Indirect speech

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Xing
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Indirect speech

Post by Xing »

:eng:

They said: "We are going to the cinema."
They said that they were going to the cinema.

:con: Wa‘tē

Ko i‘ni ā xōru, "e laka ā ʻma mō ta maromaʻla."
PRFT say ERG 3PL PRST go ERG 1PL ALL DEF cinema
Ko iʻni ā xōru xui laka ā ʻma mō ta maromaʻla.
PRFT say ERG 3PL that go ERG 1PL ALL DEF cinema

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valiums
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by valiums »

:eng:

They said: "We are going to the cinema."
They said that they were going to the cinema.

:con: Wa‘tē

Ko i‘ni ā xōru, "e laka ā ʻma mō ta maromaʻla."
PRFT say ERG 3PL PRST go ERG 1PL ALL DEF cinema
Ko iʻni ā xōru xui laka ā ʻma mō ta maromaʻla.
PRFT say ERG 3PL that go ERG 1PL ALL DEF cinema

:con: Heba
...has a set of pronouns just for this.
Hir peot Nir tami lömihääsæs.
3PL say-PRF 3PL* walk [DEF]cinema-LOC

Hir peot hir tami (tamoti) lömihääsæs.
3PL say-PRF 3PL walk (walk.PRF) [DEF]cinema-LOC

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DanH34
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by DanH34 »

They said: "We are going to the house". (A group of men and women were on their way when I spoke to them).

zaik gAizhlon: "zvaik igaarrjeim Id"
z-Ø-aik g-Aizhlo-n: "zv-Ø-aik igaarr-jeim Ø-I-d"
3-ABS.-PL.ANDR PAST-say-SIMPLE: "1+3-ABS-PL.ANDR house-LATIVE PRESENT-go-PROG"

They said that they were going to the house. (A group of men and women were on their way when I spoke to them).

zaik gAizhlon h-yt [zaik] igaarrjeim gId.
z-Ø-aik g-Aizhlo-n hyt [z-Ø-aik] igaarr-jeim g-I-d"
3-ABS.-PL.ANDR PAST-say-SIMPLE SUBORDINATOR-GENERIC [1+3-ABS-PL.ANDR] house-LATIVE PAST-go-PROG"

In the second example, 'zaik gAizhlon hyt' - 'they said that' could be replaced with 'zanoth', an evidential meaning 'someone has told me and I report to you as fact that...'.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by vampireshark »

A- They said: "We are going to the cinema."
B- They said that they were going to the cinema.
(Implied: single action)

Telèmor
A- Dirãt: ‹Idom èo teiatru›.
[diˈrɐ̃t ˈi.dom ø tejˈa.tɾu]
speak.3.PL.PST go.1.PL.PRS to.M.DEF theater

B- Dirãt çe assãt èo teiatru.
[diˈrɐ̃t t͡ʃɛ asˈsɐ̃t ø tejˈa.tɾu]
speak.3.PL.PST that go.3.SBJV.PST to.M.DEF theater

In B, the imperfect subjunctive is required because, at the time of the action, it is not known whether or not the action was definitively completed; it was in progress at that point. Also, after the marker çe, the subjunctive is always obligatory.

Nitpick: ç should actually be c-comma, not c-cedilla, but this forum won't correctly represent the former...
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by taylorS »

Alpic:

A quotative "po" is used in the first one.

Vorulso po "Imo don sineman".
say-PST-3PL QUOTE go-1PL DEF-DAT cinema-DAT

Vorulso zje iloso don sineman.
say-PST-3PL REL go-SUBJ.PST-3PL DEF-DAT cinema-DAT

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Imralu »

Epic necro!
taylorS wrote:
27 Jan 2012 05:46
Alpic:

A quotative "po" is used in the first one.
Funny, it's ho in my language.

:con: Ngolu / Iliaqu

Ti zois iju zi ho hu zinema inu.
[tí zoís‿iʒú zí hó hú zinemâ‿jnû]
PRF say NOM.3P.DEF.ICS ACC.3S.SPEC QUOT come/go cinema NOM.1P.ICS
They said "We are going to the cinema."

Ti zois iju jo hu zinema iju.
[tí zoís‿iʒú ʒó hú zinemâ‿jʒû]
PRF say NOM.3P.DEF.ICS ACC.C come/go cinema NOM.3P.DEF.ICS
They said that they were going to the cinema.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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Tuyono
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Tuyono »

Źilaa Ruńu

Assuming they were just heading out:

śaluhaa: deźan (al) nde leen naberaĺar.
say-PFV-3PL go.from.IPF-1PL (here) to house.OBL VN-dance-OBL
They said: we are going to the dancing-house.

śaluhaa nguha deźa (al) nde leen naberaĺar.
say-PFV-3PL COMP go.from.IPF-3PL (here) to house.OBL VN-dance-OBL
They said that they were going to the dancing-house.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Reyzadren »

:con: griuskant (without the conscript)

raeses yalka [aeskes kin zira ki haervgroug].
/'resəs 'jalka 'eskəs kin 'zira ki 'hervgrɔug/
3PL word-V 1PL will go-V to movie.place

raeses kiga zhaed raeses kin zira ki haervgroug.
/'resəs 'kiga ʒed 'resəs kin 'zira ki 'hervgrɔug/
3PL talk-V COMP 3PL will go-V to movie.place
Last edited by Reyzadren on 30 Mar 2020 03:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Lao Kou »

Epic necro!
Epic! [:D]

Image Géarthnuns

Beth lé ngamath „Trízh la chü içdimtelímarangíksüv kadiz.”
3DUAL-NOM AUX.PAST say „1DUAL-NOM AUX.PRES DEF cinema-LOC go”
They said, "We are going to the cinema."

Beth lé, gü thpau lé chü içdimtelímarangíksüv höikadiz sho, ngamath.
3DUAL-NOM AUX.PAST, CONJ 3-NOM AUX.PAST DEF cinema-LOC go-DISC PTCL, say
They said that they were going to the cinema.

More information on indirect discourse in Géarthnuns can be found here
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Iyionaku »

:chn: Mandarin

Chinese, as far as I know, doesn't mark indirect speech.

他们说:“我们在去电影院”
Tāmen shuō: “Wŏmen zài qù diànyĭngyuàn.”
3PL say: 1PL PROG go cinema
They said: "We are going to the cinema."

他们说他们在去电影院。
Tāmen shuō tāmen zài qù diànyĭngyuàn.
3PL say 3PL PROG go cinema
They said that they were going to the cinema.
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Frislander »

:con: Asta

Ok, this is a bit complicated, since Asta has three different constructions relating to reported speech, and I will give examples of each.

yastiyə. "mini‘xi‘xwə tansiyinyəx."
y-astə-yə min-VCC-i‘x-wə t-ansi-yən-yəx
Ip-speak-PRF 1p-PROG-walk-PROG Vs-sing-place-ADV
They spoke. "We are going to the theatre."

This is the typical format for direct speech used in theatre. As there is a sentence break in between "they speak" and "we are going to the cinema", there is often a corresponding pause.

xwən mini‘xi‘xwə tansiyinyəx
xwən min-VCC-i‘x-wə t-ansi-yən-yəx
QUOT 1p-PROG-walk-PROG Vs-sing-plce-ADV
They said "we are going to the theatre"

This is a true quotative construction, and would be the typical way of reporting speech in natural conversation. This construction features no pause akin to that found in the first construction, and indeed the quotative particle is typically unstressed outside of careful speech.

‘i‘astatriyə ‘ix‘iyəx tansiyinyəx
‘i-‘-astə<atr>-yə ‘-i‘x-‘ə-yəx t-ansi-yən-yəx
3erg-IV-speak<APPL>-PRF IV-walk-NOM-ADV Vs-sing-place-ADV
They spoke of going to the theatre.

This is the closest thing to a true indirect construction, however it is fairly formal and, and not really suited to long stretches of reported speech.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by nmn »

Z̧uǯ

Won juzrł zú: "Jon séa ščó mwne."
3 say-PST QUOT 1 go cinema STEM
They said: "We are going to the cinema."

Won juzrł non - won séa ščó mwne.
3 say-PST this 3 go cinema STEM
They said that they were going to the cinema.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Jackk »

Boral:

Il disern — Nos sorteu all'odysse.
Il disern il sorçen all'odysse.
They said, "We're going to the cinema".
They said they were going to the cinema.
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu n'un mont sug
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Ser »

Iyionaku wrote:
14 Jan 2019 11:39
:chn: Mandarin

Chinese, as far as I know, doesn't mark indirect speech.

他们说:“我们在去电影院”
Tāmen shuō: “Wŏmen zài qù diànyĭngyuàn.”
3PL say: 1PL PROG go cinema
They said: "We are going to the cinema."

他们说他们在去电影院。
Tāmen shuō tāmen zài qù diànyĭngyuàn.
3PL say 3PL PROG go cinema
They said that they were going to the cinema.
Yes. It amuses me that it doesn't do it even when it comes to prohibitives, for which it has the special negative marker 別 bie2.

他說, 「別碰電線!」。
ta1 shuo1, "bie2 peng2 dian4xian4!"
3SG say PROHIB touch wire
He said, "Don't touch the wire!"

他說別碰電線。
ta1 shuo1 bie2 peng4 dian4xian4
3SG say PROHIB touch wire
He said not to touch the wire.
Last edited by Ser on 21 Jan 2019 05:37, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Indirect speech

Post by gestaltist »

:con: Īsmay

Īk eyes ūbwūć nuennajī.
They said that they were going to the theater.

I'll start with this one as it's syntactically simpler. The dubitative mood is used for reported speech.

Code: Select all

3pf	say\CONT	go-3pf\AOR.DUB	to=theater
īk	eyes		ūbwu-yk	nu=ennajī
Dal yosūć (īk) linta: "Issa bovussu nuennajī."
They said: "We are going to the theater."

Code: Select all

DEM.PROX.3sa	say-3pf\AOR.PUNC	(3pf)	EQ.CNJ=COORD	1p.EXCL go<1p.EXCL>\NPST.PUNC	to=theater
dal		yusu-yk			(īk)	lin-tâ		issa	buwu<ss>u		nu=ennajī
Īsmay has a hard time making a subordinate clause into the direct object. Because of that, the construction above is commonly used, where a cataphoric proximal demonstrative 3rd person, singular abstract refers to the following clause introduced with the equative conjunction. A semi-literal translation would be: "They said this, which is: "We are going to the theater.""

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Dormouse559 »

Image Silvish

Î-z an dì : « Nou-z allanz â sinemà ».
[ʔiː.zɑ̃ˈdi | nu.zɑl.lɑ̃n.zɑː.si.nəˈma]
3=P have.3P say | 1P go-1P to.DEF.OBL.M cinema

They said: "We are going to the cinema."

Î-z an dì qu' î-z allouye â sinemà.
[ʔiː.zɑ̃ˈdi kiː.zɑˈlu.jə ʔɑː.si.nəˈma]
3=P have.3P say SBRD 3-P go-IPF to.DEF.OBL.M cinema

They said that they were going to the cinema.

Another word for "cinema/movie theater" is ternajì [tɛʁnəˈʑi], a shortening of lanterna majica, lit. "magic lantern". For "cinema" as an abstract term, one always uses sinemà.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by spanick »

Weddisch (edited from Nortsääenglisch)

Dey seide, “Wie sinn an det cinema gangen.”
/dɛɪ zɛɪdə | viː zɪnː an dɛt sɪnəma gaŋgən/
3.P say-PST 1.P be.P on the cinema go.GER

They said, “We are going to the cinema.”

Dey seide det dey an det cinema gangen wears.
/dɛɪ zɛɪdə dɛt sɛɪ an dɛt sɪnəma gaŋgən vɛːs/
3.P say-PST that 3.P on the cinema go.GER be.PST-P

They said that they were going to the cinema.

There are two main changes here. First, there's a change in word order in the subordinate clause of the indirect speech. Second, the auxiliary changes tense (present to past) to match the tense of the verb in the main clause seide). It would also be possible to render these sentences using a slightly different construction for the progressive but this method is the most common across all dialects.
Last edited by spanick on 20 Apr 2019 04:27, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by jal »

Dem tok se "mi-dem a go lef wok di fim".
3.PL talk DS 1-PL.EX FUT PTV go DEF film
They said "we (excl) are going to the cinema

mi-dem is exclusive we, I assumed the listener wasn't part of the cinema gang (otherwise minu would be the correct form).

Dem tok dem-ya a go lef wok di fim.
3.PL talk DS 3.PL-DEF FUT PTV go DEF film
They said they are going to the cinema

ya, the postponed definite article, is used here to indicate it's the same dem as the ones doing the talking.


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Re: Indirect speech

Post by GrandPiano »

:es-pv: Basque

(Assuming that "going to" means that they are going to go and not that they are in the process of going)

In the recent past tense (i.e. earlier today):

"Zinemara joango gara" esan dute.
/s̻inemaɾa joango gaɾa es̺an dute/
zinema=ra j-oa-ngo g-a-ra-Ø esa-n d-Ø-u-te-Ø
cinema=ART.ALL.SG PTCP-go-FUT.PTCP 1PL-PRS-AUX.INTR.PL-PRS say-PP 3.ABS\PRS-SG.ABS-AUX.TR-3PL.ERG-PRS

They said, "We are going to the cinema."

Zinemara joango zirela esan dute.
/s̻inemaɾa joango s̻iɾela es̺an dute/
zinema=ra j-oa-ngo z-ira-en-la esa-n d-Ø-u-te-Ø
cinema=ART.ALL.SG PTCP-go-FUT.PTCP 3.ABS\PST-AUX.INTR.PL-PST-COMP say-PP 3.ABS\PRS-SG.ABS-AUX.TR-3PL.ERG-PRS

They said that they were going to the cinema.

In the remote past tense (i.e. before today):

"Zinemara joango gara" esan zuten.
/s̻inemaɾa joango gaɾa es̺an s̻uten/
zinema=ra j-oa-ngo g-a-ra-Ø esa-n z-Ø-u-te-n
cinema=ART.ALL.SG PTCP-go-FUT.PTCP 1PL-PRS-AUX.INTR.PL-PRS say-PP 3.ERG\PST-SG.ABS-AUX.TR-3PL.ERG-PST

They said, "We are going to the cinema."

Zinemara joango zirela esan zuten.
/s̻inemaɾa joango s̻iɾela es̺an s̻uten/
zinema=ra j-oa-ngo z-ira-en-la esa-n z-Ø-u-te-n
cinema=ART.ALL.SG PTCP-go-FUT.PTCP 3.ABS\PST-AUX.INTR.PL-PST-COMP say-PP 3.ERG\PST-SG.ABS-AUX.TR-3PL.ERG-PST

They said that they were going to the cinema.
:eng: - Native
:chn: - B2
:esp: - A2
:jpn: - A2

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Re: Indirect speech

Post by Iyionaku »

:con: Paatherye

Elfish uses a special renarrative verbal mood for that.

ऊप़ ह्रितूमि: "वौ तीम़ खरसमे मि चीनेमरफ़ी़."
Ūpan hritūmi: "Wey tīman kharsame mi cīnemarfīn."
[ˈuːpan hriˈtuːmi: "weɪ̯ ˈtiːman ˈkʰaɾsame mi t͡siːnemaɾˈfiːn]
3PL.NOM say.PST.3PL: 1PL.NOM AUX.PROG.1PL go.INF DEF.MASC.ALL cinema.ALL
They said, "We are going to the cinema."

ऊप़ ह्रितूमि फि खेरसचा़ मि चीनेमरफ़ी़.
Ūpan hritūmi phi khersacān mi cīnemarfīn."
[ˈuːpan hriˈtuːmi: pʰi ˈʰeɾsaˈt͡saːn mi t͡siːnemaɾˈfiːn]
3PL.NOM say.PST.3PL that go.REN.PST.3PL DEF.MASC.ALL cinema.ALL
They said that they were going to the cinema.
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.

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