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Re: Relative tense

Posted: 03 May 2021 00:30
by Reyzadren
:con: griuskant (without script here)

aesk jiska zida er houta souz.
/'esk 'dʒiska 'zida 'ər 'hɔuta 'sɔuz/
1SG see-V got-V N-IMP food-V cake
I saw a person ate the cake. (For all 4 variants typically)

Re: Relative tense

Posted: 07 May 2021 06:43
by kiwikami
:con: Alál

Kàtlıà rîıẓràaı hraús.
[ə'qɑtɬjɑ ɾi'et͡ʃɾɑhɪ çɾʕ̞us]
ka<à>t-lı-à rı<îv>ẓ-rà-ı-a hra<aú>s
see<1.3>-PSTR--CONC eat<4.3>-NMLZ.PAT-DUR-VOL.ACT cake<PAT>

I saw that someone was eating the cake.

Kàtlıà rîıẓràkûax hraús.
[ə'qɑtɬjɑ ɾi'et͡ʃɾɑˌqwɑx çɾʕ̞us]
ka<à>t-lı-à rı<îv>ẓ-rà-kú-à-x hra<aú>s
see<1.3>-PSTR--CONC eat<4.3>-NMLZ.PAT-PST.EVE--CONC-VOL.ACT cake<PAT>

I saw that someone had eaten the cake.

Kàtà rîıẓràaı hraús.
[ə'qɑtɑ ɾi'et͡ʃɾɑhɪ çɾʕ̞us]
ka<à>t-à rı<îv>ẓ-rà-ı-a hra<aú>s
see<1.3>-CONC eat<4.3>-NMLZ.PAT-DUR-VOL.ACT cake<PAT>

I see that someone is eating the cake.

Kàtà rîıẓràkûax hraús.
[ə'qɑtɑ ɾi'et͡ʃɾɑˌqwɑx çɾʕ̞us]
ka<à>t-à rı<îv>ẓ-rà-kú-à-x hra<aú>s
see<1.3>-CONC eat<4.3>-NMLZ.PAT-PST.EVE--CONC-VOL.ACT cake<PAT>

I see that someone has eaten the cake.

Alál marks reference and event time separately, for the most part. The latter ends up entangled with evidentiality and causality in a few constructions, mostly in the present tense, but when the reference time is in the past or the future it's rather straightforward. Verbs unmarked for tense are automatically contemporaneous with the last overtly marked time, so the eating event in the first sentence here is interpreted as simultaneous with the seeing event. This is useful because marking E* (event time being simultaneous with reference time) overtly tends to result in an indirect evidential meaning: Kàtlıà rîıẓkılràaı hraús. "I saw (some clue that) someone was eating the cake."