TC: Contrastive Focus

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clawgrip
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by clawgrip »

Yabushionese just adjusts which information is placed (nominalized) in the topic.

:con: Yabushionese

メアリを叩っけのはジョンなずにデービッドなっけ。
Meari o tatakke no fa Jon nazu ni Dēbiddo nakke.

Mary ACC hit-PST N TOP John COP-NEG ADV David COP-PST
The one who hit Mary was not John; it was David.

ジョンはメアリを叩っけのなずに接吻しけ。
Jon fa Meari o tatakke no nazu ni seppun shike.

John TOP Mary ACC hit-PST N COP-NEG ADV kiss do-PST
John didn't hit Mary; he kissed her.

ジョンの叩っけのはメアリなずにスーザンなっけ。
Jon no tatakke no fa Meari nazu ni Sūzan nakke.

John NOM hit-PST N TOP Mary COP-NEG ADV Susan COP-PST
The one John hit was not Mary; it was Susan.

The reason the second sentence nominalizes the verb and follows it with a negative copula (tatakke no nazu ni) instead of just negating the verb itself (tatakkerazu ni) is because just negating the verb makes it mean "Instead of hitting Mary, John kissed her," or "John kissed Mary without hitting her," which is really the wrong nuance here.
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druneragarsh
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by druneragarsh »

Trún didn't hit Ūʙsʲ, Àrb did
Trúna do ne n̥íʀŋ Ūʙsʲ, Àrba (ne) n̥íʀŋ ʀá
Trún-ERG neg past hit Ūʙsʲ, Àrb-ERG (past) hit hir2.ABS

Trún didn't hit Ūʙsʲ, she kissed her
Trúna do ne n̥íʀŋ Ūʙsʲ, ʀúa (ne) púʀ ʀá
Trún-ERG neg past hit Ūʙsʲ, hir1-ERG (past) kiss hir2.ABS

Trún didn't hit Ūʙsʲ, she hit Fírb
Trúna do ne n̥íʀŋ Ūʙsʲ, ʀúa (ne) n̥íʀŋ Fírb
Trún-ERG neg past hit Ūʙsʲ, hir1-ERG (past) hit Fírb
drúne, rá gárš
drun-VOC I.ERG read

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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Iyionaku »

:con: Caelian

Tesson Merrunge kë sitükim, jos Däivid.
[t̚əʃɔn mɛruˈŋɛ kʰə ʃitʏˈkʰɪm, jɔʃ dæɪ̯vɪd]
John.NOM Marry.ACC NEG PST-hit.3SG>3SG, but David.NOM

Tesson Merrunge kë sitükim, jos sijüvric.
[t̚əʃɔn mɛruˈŋɛ kʰə ʃitʏˈkʰɪm, jɔʃ ʃi.ʏfˈrɪç]
John.NOM Marry.ACC NEG PST-hit.3SG>3SG, but PST-kiss.3SG>3SG

Tesson Merrunge kë sitükim, jos Zuzungen.
[t̚əʃɔn mɛruˈŋɛ kʰə ʃitʏˈkʰɪm, jɔʃ zuzʊˈŋɛn]
John.NOM Marry.ACC NEG PST-hit.3SG>3SG, but Susan.ACC

:con: Anto

Con Meri bam fikafi-ton, aba Da'wide Meri.
[t͡ʃɔn ˈmɛɹi pam ˈfikʰaˌfitʰɔn, apa ˈtawitɛ ˈmɛɹi]
John Marry NEG hit-PST-3.ANIM, but David Marry

Con Meri bam fikafi-ton, aba ton Meri zukelzu-ton.
[t͡ʃɔn ˈmɛɹi pam ˈfikʰaˌfitʰɔn, apa tʰon ˈmɛɹi ˈt͡sukʰɛlˌt͡sutʰɔn]
John Marry NEG hit-PST-3.ANIM, but 3 Marry kiss-PST-3.ANIM

Con Mery bam fikafi-ton, aba Con Susen.
[t͡ʃɔn ˈmɛɹi pam ˈfikʰaˌfitʰɔn, apa t͡ʃɔn ˈsusɛn]
John Marry NEG hit-PST-3.ANIM but John Susan

:con: Bath'aso

Zar krtak Johnz Marry, khek Davidz.
[zar kʁ̥ˈtak ˈd͡ʒɔnz ˈmɛɹi, kʰɛk dæɪ̯bɪdz]
NEG hit John-ERG Marry.ABS, PERF David-ERG

Zar krtak Johnz Marry, khek mlakemz medzh.
[zar kʁ̥ˈtak ˈd͡ʒɔnz ˈmɛɹi, kʰɛk ˈmlakɛmz mɛd͡ʒ]
NEG hit John-ERG Marry-ABS, PERF kiss-3SG.ERG 3SG.ABS

Zar krtak Johnz Marry, khek Susan.
[zar kʁ̥ˈtak ˈd͡ʒɔnz ˈmɛɹi, kʰɛk ˈzuzən]
NEG hit John-ERG Marry-ABS, PERF Susan-ABS

:con: Elfish

नुलिण JOHN फ़्लौषेमे MARRYरण, ध्रा फ़्लोषुण DAVIद​.
Nulin John fleyșeme Marryran, dhrā flēșun Davida.

NEG.IPF.3SG.MASC John.NOM hit.INF Marr.ACC, 3SG_FEM.ACC hit.IPF.3SG.MASC David.NOM

नुलिण JOHN फ़्लौषेमे MARRYरण, युवो गीषुण ध्रा.
Nulin John fleyșeme Marryran, yuwē gīșun dhrā.

NEG.IPF.3SG.MASC John.NOM hit.INF Marr.ACC, 3SG_MASC.NOM kiss.IPF.3SG.MASC 3SG_FEM.ACC

नुलिण JOHN फ़्लौषेमे MARRYरण, युवो फ़्लोषुण SUZANरण.
Nulin John fleyșeme Marryran, yuwē flēșun Suzanran.

NEG.IPF.3SG.MASC John.NOM hit.INF Marr.ACC, 3SG_MASC.NOM, hit.IPF.3SG.MASC Suzan.ACC
Last edited by Iyionaku on 26 Sep 2016 02:17, edited 2 times in total.
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Dormouse559
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Dormouse559 »

French uses very similar syntax to English in sentence 2. It could also use the same syntax in the first and third sentences, but I decided to use clefting instead.

Silvish probably allows clefting, too, but because of its cases, it can take advantage of word order to create contrast. That's most obvious in the third sentence, where Mary and Susan get shifted to the beginnings of their respective clauses and John gets shunted to the end.


John didn't hit Mary, David did.
John didn't hit Mary, he kissed her.
John didn't hit Mary, he hit Susan.

:fra: French
Ce n'est pas Jean qui a frappé Marie, c'est David.
/s nɛ pa ʒɑ̃ ki a fʁape maʁi | sɛ david /
DET NEG=be.3SG NEG John REL-NOM have.3SG hit-PST_PTCP Mary DET=be.3SG David

Jean n'a pas frappé Marie, il l'a embrassée.
/ʒɑ̃ na pa frape maʁi | il la ɑ̃bʁase/
John NEG=have.3SG hit-PST_PTCP Mary 3SG.NOM 3SG.ACC=have.3SG kiss-PST_PTCP{F}

Ce n'est pas Marie que Jean a frappée, c'est Susanne.
/s nɛ pa maʁi k ʒɑ̃‿na fʁape | sɛ syzan/
DET NEG=be.3SG NEG Mary REL.ACC John have.3SG hit-PST_PTCP{F} DET=be.3SG Susan


Image Silvish
Gzoán nen á pas sacòs Marî, David á fet queli.
[dʑɔˈãː nə.ŋ‿ɛ ˈpao̯ saˈkɔ maˈɾiː | davˈeː.ɾ‿ɛ fɛ ˈko̯ɛː.lɪ]
John NEG have.3SG NEG hit-PST_PTCP Mary.OBL David have.3SG do.PST_PTCP DET.DIST-M.OBL

Gzoán nen á pas sacòs Marî, és san á bezara.
[dʑɔˈãː nə.ŋ‿ɛ ˈpao̯ saˈkɔ maˈɾiː | ˈe saˈŋ‿ɛ bəˈzaː.ɾa]
John NEG have.3SG NEG hit-PST_PTCP Mary.OBL 3SG.NOM.M 3SG.ACC-F have.3SG kiss-PST_PTCP-F

Marî nen á-és pas sacosa Gzoán, Susánne á-és sacosa.
[maɾˈiː nə.ŋ‿ɛ‿ɪ̯ ˈpao̯ saˈkɔ.za dʑɔˈãː | sʊˈzɛː.n‿ɛ ˈe saˈkɔ.za]
Mary.OBL NEG have.3SG=3SG.NOM.M NEG hit-PST_PTCP-F John Susan.OBL have.3SG=3SG.NOM.M hit-PST_PTCP-F
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Imralu
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Imralu »

:con: :png: Wena:

(1)

Gu zyi Medi e ze Dyoni; i (ndwa) Devidi.
attack GEN.DEF Mary COP NEG John | COP (POS) David
Mary's hitter/attacker wasn't John; it was David.
John didn't hit Mary; David did.


(2)

Dyoni e ze gu zyi Medi; i (ndwa) lembwa zyi.
John COP NEG attack GEN.DEF Mary | COP (POS) kiss GEN.DEF
John didn't hit Mary; he kissed her.

(3)

Ne gu zyi Dyoni e ze Medi; i (ndwa) Zuzani.
PASS attack GEN.DEF John COP NEG Mary | COP (POS) Susan
The one who was attacked by John is not Mary; it is Susan.
John didn't hit Mary; he hit Susan.




Feel free to substitute appropriate names / NPs for your language.[/quote]
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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Ebon
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Ebon »

Nereifa:

(1) Avui abessa Kifurazei Dewia Sileor.

[ˈa.vuj aˈbɛ.sːa ˈki.fu.ɾa.zɛj ˈde.ʋja ˈsi.leɔɾ]
past_aux.3SG hit.PART Kifura.not_but Dewia Sil.ACC
Kifura didn't hit Sil, Dewia did.

(2) Avunon sabessa Kifura Sileor zae, nnera.
[aˈvu.nɔn saˈbɛ.sːa kiˈfu.ɾa ˈsi.leɔɾ zæ ˈnːe.ɾa]
past_aux.SS hit.NEG.PART Kifura Sil.ACC CONJ kiss.PART
Kifura didn't hit Sil, he kissed her.

(3) Avui abessa Kifura Sileorzei Suizeor.
[ˈa.vuj aˈbɛ.sːa kiˈfu.ɾa siˈleɔɾ.zɛj ˈsuj.zeɔɾ]
past_aux.3SG hit.PART Kifura Sil.ACC.not_but Suizaa.ACC
Kifura didn't hit Sil, he hit Suizaa.


x-zei y means "not x but y". A more literal translation would be "Kifura hit not Sil but Suizaa".
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by kiwikami »

:con: Alál

Contrastive focus (or for verbs, negative/affirmative) clitics work here; names have been changed because proper nouns are a bit finicky. The AFF infix in Ẓıílılùxǎẓaıt (2) could instead be a contrastive focus clitic (Ẓıílılǎẓaıtıkḷ), with the same effect, but verbs tend more towards NEG-vs.-AFF rather than focus/unmarked-vs.-contrastive-focus.

(1)
Ḷıírılǎ ẓırlaıkùh dızkakâhıt ıkásıkḷ.
ḷa<ıí>ŕ-ıl-à-á ẓırlaıka<ù>h dızkaka<á>h-ìt kı<á>s=ḷḷ
hit<3.3>-PST-CONC-VOL2.ACT my_friend<PAT> blue_person<AGT.AUG>-NEG child<AGT.AUG>=CONT.FOC
The blue person didn't hit my friend, the child did.

(2)
Ḷıírılìtǎ Ẓıílılùxǎẓaıt ẓırlaıkùh dızkakáh.
ḷa<ıí>ŕ-ıl-ìt-à-á ẓı<ıí>l-ıl-ùx-à-ẓı<á>t ẓırlaıka<ù>h dızkaka<á>h
hit<3.3>-PST-NEG-CONC-VOL2.ACT flock<3.3>-PST-AFF-purpose-CONC-touch<VOL2.ACT> my_friend<PAT> blue_person<AGT.AUG>
The blue person didn't hit my friend, he kissed her.

(3)
Ḷıírılǎ ẓırlaıkùhìt ıkùsıkḷ dızkakáh.
ḷa<ıí>ŕ-ıl-à-á ẓırlaıka<ù>h-ìt kı<ù>s=ḷḷ dızkaka<á>h
hit<3.3>-PST-CONC-VOL2.ACT my_friend<PAT>-NEG child<PAT>=CONT.FOC blue_person<AGT.AUG>
The blue person didn't hit my friend, he hit the child.
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.

:eng: :mrgreen: | :fra: [:)] | ASL [:S] | :deu: [:|] | :tan: [:(] | :nav: [:'(]
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Omzinesý »

Siglisc - a Germanic conlang

(1) and (2) that focus an argument are built with duh construction where the focused argument precedes the auxiliary and a possible subject (if not the focused element) precedes the main verb. like in (3).
The verb can be focused only by intonation. The negator can however be positioned in the final position, like in (2).


(1) John didn't hit Mary, David did
Jon dah nisc slagn Mari, David dah.
John did not hit-INF Mary, David did

(2) John didn't hit Mary, he kissed her
Jon hau slagn Mari nisc, hau kujsn si.
John have.PRS hit-INF Mary not, have.PRS kiss-INF

(3) John didn't hit Mary, he hit Susan.
Mari dah nisc Jon slagn, Susan dah.
Mary did not John hit-INF Susan did
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Void »

Wołaska

Nie Ożeł drop Rynę, ok Szemorzyk.
[ɲɛ ˈɔʐɛw d̪rɔp ˈrɨn̪ɛ̃w ɔk ˈʂɛmɔˌʐɨk]
not Ożeł hit.3SG-PST Rune.ACC but Szemorzyk
Ożeł didn't hit Runa, Szemorzyk did.

Ożeł nie drop Rynę, ok ksie jeju.
[ˈɔʐɛw ɲɛ d̪rɔp ˈrɨn̪ɛ̃w ɔk cɕe ˈjeju]
Ożeł not hit.3SG-PST Rune.ACC but kiss.3SG-PST 3SG.FEM-ACC
Ożeł didn't hit Runa, he kissed her.

Ożeł nie drop Rynę, ok Oradzyś.
[ˈɔʐɛw ɲɛ d̪rɔp ˈrɨn̪ɛ̃w ɔk ˈɔraˌd̪͡z̪ɨɕ]
Ożeł not hit.3SG-PST Rune.ACC but Oradzyś.ACC
Ożeł didn't hit Runa, he hit Oradzyś.
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Iyionaku »

:con: Ular

I'm miles away from developing an elaborate naming transcription system. Hence I will use Chinese transcription for it: 约翰 for John, 大卫 for David, 玛丽 for Mary and 苏珊 for Susan. The verb 岩 actually means "to knock someone out" but can also be used figuratively. I haven't developed a word for "to hit" yet. It's okay for that purpose, I guess.

约翰玛丽无岩有他,但玛丽大卫。
John Mary pãm lhò ùr tōn, pàr Mary David.

TOP.David Mary NEG hit PST 3SG, but Mary David.
John didn't hit Mary, David did.

约翰玛丽无岩有他,但吻有。
John Mary pãm lhò ùr tōn, pàr õ ùr.

TOP.David Mary NEG hit PST 3SG, but kiss PST
John didn't hit Mary, he kissed her.

约翰玛丽无岩有他,但苏珊他。
John Mary pãm lhò ùr tōn, pàr Susan tōn.

TOP.David Mary NEG hit PST 3SG, but Susan 3SG
John didn't hit Mary, he hit Susan.
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Re: TC: Contrastive Focus

Post by Dormouse559 »

Updating Image Silvish

L' e ppà li Jhan ki l' a fotu li Mari, l' ett li Davî.
[lɛˈpa liˈʒɑ̃ŋ ki.lɑfˈty li.maˈʁi | lɛt.tli.daˈviː]
3S be.3S NEG DEF-M.N John REL-NOM 3S have.3S hit-PSTP DEF-F.N.ACC Mary | 3S be.3S DEf-M.N David

John didn't hit Mary, David did.

Li Jhan l' a pà li Mari fotuve, î l' a bezéve.
[liˈʒɑ̃ŋ laˈpa li.maˈʁi fəˈty.və | ʔiː.lɑbˈze.və]
DEF-M.N John 3S be.3S NEG DEF-F.N.ACC Mary hit-PSTP-F.N.ACC | 3S.M.NOM 3S have.3S kiss-PSTP-F.N.ACC

John didn't hit Mary, he kissed her.

L' e ppà le Mari k' li Jhan l' a fotuve, l' ett le Suzana.
[lɛˈpa le.maˈʁi kliˈʒɑ̃ŋ lɑfˈty.və | lɛt.tle.syˈza.ŋa]
3S be.3S NEG DEF-F.N Mary REL.ACC DEF-M.N John 3S have.3S hit-PSTP-F.N.ACC | 3S be.3S DEF-F.N Susan

John didn't hit Mary, he hit Susan.


Notes
I shied away from clefting in my previous version, but this time it was the first strategy that came to mind, so I went with it in the first and last sentences.

The second sentence demonstrates an optional word-order change triggered when an adverb interrupts the two parts of a compound tense. In this case, the direct object, Mari, can go directly after the negative adverb, , instead of in its normal position, after the full verb phrase. I chose to use this alternate form since it places the content verb at the end of the clause, a point of emphasis.
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