Those add an epenthetic /o/ in the masculine singular form & an /i/ in the plural of both genders
2. Those that an /i/ in all 3 of these forms (4 if the feminine singular doesn't end in -a)

The masculine singular for group 1 is the easiest to indicate orthographically:
Bòno psichiatter /ˌbon‿opsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (good psychiatrist)

I'm struggling with how to indicate the forms that add /i/. Right now I can think of 3 options:
1. Write it as <i> in the singular and <ie> in the plural e.g: grandi psichiatter & grandie psichiattere /ŋrɑ̃d‿ipsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (tall psychiatrist/psychiatrists)
2. Write it separately/hyphenated: grand i psichiatter & grande i psichiattere
3. Don't write it at all and have it be inferred by the context: grand psichiatter & grande psichiattere

What do you guys think?
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 07 May 2021 23:33, edited 1 time in total.
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VaptuantaDoi
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

All4Ɇn wrote: 24 Apr 2021 07:54 I'm currently working on adjectives before nouns and I've run into a bit of a conundrum. Before "impure s" there are currently two groups of adjectives:
1. Those add an epenthetic /o/ in the masculine singular form & an /i/ in the plural of both genders
2. Those that an /i/ in all 3 of these forms (4 if the feminine singular doesn't end in -a)

The masculine singular for group 1 is the easiest to indicate orthographically:
Bòno psichiatter /bɔn‿opsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (good psychiatrist)

I'm struggling with how to indicate the forms that add /i/. Right now I can think of 3 options:
1. Write it as <i> in the singular and <ie> in the plural e.g: grandi psichiatter & grandie psichiattere /ŋrɑ̃d‿ipsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (tall psychiatrist/psychiatrists)
2. Write it separately/hyphenated: grand i psichiatter & grande i psichiattere
3. Don't write it at all and have it be inferred by the context: grand psichiatter & grande psichiattere

What do you guys think?
I like the second option, having a meaningless epenthetic vowel written as a separate word appeals to me.

Also I haven't replied to this thread before, but Gallo-Tuscan is a really cool and distinctive romlang [:D]
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

VaptuantaDoi wrote: 24 Apr 2021 09:53I like the second option, having a meaningless epenthetic vowel written as a separate word appeals to me.

Also I haven't replied to this thread before, but Gallo-Tuscan is a really cool and distinctive romlang [:D]
Glad to know you like it :). If I did do the second one it would probably be written as <ì> to avoid confusion with the definite article e.g: i grande ì psichiattere
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Adjective Irregularities
Adjectives before impure s
All adjectives that end in a consonant, consonant followed by a silent e, or a nasal vowel and are directly in front of a noun starting with one of the "impure consonants" are followed by the euphonic particle ì, which is phonetically attached to the noun, e.g: il grand ì psichiatter /il ŋrɑ̃d‿ibsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (the tall psychiatrist). This rule applies to all and can be assumed for all adjectives except in the masculine singular form for those adjectives below which irregularly add an -o in this form specifically before impure consonants.

Regular adjectives that add -o
The following adjectives are entirely regular group 1 adjectives but still add the ending -o in the masculine singular form before nouns starting with /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks bs bn bt/
1. Lóng- Long
2. Stesse- Same
3. Vècie- Old
4. All superlatives ending in -issime (e.g: grandissime)
5. The irregular superlatives, i.e: infime, massime, minime, ottime, pessime, some, supreme

Bel- Great/Nice/Beautiful
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Bel/Bello
Feminine singular: Bella/Bell'
Masculine plural: Béglie/Bei
Feminine plural: Beglie/Bei
-Bell' is used before nouns starting with a vowel
-Bello and Bei are used before /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks bs bn bt/
Bon- Good
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Bon/Bon'/Bòno
Feminine singular: Bona/Bon'
Masculine plural: Bone
Feminine plural: Bòne
-Bon' is used before nouns starting with a vowel
-Bòno is used before /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks bs bn bt/
Brau- Good/Skillful
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Brau/Brav'
Feminine singular: Brava/Brav'
Masculine plural: Brave
Feminine plural: Brave
-Brav' is used used before nouns starting with a vowel
Grand- Big/Tall/Large/Great
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Grand/Gran
Feminine singular: Granda/Gran/Grand'
Masculine plural: Grande
Feminine plural: Grande
-Gran is used for masculine nouns when directly before a noun starting with a consonant. Before a noun starting with an impure consonant grand ì is always used
-Gran is optionally used for feminine nouns when directly before a noun starting with a consonant. It can typically be replaced with granda but in some expressions can't be substituted such as Gran Bretagna (Great Britain). Before a noun starting with an impure consonant granda is always used
-Grand' is used before nouns starting with a vowel
Mal- Evil
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Mal/Malo
Feminine singular: Mala/Mal'
Masculine plural: Male
Feminine plural: Male
-Mal' is used before nouns starting with a vowel
-Malo is used before /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks bs bn bt/
-Mal as an adjective means evil. The adjective meaning bad is frazì
Nòve- New
Spoiler:
Masculine singular: Nòve/Nov'/Nòvo
Feminine singular: Nòva/Nov'
Masculine plural: Nove
Feminine plural: Nòve
-Nov' is used nouns starting with a vowel
-Nòvo is used before /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks bs bn bt/
Pronunciation of unstressed monosyllabic adjectives before nouns
All single syllable adjectives are typically pronounced as secondarily stressed clitics directly before a noun, causing /ɛ ɔ ɛ̃ ɔ̃/ to be pronounced as /e o ẽ õ/. This change is only indicated orthographically in the forms bon' and nov' but applies to all adjectives, i.e: i nòve boteche /i ˌnov‿boˈθeh/ (the new stores) & il bòno psichiatter /il ˌbon‿obsiˈkjɑteɾ/ (the good psychiatrist)
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 10 Sep 2021 19:12, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Not sure what topic to cover next so I thought I'd ask if there's anything anyone wants to see in particular. I could cover other determiners, verbs, pronouns, maybe vocabulary. If there's something else anyone is interested in I could also cover that.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by ixals »

I vote for pronouns and after that, verbs! [:D]
Native: :deu:
Learning: :gbr:, :chn:, :tur:, :fra:

Zhér·dûn a tonal Germanic conlang

old stuff: Цiски | Noattȯč | Tungōnis Vīdīnōs
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by eldin raigmore »

Multi-clausal constructions.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

ixals wrote: 16 May 2021 22:22 I vote for pronouns and after that, verbs! [:D]
I can definitely do this soon if not next :)
eldin raigmore wrote: 17 May 2021 03:29 Multi-clausal constructions.
Thank you for reminding me of this. I actually haven’t started this element yet so I have so work to do
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Personal Pronouns
I've gotten around to figuring these all out

Nominative Pronouns
Rarely used as a verbal subject except for emphasis. Typically only seen as disjunctive pronouns after a preposition. Before a first or third person nominative pronoun, the prepositions con (with) and in (in) become co' and ne'
1s: or me (second preferred by most dialects; iò never used disjunctively)
2s: te
3s masculine: gli
3s feminine: le
1p: noi
2p: voi
3p: lor

Accusative Pronouns
1s: me/m'
2s: te/t'
3s masculine: lo/l'
3s feminine: la/l'
3s reflexive: se/s'
1p: zi
2p: ve/v'
3p: li

Dative Pronouns
1s: me/m'
2s: te/t'
3s: zi
3s reflexive: se/s'
1p: zi
2p: ve/v'
3p: zi

In addition to being used as a typical dative pronoun, zi is also used to replace any noun (such as a place) after the preposition a meaning to/at. In this meaning it's typically translated as "there" and is almost identical to French y or Italian ci.

Stressed Dative
The stressed dative consists of the preposition a followed by a nominative pronoun and is always used in conjunction with the normal dative pronouns. It's used in order to avoid situations where the meaning could be ambiguous particularly with the pronoun zi:
Zi lo da a noi: He's giving it to us
Zi l'ha dà a le: He gave it to her

Instrumental Zi
A completely superfluous zi is sometimes used alongside co' noi, co' gli, co' le, co' lor. This instrumental zi was formerly used alone (like how ci can be used instrumentally in Italian) but over time the forms of con became necessary to avoid confusion with other meanings of zi. Use of instrumental zi changes person to person but officially it should be used everywhere alongside co' noi/co' gli/co' le/co' lor whenever the meaning can't be misinterpreted, e.g:
1. Zi ho parià co' lor- I spoke with them (instrumental zi kept because the meaning is clear)
2. Zi Scrive co' gli- He writes with it (superfluous zi dropped here because the sentence could be misinterpreted as "he writes to us with it")

Genitive Pronoun
En/N'/Ne (before impure s) is used in place of any prepositional phrase consisting of de (of/from) and a noun.

Pronoun Location
1. If there is a conjugated verb, pronouns always go before it
2. If there is a conjugated verb followed by an infinitive, pronouns are usually suffixed to the infinitive but sometimes will come before the main verb
3. When making perfect tenses, pronouns go before the auxiliary verb
4. When making the passive (rarely used), pronouns are suffixed after the past participle
5. After an infinitive, present participle, or past participle not preceded by a conjugated verb, the pronoun is suffixed after
6. In the positive imperative, pronouns are suffixed after the verb

Pronunciation Changes
When suffixed after a verb form, pronouns undergo a few changes
1. Pronouns ending in -e always pronounce the /e/ even when they're word-final. This is the only occurence of unstressed final /e/ in native Gallo-Tuscan words and is not indicated differently in the orthography: pariarme (to talk to me) /bɑˈrjɑme/
2. If the pronoun is suffixed to a present participle, past participle, or imperative ending in a consonant or nasal vowel, any written silent final -e is dropped and -i is added: un liver scrittime (a book written for me); racîtive (shave yourselves)
3. En becomes -ne when suffixed after the verb
4. Zi becomes -izi when suffixed after infinitives except for those ending in -ar where the -r is silent: finirizilo (to finish it for us)
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 18 Aug 2021 17:56, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

-Ar Verbs in the Present Tense
As mentioned previously, the <r> is always silent in the infinitive of a regular -ar verb. This rule does not apply to the verbs star (be/stand) or dar (give) or to any of the formerly -er verbs that shortened their infinitives such as far (do) or attrar (attract). The final -s in the the 2s and 1p forms are always silent.

The first person singular conjugation was originally null but was over time analogized to being identical to the second person singular form. The third person plural form was originally an unstressed nasal vowel, but as this was practically the only occurence of word final unstressed nasal vowels in the whole language, the stress was eventually moved to the end of the conjugation where it quickly was analogized to the first person plural form.

1s: -e
2s: -es
3s: -a
1p: -ons
2p: -et
3p: -on

Sample Verb: Smutar- Change/Turn into
Spoiler:
1s: Smute /smuθ/
2s: Smutes /smuθ/
3s: Smuta /ˈsmuθɑ/
1p: Smutons /smuˈθɔ̃/
2p: Smutet /smuˈθɛt/
3p: Smuton /smuˈθɔ̃/
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

-Er/-Ér Verbs in the Present Tense
Unlike the -ar infinitive ending, the <r> is pronounced. A fairly large number of -er verbs derived from the Latin -ĕre verbs have shortened their stem in the infinitive. The full stem reveals itself in the conjugations. Example include:
Assér (seat): assièd-/assed-
Attrar (attract): attrà-/attrac-/attrai-
Bér (drink): bév-
Conclur (conclude): conclud-
Crér (believe): créd-
Dir (say): dic-
Far (do): faç- (always palatalized)
Ler (read): lèg-
Pior (rain): piòv-
Vér (see): véd-

Some of these verbs have other complications in their conjugations and will be covered later.

1s: -e
2s: -es (metaphony of stressed /e ẽ o õ ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ to /i ĩ u ũ e ẽ o õ/; palatalization of stem final /(s)k ŋ/ to /t͡s d͡ʒ/)
3s: -e (palatalization of stem final /(s)k ŋ/ to /t͡s d͡ʒ/
1p: -ons (palatalization of stem final /(s)k ŋ/ to /t͡s d͡ʒ/
2p: -et (palatalization of stem final /(s)k ŋ/ to /t͡s d͡ʒ/
3p: -on

The few verbs ending in -cér/-gér (note the stress on the infinitive ending) treat the palatalized consonant as part of the stem and don't alternate between the palatalized and non-palatalized variants

Sample Verb: Terger- Clean
Spoiler:
1s: Terghe /tɛɾŋ/
2s: Térges /teɾd͡ʒ/
3s: Terge /tɛɾd͡ʒ/
1p: Tergions /teɾˈd͡ʒɔ̃/
2p: Terget /teɾˈd͡ʒɛt/
3p: Tergon /teɾˈŋɔ̃/
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 28 Aug 2021 08:16, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

-Ir Verbs in the Present Tense
As you may expect, -ir verbs have two separate conjugates, one with an infix from Latin -ēsc- and one without it.

Group One:
1s: -e
2s: -es (metaphony of stressed /e ẽ o õ ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ to /i ĩ u ũ e ẽ o õ/; palatalization of stem final /(s)k ŋ/ to /t͡s d͡ʒ/)
3s: -e
1p: -ons (palatalization of stem final /t/ to /t͡s/
2p: -et
3p: -on (palatalization of stem final /t/ to /t͡s/

Sample Verb: Partir- Leave
Spoiler:
1s: Part /bɑɾt/
2s: Partes /bɑɾt/
3s: Parte /bɑɾt/
1p: Parçons /bɑɾˈ t͡sɔ̃/
2p: Partet /bɑɾˈtɛt/
3p: Parçons /bɑɾˈ t͡sɔ̃/
Group Two:
Note that unlike in Italian, the -esc- infix is added in the 1p form. This verbal infix is unique in that it undergoes the metaphony of /ɛ/ to /i/. This originates from a regular /e/ -> /i/ metaphony but eventually this /e/ was lowered to /ɛ/ so as to ease the pronunciation. Many -ir verbs which do not receive this infix in Italian do in Gallo-Tuscan; this includes all -ir verbs ending in complex clusters
1s: -esche
2s: -êsces
3s: -esce
1p: -esçons
2p: -et
3p: -escon

Sample Verb: Aprir- Open
Spoiler:
1s: Apresche /ɑˈbɾɛsk/
2s: Aprêsces /ɑˈbɾit͡s/
3s: Apresce /ɑˈbɾɛt͡s/
1p: Apresçons /ɑbɾeˈt͡sɔ̃/
2p: Apret /ɑˈbɾɛt/
3p: Aprescon /ɑbɾeˈskɔ̃/
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 18 Aug 2021 09:36, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

-Pîr Verbs in the Present Tense
The -pîr verbs are a specific type of -er verb. The stem for these verbs ends in -pi but changes to -pî whenever -pii- or -pie- would appear in the conjugation except for when -e- would be silent. As this conjugation is the only occurence of <î> outside of the digraph <cî>, it is typically rendered as just <i> but for the purpose of highlighting the conjugation I'll always use <î> when applicable.

1s: -pie
2s: -pies
3s: -pie
1p: -pions
2p: -pît
3p: -pion

Sample Verb: Empîr- Fill
Spoiler:
1s: Émpie /ˈẽbi/
2s: Émpies /ˈẽbi/
3s: Émpie /ˈẽbi/
1p: Empions /ẽˈbjɔ̃/
2p: Empît /ẽˈbit/
3p: Empion /ẽˈbjɔ̃/
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense
Not going to go into all of the irregular verbs in the present tense unless someone wants to see them but here are the most important ones. Important to note that 2s verb forms that would end in a stressed /ɑ ɔ/ end in /ɑj ɔj/ like in Standard Italian.

Agliar- Go
Spoiler:
1s: Vo /vo/
2s: Vai /vɑj/
3s: Va /vɑ/
1p: Aglions /ɑˈʎɔ̃/
2p: It /it/
3p: Von /vɔ̃/
Assér- Seat/Sit
Spoiler:
1s: Assiède /ɑˈsjɛd/
2s: Assiede /ɑˈsjed/
3s: Assiède /ɑsjɛd/
1p: Assedons /ɑseˈdɔ̃/
2p: Assedet /ɑseˈdɛt/
3p: Assedon /ɑseˈdɔ̃/
Attrar- Attract
Several other -trar verbs take this conjugation
Spoiler:
1s: Attrache /ɑˈtɾɑh/
2s: Attrai /ɑˈtɾɑj/
3s: Attrà /ɑˈtɾɑ/
1p: Attraions /ɑtɾɑˈjɔ̃/
2p: Attraiet /ɑtɾɑˈjɛt/
3p: Attracon /ɑtɾɑˈhɔ̃/
Avér- Have
Spoiler:
1s: Ho /o/
2s: Hai /ɑj/
3s: Ha /ɑ/
1p: Avons /ɑˈvɔ̃/
2p: Avet /ɑˈvɛt/
3p: Hon /ɔ̃/
Dar- Give
Also used for Star (be/stand)
Spoiler:
1s: Do /do/
2s: Dai /dɑj/
3s: Da /dɑ/
1p: Dons /dɔ̃/
2p: Dat /dɑt/
3p: Don /dɔ̃/
Dir- Say
Almost a regular short stem -er verb with the exception of the 2p form
Spoiler:
1s: Diche /dih/
2s: Dices /dit͡s/
3s: Dice /dit͡s/
1p: Diçons /diˈt͡sɔ̃/
2p: Dit /dit/
3p: Dicon /dihɔ̃/
Esser- Be
Spoiler:
1s: So /so/
2s: Ès /ɛ/
3s: È /ɛ/
1p: Soms /sɔ̃/
2p: Siet /sjɛt/
3p: Son /sɔ̃/
Far- Do
Spoiler:
1s: Fo /fo/
2s: Fai /fɑj/
3s: Fa /fɑ/
1p: Façons /fɑˈt͡sɔ̃/
2p: Fat /fɑt/
3p: Fon /fɔ̃/
Potér- Can
Spoiler:
1s: Posse /bɔs/
2s: Pòi /bɔj/
3s: Pò /bɔ/
1p: Possons /boˈsɔ̃/
2p: Potet /boˈθɛt/
3p: Posson /boˈsɔ̃/
Sapér- Know
Spoiler:
1s: Sè /sɛ/
2s: Sai /sɑj/
3s: Sa /sɑ/
1p: Sapons /sɑˈfɔ̃/
2p: Sapet /sɑˈfɛt/
3p: Sapon /sɑˈfɔ̃/
Venir- Come
Also used for Tenir (keep/hold)
Spoiler:
1s: Vegne /vɛɲ/
2s: Vienes /vjen/
3s: Vien /vjɛ̃/
1p: Vegnons /veˈɲɔ̃/
2p: Venit /veˈnit/
3p: Vegnon /veˈɲɔ̃/
Volér- Want
Spoiler:
1s: Voglie /vɔʎ/
2s: Vòi /vɔj/
3s: Vòle /vɔl/
1p: Voglions /voˈʎɔ̃/
2p: Volet /voˈlɛt/
3p: Voglion /voˈʎɔ̃/
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 21 Aug 2021 07:27, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Imperfect
The imperfect is formed by taking the noi form of the verb and adding the following endings depending on verb ending. Verbs ending in -tir which undergo the /t/ -> /t͡s/ change only have this change in the plural stem.
1s: -à/-ea/-ia/-pîa
2s: -és/-piés
3s: -à/-ea/-ia/-pîa
1p: -ans/-pians
2p: -at/-piat
3p: -an/-pian

Sample Verbs: Smutar/Terger/Partir/Aprir/Empîr
Spoiler:
1s: Smutà/Tergea/Partia/Apresçia/Empîa
2s: Smutés/Tergés/Partés/Aprescés/Empiés
3s: Smutà/Tergea/Partia/Apresçia/Empîa
1p: Smutans/Tergians/Parçans/Apresçans/Empians
2p: Smutat/Tergiat/Parçat/Apresçat/Empiat
3p: Smutan/Tergian/Parçan/Apresçan/Empian
Irregular Verbs
1. Dar is a defective verb and doesn't have an imperfect form. Instead the regular verb donar (to give/gift/donate) is used. While these two verbs maintain (if slightly) distinct meanings in the present tense, in some tenses they have merged.
2. Potér has the irregular stem pot-
3. Venir/Tenir/Volér use irregular stems ven-/ten-/vol- in the singular while maintaining the regular stems vegn-/tegn-/vogli- in the plural
4. Esser and Star are completely irregular:
1s: Èra/Stava
2s: Eres/Staves
3s: Èra/Stava
1p: Erans/Stavans
2p: Erat/Stavat
3p: Eran/Stavan
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 18 Aug 2021 09:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Present Perfect & Recent Past
Gallo-Tuscan has completely lost its preterite and as such the present perfect has completely taken over. There's not much surprising with the present perfect unfortunately. It's formed by combining a conjugated form of avér/esser (same distinction as Italian) and following it with a past participle. For regular verbs the participle is formed by taking the main stem of the verb and adding endings to it. For -ar/-er/-ér verbs the main stem is simply the present tense 1p stem but in the case of -ir verbs it's instead the infinitive's stem. The following endings are added to the stem: -à/-ù/-ì/-pì. The irregular -ar verbs agliar, dar, and star are regular the present perfect: aglià/dà/stà. There are a large number of irregular past participles but many -er/ér verbs have had their participles regularized to the -ù ending such as depénger (paint) -> depengiù (painted). Some irregular participles are the following:
Assér- Assise
Attrar- Attratte
Chèrer- Cheste
Conclur- Concluse
Condur- Condotte
Dir- Ditte
Far- Fatte
Ler- Lette
Morir- Morte
Nascer-
Prender- Prese
Scriver- Scritte
Tenir- Tenù
Tradur- Tradotte
Venir- Venù
Vér- Viste
Viver- Vizù (I'm really a big fan of the look/sound of this past participle)
-If the verb has avér as the auxiliary, the past participle agrees with the direct object if it comes before the verb
-If the verb has esser as the auxiliary, the past participle agrees with the subject

Recent Past with Venir
What I'll refer to as the recent past is formed by conjugating venir in the present tense and following it with the past participle. This tense has two main uses:
1. Indicating an event that just happened: La vegne vista "I just saw her"
2. Stressing the suddenness, quickness, or unexpectedness of a single event in the past. This usage is commonly seen alongside fogrante (sudden) and the imperfect conjugation: Legea un liver, quan fogrante la vegne vista "I was reading a book when suddenly I saw her"

If the conjugated verb has avér as its present perfect auxiliary, it will still agree with its direct object if it comes before the verb. If the verb has esser as its present perfect auxiliary, it will still agree with the subject.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 28 Aug 2021 08:42, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Present Subjunctive
The present subjunctive is formed by taking the 1s present tense form and adding the following endings. Verbs ending in -tir which undergo the /t/ -> /t͡s/ change maintain this change in all plural forms. -Ir verbs with the -esc- infix add it in all forms other than the 1p and 2p forms.
1s: -e/-a/-a/-pia
2s: -es (+metaphony)/-es (no metaphony)/-es (no metaphony)/-pies
3s: -e/-a/-a/-pia
1p: -ins (-îns after t͡ʃ)/-ians/-ians (-ans after t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ɲ ʎ j)/-pîans
2p: -it (-ît after t͡ʃ)/-iat/-iat/-pîat
3p: -in (-în after t͡ʃ)/-ian/-ian (-an after t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ɲ ʎ j)/-pîan

Sample Verbs: Smutar/Terger/Partir/Aprir/Empîr
Spoiler:
1s: Smute/Tergia/Parta/Apresca/Empia
2s: Smutes/Terges/Partes/Apresces/Empies
3s: Smute/Tergia/Parta/Apresca/Empia
1p: Smutins/Tergians/Parçans/Aprians/Empîans
2p: Smutit/Tergiat/Parçat/Apriat/Empîat
3p: Smutin/Tergian/Parçan/Apresçan/Empîan
One fun thing to note is that the only distinction in writing between all of the -pîr conjugation's imperfect and subjunctive forms is whether the form is written with a diacritic or not:
1s: Empîa/Empia
2s: Empiés/Empies
3s: Empîa/Empia
1p: Empians/Empîans
2p: Empiat/Empîat
3p: Empian/Empîan
As the <î> is typically rendered instead as <i>, the 2s form is the only one where the two are always distinct in writing

Irregular Verbs
Agliar- Go
Spoiler:
1s: Vada
2s: Vades
3s: Vada
1p: Vadians or Aglians
2p: Vadiat or Agliat
3p: Vadians
Assér- Sit/Seat
Spoiler:
1s: Assièda
2s: Assiedes
3s: Assièda
1p: Assedians
2p: Assediat
3p: Assedian
Avér- Have
Spoiler:
1s: Aia
2s: Hès
3s: Aia
1p: Avians
2p: Aviat
3p: Avian
Dar- Give
Dar doesn't have a present subjunctive form and instead uses the regular conjugation of donar
Spoiler:
1s: Done
2s: Dônes
3s: Done
1p: Donins
2p: Donit
3p: Donin
Esser- Be
Spoiler:
1s: Si
2s: Sis
3s: Si
1p: Seians
2p: Seiat
3p: Seian
Far- Do
Far takes the irregular stem faç- but otherwise has a regular -er verb conjugation
Spoiler:
1s: Faça
2s: Faces
3s: Faça
1p: Façans
2p: Façat
3p: Façan
Sapér- Know
Spoiler:
1s: Sapia
2s: Sapes
3s: Sapia
1p: Sapians
2p: Sapiat
3p: Sapian
Star- Be/Stand
Spoiler:
1s: Stea
2s: Stès
3s: Stea
1p: Steians
2p: Steiat
3p: Steian
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 21 Aug 2021 07:19, edited 11 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Subjunctive with Commands & Requests
I'm taking some influence from Old French & Silvish and adding the following rule in Gallo-Tuscan as well:
Dormouse559 wrote: 14 Jul 2021 21:01 In expressions of orders and requests, the desired action is placed in a subjunctive subordinate clause, and the person receiving the order is both the indirect object of the independent clause and the subject of the subordinate
This structure can be seen alongside verbs like ordinar (to order/ordain) or dar (typically means to give but in this case is the most common verb for expressing commands or orders),e.g: te do che lo faces "I'm ordering you to do it"

When expressing a command or request that's due by a specific time, the desired action is placed in the past subjunctive tense:
Te do che hès compì l'allogà por le otte ore- I'm ordering you to finish the assignment by 8 o'clock (literally: I give to you that you have completed the assignment before the 8 hours)

When it's clear from context when the assignment is due by, simply putting the order in the past subjunctive can indicate that the action is needed by an unspecified/potentially assumed time. This structure can also be seen with quèso che (please):
Quèso che l'hès fatta- Please finish it/have it finished before then

Although the past subjunctive is often replaced by the imperfect subjunctive (topic of the next post), when used alongside orders, requests, desires, etc. it cannot be replaced.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Dormouse559 »

All4Ɇn wrote: 26 Jul 2021 19:56I'm taking some influence from Old French & Silvish and adding the following rule in Gallo-Tuscan as well:
Subjunctive buddies!

I should say that I've been reading each of your posts here as soon as I see it, and they're always super interesting!
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Dormouse559 wrote: 27 Jul 2021 08:42 Subjunctive buddies!

I should say that I've been reading each of your posts here as soon as I see it, and they're always super interesting!
Very glad to hear that [:D]. If there's anything you want me to cover feel free to let me know!
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