Gallo-Tuscan

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All4Ɇn
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Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Gallo-Tuscan is a romlang I've been working on and is largely based on a phonemic inventory posted by Shimobaatar in the Romanization Game thread:
Spoiler:
shimobaatar wrote: 04 Mar 2021 14:20 /b t d k/
/f θ s h/
/t͡s d͡z/
/m n ŋ/
/l j w/
/ɾ/

/i ĩ u ũ/
/e ẽ o õ/
/ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/
/ɑ ɑ̃/
Gallo-Tuscan (as the name suggests) is an Gallo-Italic language but also shares the Tuscan process of leniting the consonants /p t k/. Colloquially the language is known as il gorgèn, which has it's origins in the Italian word "gorgia" which is used to refer to the lenition found in Tuscany. Overall the language shares most traits with the Gallo-Italic languages aside from this lenition but there are also further exceptions including that /ɔ u/ never result in /ø y/ and the pronunciation of the letters <g> and <p> is completely different

Phonology
Consonants
/b t d k/ <b~p t~tt d c~ch~q>
/f v θ s z (ʃ) (ʒ) h/ <f~p v t s~ss s (sh~sci~ch) (zh~j) h>
/t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ <c~ç z ci~cie g~gi~ge>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n gn g~gh>
/l ʎ j w/ <l gli~glie i u>
/ɾ r/ <r rr>

Vowels
/i ĩ u ũ/ <i~ê in~im~ên~êm u~ô un~um~ôn~ôm>
/e ẽ o õ/ <e~é en~em~én~ém o~ó on~om~ón~óm>
/ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ <e~è en~em~èn~èm o~ò on~om~òn~òm>
/ɑ ɑ̃/ <a an~am>

/ʃ ʒ/ are only found in loanwords mostly from Italian, French, and English
/h/ is pronounced as [ç] finally after a front vowel and [x] finally after a back vowel
/ɑ/ is pronounced as [ä] when unstressed

Major Sound Changes
Spoiler:
1. Vulgar Latin /(s)k ɡ/ were palatalized to /t͡s d͡ʒ/ before front vowels. /t͡s/ was sometimes voiced to /d͡z/
2. Final /s/ became /i~j/
3. Final unstressed /e o/ were dropped
4. /m n ŋ/ post-vocalicaly turned the vowel into a nasal vowel as long as it was before a consonant or word finally
5. Final /m n/ after a consonant dropped
6. Final /v/ after /ɑ/ became /w/
7. Intervocalic /b d ɡ/ were often dropped
8. /pl bl fl (s)kl (s)gl/ became /pj bj fj t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/
9. Intervocalic /p t k/ were lenited to /f θ h/ unless after a nasal vowel or in the case of /k/ before /j w/
10. Geminates were simplified. /s sː r rː/ became /z s ɾ r/ intervocalically
11. /pt kt/ were both simplified to /t/ after lenition had already taken place
12. /p/ everywhere where it was not lenited became /b/
13. Final /i/ dropped after all of the previous sound changes resulting in phonemic nasal vowels and phonemic /h/
14. /j w/ finally after a consonant became /i u/
15. Stressed /a/ was sometimes fronted to /ɛ/ in closed syllables, otherwise became /ɑ/
16. /ɡ/ became /ŋ/, what was previously /ŋɡ/ became /Ṽŋ/
17. Metaphony of /e o ɛ ɔ/ to /i u e o/ which is still productive in certain situations
18. An epenthetic /e/ was inserted to break up complex consonant clusters word finally
Major Spelling Differences from Italian
1. <e> is silent at the end of a word. Stressed final vowels receive an accent mark if before a silent <e>
2. <p> is pronounced /b/ if not lenited
3. <c~ch p t> represent /h f θ/ intervocalically, including before silent final <e> and across most word boundaries. <chi> before a vowel and <qu> represent /kj kw/ as /k/ does not undergo metaphony before /j w/
4. <cc~cch pp tt> are used when lenition would be expected but does not occur (natively only before /e/ for <cc~cch pp>)
5. /e o/ are written as <é ó> when stressed before multiple consonants or word finally before a single consonant
6. /ɛ ɔ/ are written as <è ò> finally or before a single consonant followed by a vowel including final <e>
7. <ê ô> are used for the metaphony of /e o/ into /i u/
8. <c> is used for t͡s before <i e>, elsewhere <ç> is used. /t͡ʃ/ is typically spelled <ci> while /t͡ʃi/ is spelled <cî> . <çi> is used either for /t͡sj/ or for /t͡si/ when before another vowel. <s> is silent before /t͡s/
9. A silent final <s> is used in the second person singular and first person plural of verbs in order to distinguish them from other forms. This was borrowed from French
10. <r> is silent at the end of an -ar verb's infinitive

Lord's Prayer
With the previous in mind, I've translated the Lord's Prayer into Gallo-Tuscan and was wondering if anyone interested would like to try and translate it into IPA [:)]

Pare noster ch’ès nei cele,
Che si santificà tò nóm,
Che vegna tò regne,
Che si fatta ta volontà comè in cel, essì sulla terra.
Dazi adò noster pan quotidien,
E perdonazi nostere pecàe,
Comè noi li perdonons essì aicì che zi hon pecà
E non menazi in tentaçón,
Ma liberazi del Mal
Spoiler:
/bɑɾ ˈnɔsteɾ kɛ nej t͡sel/
/ke si sɑ̃tifiˈhɑ θɔ nõ/
/ke ˈvɛɲɑ θɔ rɛɲ/
/ke si ˈfɑtɑ θɑ volõˈtɑ hoˈmɛ~koˈmɛ ĩ t͡sɛl | eˈsi ˈsulɑ ˈθɛrɑ/
/ˈdɑd͡zi ɑˈdɔ ˈnɔsteɾ bɑ̃ kwoθiˈdjɛ̃/
/e feɾˈdonɑd͡zi ˈnɔsteɾ beˈhɑ/
/koˈmɛ noj li feɾdoˈnɔ̃ eˈsi ɑjˈt͡si he d͡zi ɔ̃ beˈhɑ/
/e nɔ̃ meˈnɑd͡zi ĩ tẽtɑˈt͡sõ/
/mɑ liˈbeɾɑd͡zi dɛl mɑl/
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 01 May 2021 05:00, edited 21 times in total.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by GoshDiggityDangit »

I'm a real sucker for Romance languages. Great work!
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

GoshDiggityDangit wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:36 I'm a real sucker for Romance languages. Great work!
Thanks! [:D]
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Shemtov »

I like it, but one question: You list /d͡z/ as a phoneme, but not an orthographic representation. Should the phoneme not be there or did you forget to list the orthographic representation of it?
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Shemtov wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:54 I like it, but one question: You list /d͡z/ as a phoneme, but not an orthographic representation. Should the phoneme not be there or did you forget to list the orthographic representation of it?
That was a mistake on my part. /d͡z/ is spelled with <z>
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Shemtov »

Also, I question the fact that the voiceless palatalization is a sibilant, and that the voiced is a shibilant. Is that attested?
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Shemtov wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:56 Also, I question the fact that the voiceless palatalization is a sibilant, and that the voiced is a shibilant. Is that attested?
French had the same development with k -> t͡s -> s & g -> d͡ʒ -> ʒ. Wikipedia is saying that Piedmontese also has the same changes, just with /d͡ʒ/ not becoming /ʒ/.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Salmoneus »

It's common throughout (French-influenced) Romance, isn't it? I suspect the fact that Latin also had a /j/, which tended to fricativise, may have helped arrest /g/ on its journey (since it seems as though /k/ > /tS/ was the normal development, fronted to /ts/ later where there was Frankish influence). It may also have tended to palatalise earlier (/g/ is the least stable voiced stop), thus breaking the symmetry before the later, fuller palatalisation of /k/.

In any case, it's not that unusual to have a pair like /s Z/ in a phonology - if there isn't otherwise a /Z/, then changing POA is a good way to emphasise the distinction from /s/, given that the 'darker' flavour of /Z/ is sympathetic with its voicing. And fricatives in general are a bit prone to wandering. Particularly since there wasn't originally, in Romance, a systematic voicing contrast in fricatives (/v/ presumably 'originally' being bilabial and often an approximant).
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by shimobaatar »

All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:13 Gallo-Tuscan is a romlang I've been working on and is largely based on a phonemic inventory posted by Shimobaatar in the Romanization Game thread:
Spoiler:
shimobaatar wrote: 04 Mar 2021 14:20 /b t d k/
/f θ s h/
/t͡s d͡z/
/m n ŋ/
/l j w/
/ɾ/

/i ĩ u ũ/
/e ẽ o õ/
/ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/
/ɑ ɑ̃/
[:D]

I'm now realizing I never commented on the thread for Skaalinska…
All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:13 Lord's Prayer
With the previous in mind, I've translated the Lord's Prayer into Gallo-Tuscan and was wondering if anyone interested would like to try and translate it into IPA [:)]

Pare noster ch’ès nei cele,
Che si santificà tò nóm,
Che vegna tò regne,
Che si fatta ta volontà comè in cel, essì sulla terra.
Dazi adò noster pan quotidien,
E perdonazi nostere pecà,
Comè noi li perdonons essì aicì che zi hon pecà
E non menazi in tentaçón,
Ma liberazi del Mal
Here's my attempt:

/bɑɾ ˈnɔsteɾ kɛ nej t͡sel/
/ke si sɑ̃tifiˈhɑ θɔ nõ/
/ke ˈvɛɲɑ θɔ ɾɛɲ/
/ke si ˈfɑtɑ θɑ volõˈtɑ hoˈmɛ ĩ t͡sɛl | eˈsi ˈsulɑ ˈtɛrɑ/
/ˈdɑd͡zi ɑˈdɔ ˈnɔsteɾ bɑ̃ kwoθiˈdjɛ̃/
/e feɾdoˈnɑd͡zi nosˈteɾ beˈhɑ/
/koˈmɛ noj li feɾdoˈnɔ̃ eˈsi ɑjˈt͡si he d͡zi hɔ̃ beˈhɑ/
/e nɔ̃ meˈnɑd͡zi ĩ tẽtɑˈt͡sõ/
/mɑ libeˈɾɑd͡zi dɛl mɑl/

"Notes":
Spoiler:
I didn't mark stress on monosyllabic words, and for polysyllabic words without any orthographic stress marking, I just made an educated guess.

I probably had the most trouble distinguishing /ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ from /e ẽ o õ/. I defaulted to /e o/ in what I assumed were unstressed syllables. <é ó> and <è ò> were easy to spot, but otherwise, based on the following:
All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:13 1. <e> is silent at the end of a word. Stressed final vowels receive an accent mark if before a silent <e>
[…]
5. /e o/ are written as <é ó> when stressed before multiple consonants or word finally before a single consonant
6. /ɛ ɔ/ are written as <è ò> finally or before a single consonant followed by a vowel including final <e>
I assumed that all instances of word-final <-e> were silent (unless <-e> was a word's only vowel). I'm not entirely sure what you meant by "Stressed final vowels receive an accent mark if before a silent <e>", so I admittedly kind of ignored that. Since stressed /e o/ are explicitly marked as <é ó> before multiple consonants and before single consonants in final syllables, I assumed that unmarked <e o> in those environments represented /ɛ ɔ/. Similarly, since stressed /ɛ ɔ/ are explicitly marked as <è ò> word-finally and before single consonants followed by (orthographic) vowels, I assumed that unmarked <e o> in those environments represented /e o/. I generally assumed that these rules were referring to orthographic consonants and vowels, not phonetic/phonological ones, and so I counted <gn rr> /ɲ r/ as multiple consonants, for instance.
All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Mar 2021 08:13 2. <p> is pronounced /b/ if not lenited
3. <c~ch p t> represent /h f θ/ intervocalically, including before silent final <e> and across most word boundaries
4. <cc~cch pp tt> are used when lenition would be expected but does not occur (usually only in loanwords for <cc~cch pp>)
[…]
8. <c> is used for t͡s before <i e>, elsewhere <ç> is used. /t͡ʃ/ is typically spelled <ci> while /t͡ʃi/ is spelled <cî> . <çi> is used either for /t͡sj/ or for /t͡si/ when before another vowel. <s> is silent before /t͡s/
9. A silent final <s> is used in the second person singular and first person plural of verbs in order to distinguish them from other forms. This was borrowed from French
I tried to keep these rules in mind as well, but I may not have been entirely successful. I assumed that lenition did not apply after nasalized vowels, and that <ll>, for instance, simply represented /l/.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

shimobaatar wrote: 17 Mar 2021 20:24I'm now realizing I never commented on the thread for Skaalinska…
Always feel free to if you'd like!

shimobaatar wrote: 17 Mar 2021 20:24Here's my attempt
You did an almost perfect job with it! In <volontà comè> both /hoˈmɛ/ and /koˈmɛ/ are possible depending on whether the speaker puts a pause between the two words or not so either one works here. <regne> would be /rɛɲ/ instead of /ɾɛɲ/ but of course I never really explained the allophony of /ɾ r/ non-intervocalically. For <nostere> it's actually just /ˈnɔsteɾ/ and not /nosˈteɾ/ but: 1. this is a very ambiguous case in writing & 2. I actually really like the plural form being /nosˈteɾ/ instead and I wonder if there's a way to make this diachronically possible. <hon> is pronounced as just /ɔ̃/ with the <h> being an orthographic quirk.

Notes:
Spoiler:
shimobaatar wrote: 17 Mar 2021 20:24I probably had the most trouble distinguishing /ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ from /e ẽ o õ/. I defaulted to /e o/ in what I assumed were unstressed syllables. <é ó> and <è ò> were easy to spot, but otherwise, based on the following

I assumed that all instances of word-final <-e> were silent (unless <-e> was a word's only vowel).

Since stressed /e o/ are explicitly marked as <é ó> before multiple consonants and before single consonants in final syllables, I assumed that unmarked <e o> in those environments represented /ɛ ɔ/. Similarly, since stressed /ɛ ɔ/ are explicitly marked as <è ò> word-finally and before single consonants followed by (orthographic) vowels, I assumed that unmarked <e o> in those environments represented /e o/. I generally assumed that these rules were referring to orthographic consonants and vowels, not phonetic/phonological ones, and so I counted <gn rr> /ɲ r/ as multiple consonants, for instance.
These are harder to distinguish in writing but I tried to make it both easier to notice than Italian while also not cluttering it up too much with accents. All of your assumptions here were completely correct. Some of these things were not as clearly explained maybe as they could be so I appreciate you figuring it out [:)]
shimobaatar wrote: 17 Mar 2021 20:24I'm not entirely sure what you meant by "Stressed final vowels receive an accent mark if before a silent <e>", so I admittedly kind of ignored that.
This actually didn't show up anywhere in the prayer but the first usage of <pecà> should actually have been spelled <pecàe> which I've now gone back and fixed. What I meant by this is that like in Italian, all stressed final vowels are marked with an accent mark but in the case of Gallo-Tuscan even if followed by a silent final <e>. For instance, /lẽˈŋu/ meaning tongues/languages is written as lengùe and not lengue.
shimobaatar wrote: 17 Mar 2021 20:24I tried to keep these rules in mind as well, but I may not have been entirely successful. I assumed that lenition did not apply after nasalized vowels, and that <ll>, for instance, simply represented /l/.
Once again your assumptions were entirely correct!
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Vlürch »

Cool, it has a vibe that's not exactly like any IRL Romance language but somewhere in a vague zone between them and I think that's really cool since it's still interesting even though that kind of a romlang could easily end up being bland and boring if it was too much like IRL Romance languages. If I saw it written without knowing it's a conlang, I'd think "which minor Romance language is this???" and be driven to frustration. Probably even more if I heard it spoken, at least judging by that IPA, since it'd make me think of either like a medium Portuguese-accented combination of Italian and Spanish or a mixed Portuguese/Spanish-accented combination of Italian and Catalan or something...🤔

In other words, nice work and I'm looking forward to seeing more!
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Dormouse559 »

Any excuse to include /θ/ is a good one. A pleasant sound, that [:P]

My attempt at transcription was very similar to shimo's, but I did wonder about the stress of imperatives with clitic pronouns. Since you explained your orthography relative to Italian, I was assuming the stress wouldn't shift (i.e. menazi /ˈmenɑd͡zi/).
All4Ɇn wrote: 17 Mar 2021 22:20For <nostere> it's actually just /ˈnɔsteɾ/ and not /nosˈteɾ/ but: 1. this is a very ambiguous case in writing & 2. I actually really like the plural form being /nosˈteɾ/ instead and I wonder if there's a way to make this diachronically possible.
Hmm, might depend on how you got the /er/ there in the first place. Maybe the process gets influenced by illorum?
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Vlürch wrote: 18 Mar 2021 20:19 Cool, it has a vibe that's not exactly like any IRL Romance language but somewhere in a vague zone between them and I think that's really cool since it's still interesting even though that kind of a romlang could easily end up being bland and boring if it was too much like IRL Romance languages. If I saw it written without knowing it's a conlang, I'd think "which minor Romance language is this???" and be driven to frustration. Probably even more if I heard it spoken, at least judging by that IPA, since it'd make me think of either like a medium Portuguese-accented combination of Italian and Spanish or a mixed Portuguese/Spanish-accented combination of Italian and Catalan or something...🤔

In other words, nice work and I'm looking forward to seeing more!
Thanks for your comments! I really appreciate that you like it so far. I wasn't planning on making something that seemed as though it was between all the Romance languages but you're definitely right about this being the case!
Dormouse559 wrote: 19 Mar 2021 00:00Any excuse to include /θ/ is a good one. A pleasant sound, that [:P]
I vacillate between loving and hating it depending on how much it makes a language sound like English [>_<]
Dormouse559 wrote: 19 Mar 2021 00:00My attempt at transcription was very similar to shimo's, but I did wonder about the stress of imperatives with clitic pronouns. Since you explained your orthography relative to Italian, I was assuming the stress wouldn't shift (i.e. menazi /ˈmenɑd͡zi/).
That's a good point I didn't think of. Interestingly enough the negative imperative comes from a different source (it's a respelling of the infinitive) and thus the stress would stay on the penultimate there. Thus in the positive imperative it would in fact be /ˈmenɑd͡zi/ (sorry Shimo) while negatively it would be /meˈnɑd͡zi/.
Dormouse559 wrote: 19 Mar 2021 00:00Hmm, might depend on how you got the /er/ there in the first place. Maybe the process gets influenced by illorum?
Nostere's evolution is as follows: /ˈnɔsteɾi/ -> /ˈnɔstɾi/ -> /ˈnɔstɾ/ -> /ˈnɔsteɾ/. Can you explain what you mean by the process being influenced by illorum? Thanks for the comments btw
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by Dormouse559 »

All4Ɇn wrote: 19 Mar 2021 13:59
Dormouse559 wrote: 19 Mar 2021 00:00Any excuse to include /θ/ is a good one. A pleasant sound, that [:P]
I vacillate between loving and hating it depending on how much it makes a language sound like English [>_<]
I do feel that sometimes, but lately I've realized hearing /θ/ in other languages gives me good vibes. /θ/ is chill [B)]
All4Ɇn wrote:That's a good point I didn't think of. Interestingly enough the negative imperative comes from a different source (it's a respelling of the infinitive) and thus the stress would stay on the penultimate there. Thus in the positive imperative it would in fact be /ˈmenɑd͡zi/ (sorry Shimo) while negatively it would be /meˈnɑd͡zi/.
Ah, neat!
All4Ɇn wrote:Nostere's evolution is as follows: /ˈnɔsteɾi/ -> /ˈnɔstɾi/ -> /ˈnɔstɾ/ -> /ˈnɔsteɾ/. Can you explain what you mean by the process being influenced by illorum?
If illorum manages to hold onto the /i/, becoming something like /iˈlor/, until /ˈnɔsteɾ/ emerges, you could say the plural possessive pronoun that ends in /Vr/ with final stress influences the other plural possessive pronouns, which end in /Vr/ but have initial stress. Or, if stress is contrastive in monosyllables, /ˈlor/ might be able to have the same effect.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Dormouse559 wrote: 19 Mar 2021 17:54If illorum manages to hold onto the /i/, becoming something like /iˈlor/, until /ˈnɔsteɾ/ emerges, you could say the plural possessive pronoun that ends in /Vr/ with final stress influences the other plural possessive pronouns, which end in /Vr/ but have initial stress. Or, if stress is contrastive in monosyllables, /ˈlor/ might be able to have the same effect.
Interesting idea! I'll have to keep this in mind [:)]
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Masculine Plurals
For most masculine nouns the plural is formed by just adding a silent -e: cafè (coffee) -> cafèe (coffees). There are number of further phonetic processes that may happen in addition to this but this is almost always the first step. Nouns already ending in a silent -e are typically invariable but may still undergo metaphony.

Palatalization
Nouns ending in -c/-g in certain situations may undergo palatalization, i.e: /k ŋ/ -> /t͡s d͡ʒ/. This occurs in the following situations:
1. The noun refers to a person: amic /ɑˈmik/ (friend) -> amice /ɑˈmit͡s/ (friends), mag /mɑŋ/ (magician) -> mage /mɑd͡ʒ/
2. The noun is derived from an adjective: bianc /bjɑ̃k/ (white one) -> biance /bjɑ̃t͡s/ (white ones)
3. Some exceptions exist for both: porc /bɔɾk/ (pig) -> pórce /boɾt͡s/ (pigs), coc /kɔk/ (cook) -> coche /koh/ (cooks)

Lenition
Nouns ending in -p/-t after a vowel, and those ending in -c after a vowel which do not undergo palatalization, undergo lenition in the plural, that is to say /b t k/ -> /f θ h/ e.g: tip /tib/ (type) -> tipe /tif/ (types), gat /ŋɑt/ (cat) -> gate /ŋɑθ/ (cats)

Nouns ending in /aw/ derived from ones originally ending /av/, turn it into /av/ in the plural, e.g: ciau /t͡ʃɑw/ (slave) -> ciave /t͡ʃɑv/ (slaves)

Reintroduction of /m n/
Nouns ending in nasal vowels replace the nasal vowel with its corresponding oral vowel and corresponding nasal consonant in the plural, e.g: can /kɑ̃/ (dog) -> cane /kɑn/ (dogs)

Nouns ending in a silent <m n> pronounce those letters in the plural: giórn /d͡ʒoɾ/ (day) -> giôrne /d͡ʒuɾn/ (days)

Metaphony
This is the regular change in the masculine plural of the vowels /e ẽ o õ ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃/ to /i ĩ u ũ e ẽ o õ/ whenever those vowels are stressed in the final syllable of a noun but are not word finally (as in cafè), e.g: tét /tet/ (roof) -> tête /tiθ/ (roofs)

Nouns ending in -i
Native nouns ending in -i (typically words ending in -io in Italian), replace the -i with a silent -e and do not undergo metaphony, e.g: tempi /ˈtɛ̃bi/ (temple) -> tempe /tɛ̃b/ (temples), essempi /eˈsɛ̃bi/ (example) -> essempe /eˈsɛ̃b/ (examples)

Nouns ending in -a
Most masculine nouns ending in -a replace it with a silent -e, i.e: papa /ˈbɑfɑ/ (pope) -> pape /bɑf/ (popes)

Unlike feminine nouns ending in -a, these nouns still do undergo metaphony in the plural. This metaphony is the only way to distinguish the masculine and feminine forms for some nouns: poèta /boˈɛθɑ/ (poet m/f) -> poete /boˈeθ/ (poets m) & poète /boˈɛθ/ (poets f)

Irregular Nouns
Haven't entirely figured these out yet but there is one already: diò /djɔ/ (god) -> dièi /djɛj/ (gods)
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

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Feminine Plurals
Nouns ending in -a
Nouns ending in -a replace it with a silent -e but never undergo metaphony, e.g: ciesa /ˈt͡ʃezɑ/ (church) -> ciese /ˈt͡ʃez/ (churches)

Nouns ending in -a preceded by a complex consonant cluster
Nouns ending in this category additionally add an epenthetic /e/, e.g: chepra /ˈkɛbrɑ/ -> cheppere /ˈkɛbeɾ/

Nouns ending in -ia/-ua
Nouns ending in -ia/-ua replace the -a with a silent -e and if stressed either penultimately or antepenultimately move the stress to the last syllable, e.g: stòria /ˈstɔɾjɑ/ (story/history) -> storìe /stoˈɾi/ (stories/histories), léngua /ˈlẽŋwɑ/ (tongue) -> lengùe /lẽˈŋu/ (tongues)

Other nouns
All other feminine nouns are the same in the plural as masculine nouns including undergoing metaphony: notte /nɔt/ (night) -> nótte /not/ (nights)
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

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Loans with /θ h/
I've been thinking about how loanwords with these two sounds would be dealt with and for now the situation is as follows (although I may change it later):

/θ/
-Nativized Greek loans transcribe theta as <t> and follow the typical lenition rules, e.g: il teater (the theater) /il teˈɑθeɾ/
-Newer borrowings, including from Greek, distinguish /θ/ from /t/ including after a consonant: il thriller /il ˈθrileɾ/ (the thriller)

/h/
-/h/ and /k/ are typically only distinguished word finally in native words. The only exception is medially in those words which have added an epenthetic /e/ e.g: spettacchel /speˈtɑkel/ (show)
-/h/ and /k/ are also distinguished medially in loans, e.g: Malacca /mɑˈlɑkɑ/
-Unlike with /θ/, distinguishing /k/ and /h/ phrase initially or after a consonant is not mandatory but might potentially sound uneducated in certain contexts, e.g: il hamster /il ˈhɑmsteɾ/ or /il ˈkɑmsteɾ/ (the hamster)
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

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Regular Adjectives
Group 1
Group 1 is the largest group of adjectives. Many (potentially most) adjectives from the Latin third declension were regularized into this pattern.
Masculine singular: -/-e
Feminine singular: -a
Masculine plural: -e (+vowel metaphony and palatalization of <c g>)
Feminine plural: -e (no vowel metaphony or palatalization)
Sample: intelligent/intelligenta/intelligénte/intelligente (smart/intelligent)

Notes:
1. As indicated, some nouns in this pattern may end in a silent e in the masculine, e.g: fatte/fatta/fatte/fatte (done)
2. Those which have a /e/ inserted into the masculine stem to avoid a complex cluster drop it in the feminine: mègher/megra/mèghere/mèghere (skinny)
3. Adjectives ending in a stressed /ɑ/ drop the -a ending in the feminine form: transformà/transformà/transformàe/transformàe (transformed)

Group 2
Group 2 consists of some holdouts from the Latin third declension which haven't regularized the feminine ending. Examples include forte (strong), triste (sad), and dolce (sweet). There are only two distinct possible forms:
Masculine singular: -e
Feminine singular: -e
Masculine plural: -e (+vowel metaphony)
Feminine plural: -e (no vowel metaphony)
Sample: forte/forte/fórte/forte (strong)

Group 3
Used for some loans. These adjectives remain in the same in all four forms.
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Re: Gallo-Tuscan

Post by All4Ɇn »

Definite Articles
Masculine singular: il/l'/li
Feminine singular: la/l'
Plural of both genders: i
-L' is used before vowels
-Li is used before /t͡s d͡z ɲ ʎ/, consonant clusters starting with /s/, and a number of other complex consonant clusters including many from Greek loans such as /ks ps pn pt/
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