Kfadipqh language

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Omzinesý
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Kfadipqh language

Post by Omzinesý »

Kfádipqh [kfɑ˥ð̞ipχ] (The last sound is uvular, which the board seems not to understand.)

I think, it's the time open a thread for this lang, which I have been developing in some messages in my scarp thread. I named it Kfádipqh.

This is a hard project, full of features that I don't really understand.
- Much suprasegmental morphology (not too much)
- A kitchen-sinky "verb"
- Blurring the distinction between nouns and verbs
Last edited by Omzinesý on 09 Jun 2021 21:35, edited 2 times in total.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Kfadipqh language

Post by Omzinesý »

Syntax

The distinction between nouns and verbs is blurred and some words just appear as arguments and some as predicates in the syntax. Usually the words appearing as arguments are static, i.e., not marked for aspect, but it is not necessary. The usual word order is VS, but it is not distinctive.


The most frequent construction is the one in (1) where (1a) a specific referent (a/the specific boy) does something indefinite (running generally) or (1b) a specific referent (a/the runner) belongs to a generic group (boys). I'm just beginning with morphology, so ATM the specific marker is the accent peak on the penultimate syllable. There will probably be some aspect marking, as well.


(1a) 'The boy is running.'
pogo tsitéa
pogo tsitea-´
run(er) boy-SPEC

(1b) 'The one running is a boy.'
tsitea pógo
tsitea pogo-´
(be)boy run(er)-SPEC

Another construction is where a generic group/thing does something generic or belongs to a generic group. In that construction, the predicate (pogo) must agree the subject (tsitea). The agreement marker for generic subject is -plh.

(2) 'Boys (generally) run.'
pogo-plh tsitea
run(er)-GENERIC.SUBJ boy


Bivalent words
Most of bivalent words are seen as verbs in SAE but there are bivalent nounlike words like kokhu.

Bivalent words are always marked for voice. There are two voices (ATM): Direct -i/-u and Inverse -a/o.
kokhu '(be) parent'
kokho '(be) child'

(3)
Kókh-ú Mâria Gêsva.
(be)parent-DIR Mary Jesus
'Mary is Jesus's parent.'

(4)
Kókh-ó Gêsva Mâria.
(be)parent-INV Jesus Mary
'Jesus is Mary's child.'

(5)
Topseg-u kókhu kókho.
breastfeed-DIR parent.SPEC child,SPEC
'Mother is breastfeeding her child.'

In (5), I don't know how bivalents work in the argument position because they should mean 'This is his mother.' and 'This is her child.'

(6)
Kókhú topségu kókhu.
'The one breastfeeding [the child] is the child's mother.'


At least, at this stage, Direct and Inverse voices work very easily. Direct makes the (subject) word following the verb the actor, and Inverse makes the word following the word the undergoer.


-----------
BUT

All of the words this-far have been static (or imperfective like 'be running'). I think, it will be evident that perfective verbs are not so naturally used as nouns, but there is no grammatical constraint for that. I'm still not sure of aspects.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Kfadipqh language

Post by WeepingElf »

Omzinesý wrote: 09 Jun 2021 19:39 Kfádipqh [kfɑ˥ð̞ipχ] (The last sound is uvular, which the board seems not to understand.)
This is a well-known font problem: in some fonts, the characters x (velar) and χ (uvular) look the same - in others not. On my machine, it displays in a font where the two letters are distinct, and yes, you have used the right one. A workaround would be to use capital X for the uvular fricative instead.
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Re: Kfadipqh language

Post by Omzinesý »

Ideas for morphological categories
Many of them are expressed supprasegmentally

Two mood slots
1) Realis/Irrealis, Positive/Negative
2) More specific moods (could, should, evidentials, "I think" etc., imperative)

No tense
Future is expressed by irrealis moods

As many as three Aspect(ish) slots (maybe distinct just theoretically)
1) (optional) Slot for resultative and volitional (a bit like control in some Native American langs): willingly, unwillingly, successfully, unsuccessfully
2) (derivational) Slot for change of state: inceptive/inchoative and cessative
3) Slot for duration: momentane, durative, iterative ...

Direct and Inverse voices in bivalent words. (Possibly, other voices like causative, applicative, anticausative...)
Cross-referencing of the subject and the object - 3<3 is zero-marked because all bivalent verbs have voice markers, anyways.

Probably, some discourse-pragmatic markers
- Argument focus, Rhetoric statement ...
- Could probably also have vocative meaning, when "nouny".
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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Re: Kfadipqh language

Post by Omzinesý »

Phonology

Consonants

(1) p t k q <p t k q>
(2) f θ s ɬ x χ <f th s lh kh qh>
(3) ʋ ð̞ l ɣ̞ ʁ <v d l g r>

/k, x, ɣ̞/ are post-palatals in front-vocalic environment.

All non-final syllables are open (C)(C)V.
Onset clusters are either stop + fricative ((1)(2), stop + approximant ((1)(3)), or stop fricative + approximant ((2)(3)).

Phonotactics

The last syllable can also have a coda, which can be
a) any consonant
b) a cluster of stop + approximant ((1)(3))

Vowels
i ɯ u <i y u>
(e ɤ o <î/ê ŷ/â û/ô)
æ ɑ ɒ <e a o>

Mid-vowels only appear in morpho-phonological processes.

Diphthongs do not appear.
Long vowels do not appear.

Suprasegmental features

Suprasegmental features
There are four suprasegmental features. They are mostly inflectional/derivational, but the first low-pitch domain is often lexically determined.

1) High-pitch domain
2) Glottalization
3) Nasalization
4) Vowel reduction
5) Vowel-rounding harmony

The four former ones can be described as domains. Every word is shared in one, two, or three domains. Domains can consist of one or more vowels/syllables.
Every word has a peak domain. Words can also have a pre-peak domain and a post-peak domain, which are together called non-peak domains.

1) Pitch

Kfadipqh can be described as a pitch-accent system.
There are two levels of pitch: high <á> and low <a>. Every vowel has one.
The vowels in the peak domain always have the high tone. The vowels in the non-peak domains always have the low tone.


2) Glottalization

Glottalization is surely the easiest of the suprasegmental features. It is a binary feature of every word. There can be a glottal stop in the end of the peak domain. Glottalization is marked with the grave on the last vowel of the high-pitch domain, <à>, instead of the acute.
mógûpla

3) Nasalization

Every domain is either nasal or oral. Nasalization is not as limited as pitches. A three-domain word can have any of the eight combinations of nasalization: OOO; OON, ONO, NOO; ONN, NON, NNO; NNN. Non-nasal domains are far more frequent, though.

In a nasal domain, nasalization is very overwhelming. All vowels are nasalized. The consonants following nasals vowels are nasalized, too. That is, nasalization spreads to the onset of the first syllable of the following domain as well. The onset of the first syllable can never be nasal.
Edit: I'm not sure how to mark nasalization.
I could go the Polish/Navajo way and have a small hook below the vowel.
At least /p/ and /t/ could be written <m> and <n> when nasalized.

4) Vowel reduction

Peak domains have six vowels:
i ɯ u <i y u>
æ ɑ ɒ <e a o>

Non-peak domains have nine vowels
i ɯ u <i y u>
e ɤ o <î/ê ŷ/â û/ô
æ ɑ ɒ <e a o>

No root lexeme has mid-vowels. They are created in morphophonological processes. In the process of vowel reduction high or near-low vowels become the corresponding mid-vowels. The original value is still marked and the ruducing is marked by the circumflex.

5) Vowel rounding harmony

Vowel rounding harmony can be seen as the fifth suprasegmental feature, but it is not based on the domains. A word cannot have both rounded and unrounded back-vowels. Affixes with back vowels have thus two allomorphs: a rounded one and an unrounded one.

More systematically presenting the suprasegmentals above

Code: Select all

		Spreads to	In peak		In non-peak	  
		the whole 	domain only	domain only	
		domain 						
High pitch	YES		YES 		NO
Low pitch	YES		NO		YES
Nasalization 	YES	 	NO		NO
Glottal stop  	NO		?*		NO
Vowel reduction NO		NO		YES
Vowel harmony	-		NO		NO

*The glottal stop is a possible border-line effect between the peak domain and the post-peak domain. 
Vowel harmony affects words, not just domain.
Timing
In the basic typology, I think, Kfadipqh should be analized as a syllable timed language. Most syllables are open anyways. The last syllable can have a coda but it does not affect the timing of the syllable.
Edit: The last coda could even be analyzed as a very reduced syllable. Like in French, there is a quite clear schwa is the end of acceptable.
My meta-thread: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5760
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