I felt that...

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Testyal
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I felt that...

Post by Testyal »

Now I'll look at your evidentiality systems.

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him.
:deu: :fra: :zho: :epo:
Ainuke
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Ainuke »

Now I'll look at your evidentiality systems.

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him.

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
Vasak Kseni du Lamisa Sensen sen.
Native: :eng:
Learning: :deu: :con: Daljetz
Interest: :esp:
xinda
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Re: I felt that...

Post by xinda »

Now I'll look at your evidentiality systems.

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.
力在公蝦米????

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Chandith
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Chandith »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.



And additionally:

:eng: He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Er will ihn getötet haben.
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Avjunza
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Avjunza »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con: Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.
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Xing
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Xing »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)
Nortaneous
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Nortaneous »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.
Z500
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Z500 »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.

:con: Thśjezb: Khepā phē amphē amnābyw. Nābyw phe. Nābyw pi. Nābyw pet.
:con: Rie: Ic cee recee deęk ryy. Fək redeęk. Nrək deęk rebją. Deęk cee.
that's a different cee at the end than at the beginning. in the last sentence, it is in an adverb meaning "truly"
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Itsuki Kohaku
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Itsuki Kohaku »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.

:con: Thśjezb: Khepā phē amphē amnābyw. Nābyw phe. Nābyw pi. Nābyw pet.
:con: Rie: Ic cee recee deęk ryy. Fək redeęk. Nrək deęk rebją. Deęk cee.
that's a different cee at the end than at the beginning. in the last sentence, it is in an adverb meaning "truly"
:con: Makurungou: Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsenudyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûserümwëdyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëzösûgwadyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsedyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsegwadyùfyaĵwù. (Should really shorten that down a bit..)
In order of knowledge: :eng: :vls: :epo: :fra: :deu: :esp: :jpn: :zho: :fin: :tur: :eus:
Conlangs: :con: Literary Makurungou, :con: Common Makurungou
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Zumir
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Zumir »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.

:con: Thśjezb: Khepā phē amphē amnābyw. Nābyw phe. Nābyw pi. Nābyw pet.
:con: Rie: Ic cee recee deęk ryy. Fək redeęk. Nrək deęk rebją. Deęk cee.
that's a different cee at the end than at the beginning. in the last sentence, it is in an adverb meaning "truly"
:con: Makurungou: Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsenudyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûserümwëdyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëzösûgwadyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsedyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsegwadyùfyaĵwù. (Should really shorten that down a bit..)
:con: Nu Engzix: A gan-neo hē dan keom.
1.S away know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Mēz Az neo hē dan keom.
1.GEN eye-PL know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
A dan gi hya hē dan keom.
1.S PST become hear 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Hēz kelenim bē Ta-la.
3.M-GEN kill-NMZ-3.AGR be thought-law
Wa mnew yiHegolech.
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plathhs
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Re: I felt that...

Post by plathhs »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.
:swe: Jag är säker på att han dödade honom. Jag såg honom döda honom. Jag hörde att han dödade honom. Han dödade definitivt honom. +Han påstår att han dödade honom.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:jpn: (彼が彼を)殺したと(私は)確信している。殺したのを見た。殺したと聞いた。殺したのは間違いない。+殺したと主張している。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.

:con: Thśjezb: Khepā phē amphē amnābyw. Nābyw phe. Nābyw pi. Nābyw pet.
:con: Rie: Ic cee recee deęk ryy. Fək redeęk. Nrək deęk rebją. Deęk cee.
that's a different cee at the end than at the beginning. in the last sentence, it is in an adverb meaning "truly"
:con: Makurungou: Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsenudyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûserümwëdyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëzösûgwadyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsedyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsegwadyùfyaĵwù. (Should really shorten that down a bit..)
:con: Nu Engzix: A gan-neo hē dan keom.
1.S away know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Mēz Az neo hē dan keom.
1.GEN eye-PL know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
A dan gi hya hē dan keom.
1.S PST become hear 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Hēz kelenim bē Ta-la.
3.M-GEN kill-NMZ-3.AGR be thought-law
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Visinoid
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Visinoid »

:eng: I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him. +He claims that he killed him.
:deu: Ich bin mir sicher, dass er ihn getötet hat. Ich hab gesehen wie er ihn getötet hat. Er soll ihn getötet haben. Er hat ihn definitiv getötet. +Er will ihn getötet haben.
:swe: Jag är säker på att han dödade honom. Jag såg honom döda honom. Jag hörde att han dödade honom. Han dödade definitivt honom. +Han påstår att han dödade honom.

:fra: Je suis sûr qu'il l'a tué. Je l'ai vu/le vis le tuer. J'ai entendu dire qu'on l'a/l'aurait (second one is more doubtful) tué. Il l'a définitivement tué. Il dit l'avoir tué.

:roc: 我相信他被他殺了。我看到他被他殺了。聽説他被他殺了。他肯定殺了他。

:jpn: (彼が彼を)殺したと(私は)確信している。殺したのを見た。殺したと聞いた。殺したのは間違いない。+殺したと主張している。

:con: Daljetz: Ge allates glom em! Jo/Sa zidikosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Jo/Sa eldosatz tel ge allatesatz em. Ge allates glom em.
:con: Tow: cānle̱h le̱h cantan ca̱. cānle̱h le̱h cantan nwo̖h. cānle̱h le̱h cantan u̱hf. cānle̱h le̱h cantan āssā.
ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf EVID. ACC-3s 3s kill-Perf SpirEVID.

:con:Kolgenzô: To rekûzes to kar. To rekûzes to ke. To rekûzes to het. To rekûzes to ke.
kar is a clitic that marks reliable hearsay or deduction; ke marks personal experience; het marks rumour or random guess.

:con: Wattētexu: Mai xe āxi mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Mai ko kipe mē ge xī paūku nā xī. Ko metī mai tā ge xī paūku nā xī. Xī ko paūku nā xī i xappe xāku. + Ko nime nā xī ge xī paūku nā xī.
Not a single grammaticalised evidential :)

Image Arve: En vöss, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas lutjen, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. En tegnas pirra, kes tegnar jost kyrätt kes. Kes tegnar euch kyrätt kes.
Image Kannow: Ereow hqỳnòw. Ernysow rqỳnòw. Erdìrow rqỳnòw. Nòhecqỳnòw.
:con: Caestec: Gāstan der. Gāstan an. Gāstan cuin. Gāstan le.

:con: Thśjezb: Khepā phē amphē amnābyw. Nābyw phe. Nābyw pi. Nābyw pet.
:con: Rie: Ic cee recee deęk ryy. Fək redeęk. Nrək deęk rebją. Deęk cee.
that's a different cee at the end than at the beginning. in the last sentence, it is in an adverb meaning "truly"
:con: Makurungou: Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsenudyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûserümwëdyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëzösûgwadyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsedyùfyaĵwù. Fwezwagyedyëllù fwezwagyedyëkyage gëtjùgyedyëdûsegwadyùfyaĵwù. (Should really shorten that down a bit..)
:con: Nu Engzix: A gan-neo hē dan keom.
1.S away know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Mēz Az neo hē dan keom.
1.GEN eye-PL know 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
A dan gi hya hē dan keom.
1.S PST become hear 3.M PST kill.3.AGR
Hēz kelenim bē Ta-la.
3.M-GEN kill-NMZ-3.AGR be thought-law
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Selinki
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Selinki »

I'm sure he killed him. I saw him kill him. I heard that he killed him. He definitely killed him.

:con: Selinki [s"e:liNki]

Je bau czejkoris, czes he parkatole heu
[je b"au ts`"ejk:oris ts`es he p"arkat:o:le h"eu]
I be-1SG sure that he kill-PST.3SG he-ACC

Je oviol heu parkatlag heu
[je "o:viol h"eu p"arkatla:g h"eu]
I see-PST.1SG he-ACC while.killing he-ACC

Je audol, czes he parkatole heu
[je "auDol ts`es he p"arkat:o:le h"eu]
I hear-PST.1SG that he kill-PST.3SG he-ACC

He atveritelno parkatole heu
[he atver"i:telno p"arkat:o:le h"eu]
He most.probable-ADV kill-PST.3SG he-ACC
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DanH34
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Re: I felt that...

Post by DanH34 »

:eng: I'm sure he ate it. I saw him eat it. I heard that he ate it. He definitely ate it.

:con: Zidhgebzhail - Which has a class of words for exactly this purpose. Using the default word order again.

vimoth zil mef gEntan.
I'm certain he ate it.

vupoth zil mef gEntan.
I witnessed him eat it.

zanoth zil mef gEntan.
I hear that he ate it and report this as a fact.

zedoth zil mef gEntan.
I hear that he ate it, but I'm not sure whether it's true.

mimoth zil mef gEntan.
It is certain that that he ate it.
Spoiler:
z-il m-ef g-Enta-n
3-ERG.SG.M 3.INAN-ACC.SG.M PST-eat-SIMPLE

Evidentials:

v-im-oth
1-CERTAINTY-EVIDENTIAL
I am sure that...

v-up-oth
1-WITNESSED-EVIDENTIAL
I have witnessed that...

z-an-oth

3-QUOTATIVE-EVIDENTIAL
I have heard that... and report this as a fact.

z-ed-oth
3-REPORTATIVE-EVIDENTIAL
I have heard... but I'm not sure whether it's true.

m-im-oth

3.INAN-CERTAINTY-EVIDENTIAL
It is certain that...
Life's a bitch, then you die.

Zidhgebzhail Orthography
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Xing
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Xing »

My yet unnamed, polysynthetic, head marking language, has evidentiality marking. But It's not clear how it would be manifested in the example sentences. Partly because a couple of them seems not to be about evidentiality in the strict sense, but about the certainty of the events. This may of course be conflated with evidentiality, but is not in my lang.

Let's look at the two sentences that may be said to involve evidentiality proper. In many cases, it would be natural to render these as biclausal constructions:

'He killed him, I saw it'
Arajostan mersekedtan.
a-ra-jos-t-an-Ø mer-se-ked-t-an-Ø
3s.M-ERG-kill-PFV-PST-DIRECT 1s.ERG-1s.N-see-PFV-PST-DIRECT

'He killed him, I heard it'
Arajostani merselortan.
a-ra-jos-t-an-i mer-se-lor-t-an-Ø
3s.M-ERG-kill-PFV-PST-HEARSAY 1s.ERG-1s.N-see-PFV-PST-DIRECT

These technically involve two distinct clauses, with independent truth-values. In the first example sentence, it would be natural to use a direct (unmarked) evidential in both clauses. There could of course, logically speaking, arise situations where the second clause would take an indirect evidential. Suppose you witnessed the killing, but for some reason don't remember anything. Someone else may then tell you that you actually witnessed it. In such a situation, it may be appropriate to use an indirect evidential.

In the second sentence, I have used an indirect (hearsay) evidential in the first clause, and a direct one in the second. It is of course possible to have only the first clause:

I guess it will also be possible to form some kind of embedded clauses: 'I saw that he killed him', etc. I'm really sure how to handle these. Probably they embedded clause will be put in a subjunctive mood (or something like that):

'I saw that he killed him'
Mersekedtan arajostas.
mer-se-ked-t-an a-r-a-jos-t-as
1s.ERG-1s.N-see-PFV-PST 3s.M-ERG-kill-PFV-SUBJ

''I heard that he killed him'
Merselortan arajostas.
mer-se-ked-t-an a-r-a-jos-t-as
1s.ERG-1s.N-hear-PFV-PST 3s.M-ERG-kill-PFV-SUBJ

This sentence is different from the other two, in that it has a single truth value. It is, for example, possible to negate the whole construction with a single negator.

I don't know yet how to handle the remaining two sentences.
Iyionaku
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Joined: 25 May 2014 14:17

Re: I felt that...

Post by Iyionaku »

:con: Yélian

I'm sure he killed him.
Re niscitbai, te tem yiolket.
I sure-be-1SG he he-OBJ PST-kill-3SG

I saw him kill him.
Re tem yinosdai, te tem yiolket.
I he-OBJ PST-watch-1SG he he-OBJ PST-kill-3SG.

I heard that he killed him.
Re yiriyai ci te tem yiolket.
I PST-hear-1SG that he he-OBJ PST-kill-3SG.

He definitely killed him.
Te tem yiytulolket.
He he-OBJ PST-definetly-kill-3SG.
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
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Dormouse559
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Dormouse559 »

Image Silvish

 Jho su syû/syura k' î l' a tuvâ.
[ʒo.syˈsyː/ˈsy.ʁa kiː.la.tyˈvɑː]
1S.NOM be.1S sure.M.N/sure-F.N SBRD 3S.M.NOM 3S.ACC have.3S kill-PSTP.M.N

I'm sure he killed him.

 Jh' l' e vezû lo tuvâ.
[ʒlɛˈvzyː lo.tyˈvɑː]
1S.NOM 3S.ACC have.1S see-PSTP.M.N 3S.M.ACC kill-INF

I saw him kill him.

 Jh' e-y ovi / Jh' e parçi dirï k' î l' aviva tuvâ.
[ʒɛˈvi / ʒe.pɑˈʃi ˈdi.ʁi kiː.laˈvi.va tyˈvaː]
1S.NOM have.1S hear-PSTP / 1S.NOM have.1S notice-PSTP say-INF SBRD 3S.M.NOM 3S.ACC have-IPF-3S kill-INF

I heard that he killed him.

 Î l' a syû tuvâ.
[ʔiː.laˈsyː tyˈvɑː]
3S.M.NOM 3S.ACC have.3S definitely kill-PSTP.M.N

He definitely killed him.

 Î dî d' l' avê tuvâ.
[ʔiˈdiː dlaˈvɛː tyˈvɑː]
3S.M.NOM say.3S of 3S.ACC have-INF kill-PSTP.M.N

He claims that he killed him.


New/rethought words
ovî dirï ke / parçivre dirï ke phr. - hear (tell) that (< ovî "hear", parçivre "notice" + dirï "say, tell"; lit. hear/notice being said)
syû adj - definitely; surely (< syû "sure" < Lt. securus)
tuvâ v - kill (< Lt. tutor, cf. Fr. tuer; old etymology, rethought sound changes)
Iyionaku
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Re: I felt that...

Post by Iyionaku »

Yélian is horribly outdated. Actually, you could call 2014's Yélian very well "Proto-Yélian" for the massive grammatical and phonetical changes it underwent. Time for an update!

:con: Yélian

Re niscitbai, te tem yiolket.
Niscitbai pi tem yòilket.
[ˈniskɨbai̯ pɨ tem ˈʃɔʊ̯lkət]
sure-COP.1SG that 3SG.MASC.OBL PST-kill-3SG
I'm sure he killed him.

Pro-drop has become the norm in Yélian, pi "that" is no longer facultative and there are a lot of phonetical changes.

Re tem yinosdai, te tem yiolket.
Tem yivalatsolket.
[təm ɕɨˌvaːlɐt͡sˈolkət]
3SG.MASC.OBL PST-EVID.VIS-kill-3SG
He killed him (I saw it personally).

Evidentiality was introduced to Yélian in early 2019, with valats being the direct evidential (I saw it with my own eyes, I know it's true!). Also, the verb nosda "to watch" seems to be extinct and was completely replaced by blida.

Re yiriyai ci te tem yiolket.
Tem yirîyatsolket.
[təm ɕɨˌriːɕɐt͡sˈolkət]
3SG.MASC.OBL PST-EVID.AUD-kill-3SG
He killed him (So I've heard)

Rîyats is the indirect evidential, if you didn't experience the action yourself. The original had a spelling error: ci should have been pi.

Te tem yiytulolket.
Te vutret, te tem yòilket.
[te ˈvutɾət, te təm ˈʃɔʊ̯lkət]
3SG.MASC INT, 3SG.MASC 3SG.MASC.OBL PST-kill-3SG
He definitely killed him.

The classifier ytul "for sure, definitely" still exists, but the more natural way is now the usage of the intensifier structure "<personal pronoun> VUTRET, <personal pronoun>". Note that this structure works slightly different for 1sg as you can see in many other challenges.
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.
GrandPiano
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Re: I felt that...

Post by GrandPiano »

:es-pv: Basque

Ziur nago hil zuela.
/s̻i.ur nago il s̻u.ela/
[s̻i.ur naɣo il t͡s̻u.ela]
ziur n-a-go hil-∅ z-∅-u-∅-en-la
sure 1SG-PRES-be kill-PP 3.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-SG.ERG-PST-COMP

I'm sure he killed him.

(Hark hura) hiltzen ikusi nuen.
/(ark uɾa) ilt͡s̻en ikus̺i nu.en/
[(ark uɾa) ilt͡s̻en ikus̺i nu.en]
(har=k hura) hil-tzen ikus-i n-∅-u-en
(DIST.SG=ERG DIST.SG.ABS) kill-PRESP see-PP 1SG.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-PST

I saw him kill him.

Hil zuela aditu dut.
/il s̻u.ela aditu dut/
[il t͡s̻u.ela aðitu ðut]
hil-∅ z-∅-u-∅-en-la adi-tu d-∅-u-t
kill-PP 3.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-SG.ERG-PST-COMP hear-PP 3.ABS.PRS-SG.ABS-AUX-1SG.ERG

I heard that he killed him.

Zalantzarik gabe hil zuen.
/s̻alant͡s̻aɾik gabe il s̻u.en/
[s̻alant͡s̻aɾi kaβe il t͡s̻u.en]
zalantza=rik gabe hil-∅ z-∅-u-∅-en
doubt=PRTV without kill-PP 3.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-SG.ERG-PST

He definitely killed him.

With evidential particles:

Hil omen zuen.
/il omen s̻u.en/
[iʎ omen t͡s̻u.en]
hil-∅ omen z-∅-u-∅-en
kill-PP reportedly 3.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-SG.ERG-PST

They say that he killed him.

Hil bide zuen.
/il bide s̻u.en/
[iʎ βiðe s̻u.en]
hil-∅ bide z-∅-u-∅-en
kill-PP must 3.ERG.3.ABS.PST-SG.ABS-AUX-SG.ERG-PST

He must have killed him.
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