Boral scratchpad

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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

Early Borlish History

excerpt from The Story of Borland (Y Stoir d'Istr Boral), a school history textbook published in 1982 by Cordin Editions.

Sceyen a coul fix chrestan venent ag Dioces Boral (eð aval y Preu Reyaum d'Istr Boral) dy ci annað tardessem ny siecr cinq e vars y siecr set cos fort.
There was a steady influx of Christians into the Diocese of Boral (and later the First Kingdom of Borland) from the latter years of the fifth century, well into the seventh.

Cos tost, larc parmy lou stan chrestan roman ben keltesc meðes deslocað par y migration germanic, jusc ig ny regn dy Pap Mercur II a 590N au Rom un envou particuler yent cas eðeglment por y picq reyaum, deyent temporane agir costojal contr un Sothbar starchessem.
Early on, many of these were Roman or even Celtic Christians displaced by the Germanic migrations, and by the time of Pope Mercury II in 590N, Rome had taken a particular strategic influence in the small kingdom, which at the time was on the defensive against a stronger Sothbar.

Pre toð autr, y novel Reyaum er cossirað un fragossau chrestan vital yon Rom poðe missioner accaçar aust e vest por aïðanç dar ny proselytisment d'Albion e l'eiðel dannesc.
In the first instance, the new Kingdom was viewed as a vital Christian outpost from which Rome could send missionaries east and west to aid in the conversion of Albion and the Danes.

hortumesc "filthy"

hortumesc /ˌhɔr.tiˈmɛx/ [ˌhɔː.dɪˈmɛç]
- filthy, muddy, covered with dirt or other unpleasant stuff;
- profane, unholy, vulgar, ritually impure or treating religious matters with disrespect

Etymology: adjectival derivation of noun hortum "filth, profanity", which likely originates in Latin sorditūdō "dirt", itself a nominal derivation of verb sordeō "I am dirty".

The unusual phonetic development can be partially explained. The unproductive ending -tum comes from Vulgar Latin -tūminem, a dissimilated form of -tūdinem (the accusative of -tūdō); see also soltum "loneliness". The shift of initial s > h is less explicable, though some have suggested influence from Borland Celtic.

Me val noc entrar desig mell'azig hortumesc.
/me val nɔk ɛnˈtrar deˈzaj ˌme.laˈzaj ˌhɔr.tiˈmɛx/
[me ˈvaw nɔg ɪnˈtʀɑː dɪˈzaj ˌme.lɐˈzaj ˌhɔː.tɪˈmɛç]
1s.obl worth neg because.of 1s.gen-def=shoe filthy
I shouldn't come in because of my filthy shoes.

groglon "brook"

groglon /grɔjˈlɔn/ [gʀʊjˈlɔn]
- brook, beck, stream, a small watercourse especially flowing over rough and rocky terrain;
- (more generally) a small flow of any liquid, as of water poured from a handheld vesssel

also a groglon "(of alcohol etc) on tap, available directly from a barrel or other storage by means of a valve"

Etymology: via metathesis from Old Boral gorȝlon /gɔrˈʎɔn/ "flow of water, small stream", itself descending from Latin gurguliō "windpipe, gullet". It is plausible that its use in reference to drinking is retained from the Latin, but it is not attested in writing until the fifteenth century.

Y tarn noscon eið ig sarf bier a groglon.
/i tarn noˈxɔn iθ aj sarf bjɛr a grɔjˈlɔn/
[i ˈtɑːn nʊˈxɔn iθ aj sɑːf bjɛː‿ʀa gʀʊjˈlɔn]
def pub 1p.dem go-ptcp.pst there serve beer at stream
The pub we go to has beer on tap.

jolleistr "jaunt"

jolleistr /ʒoˈlistr̩/ [ʒʊˈli.stɐ]
- excursion, jaunt, outing, night out, a recreational trip especially lasting the evening and into the night;
- (obsolete) the Revillion, the evening meal eaten the night before Christmas usually in a public hall

Etymology: from Middle Boral jolveisr "Revillion", itself from Old Boral iolveisle with the same sense. Possibly influenced in form by Old French jolif "merry, joyful" (which may have been borrowed into southwestern dialects of Middle Boral; attestations are alleged but uncertain). The source of the Old Boral is in Norse jólveizla "Yule feast", a transparent compound (cf. modern Horther veizel "banquet").

Nos coum tout eurað par un grand jolleistr.
/nɔz kum tut awˈraθ par ɪn grant ʒoˈlistr̩/
[nɔz kum tut ɐwˈʀɑh pɑːn gʀan(t) ʒʊˈli.stɐ]
1s get.pst-1p all drunk by indef big jaunt
We all got drunk during a big night out.

Roxa Comba Newspaper

cutting in translation from the pages of the 14th October 1950 edition of Roxa Comba, weekly paper from Corunne affiliated loosely (Lustaine's peripheral position in the orbit of the Drengot Collusion prevented any more formal ownership) with the Peujon Rous media guild.

…that political theorist and regular contributor to our pages Maya Tavares of the de Sarumptice Diplomatic Edifice will be giving a talk on the lasting impact of the Prodigal Faiths for the centenary celebrations in Belgrade.

Feature: The Numeric Week
- by Victor Fidalgo

5.6 million: The length in meco of Japetos III, the new Atlantic link laid down between Morrack and Ambrosia which conveyed its first messages this last Wednesday. Originally conceived by the two administrations in concert in 1943, the endeavour was delayed several times due both to budgetary concerns and, of course, the outbreak of war. The cable connects the cities of Gadire on the river Soux and Paratzon in eastern Brasil [1].

3: The number of votes by which the Mortar coalition's proposal to fund effectivity research into threshold force mills [2] passed in the Yansieve chamber yesterday, after a surprising volte-face from the Ministry for Agriculture's advisory board. Proponents have (depending on their sympathies or lack thereof regarding the Collusion) pointed variously to the benefits of relying less on Drengot astraphor and of elevating Lisbon's Faculty of Alchemy to a hub on the world stage.

82 thousand: The proposed capacity of a new lineball arena in Braga, announced earlier this week by…


[1] These cities roughly on the sites of real-life Agadir in Morocco and St John's, Newfoundland.
[2] nuclear energy reactors.
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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Pennackit Dysentery

excerpt in translation from Albick Medicine in the Workshop Decades, Part III: In the Absence of Cure, written in 1992 by physician Dr Harold Westcamp.

Nos reveneu all'advent de dysentry pennackit n'Europ e cos particuler n'Albion.
We return to the arrival of pennackit dysentery to Europe and in particular to Albion.

L'oc zoia pathophoric destegnt pennackit dant sta certan comtað ne Hind hamtant par ci siecr
The particular pathophoric zoia that causes pennackit had been established in parts of India for centuries

(defagl es eç accont primal connoscr different d'autr malais dysentresc, pu scein fardiment ig y mort de Rey Rahoulamathavan a Madray l'an 1735 e plusour irrouçon ne Scin tras y derran siecr advenoy desig l'oc malais),
(early reports are difficult to distinguish from other dysenteric ailments, but the death of King Rahulamathavan of Madray in 1735 and several outbreaks in China over the preceding century are suspected to be of the disease),

pu respanment mondial nole ençar pre 1753, ny souc dy ci Abat Democratic eð y deslocation cohernt de gent.
but global spread would not begin until 1753, in the aftermath of the Democratic Wars and the concomitant movement of peoples.

Par meyan de vascel marcander e de soldart, lonc y ci flou a Pers eð ag Rusc, y zoia feg passaç incoïbr cant l'eu vars occas.
Via merchant ships and via troops, along the rivers of Persia and the Russias, the zoia made inexorable progress on its way westward.

gimmoldr "toil"

gimmoldr /giˈmɔl.dr̩/ [gɪˈmɔw.dɐ]
- to toil, strive, to work hard in pursuit of some goal;
- to endeavour, to have a mission and be dedicated to its fruition;
- to be responsible for the accomplishment of an ongoing endeavour or event, especially of a religious ritual
- to preside over an instance of such an event or ritual

Etymology: from Old Boral gimmolre "to perform the Eucharist", from a conflation of Latin verb immolō "I sacrifice, immolate" (cf. modern immolar "to destroy by fire") with the related molō "I grind, mill". Excrescence of the initial g- is unexplained, leading some to propose an alternative origin in an unattested phrase gib molre, in which the first word is borrowed from Old Norse gipt "gift, good luck". The shift in Middle Boral to mean "endeavour, toil" is likely due to semantic influence from parallel moldr "to grind".

Vos gimmoloist a remanir ne cognit.
/vɔz ˌgi.moˈlɔjst a ˌre.maˈnɪr ne kɔjˈnɪt/
[vɔz ˌgi.mʊˈlɔjst a ˌʀe.mɐˈnɪː ne kʊjˈnɪt]
2p toil-pst.2p to stay-inf in disguise
You worked hard to keep your covers.

vesson "outfit"

vesson /veˈsɔn/ [vɪˈsɔn]
- outfit, get-up, attire, a set of clothing worn together along with related accessories;
- uniform, costume, dress, a distinctive set of clothing used to identify the wearer as a member of some group

Etymology: from Middle Boral vesçon "outfit, set of clothes" and earlier Old Boral, descending from Insular Latin vestiō, vestiōnem "clothing, dressing (someone)". This is a form of synonymous Latin vestītiō which underwent haplology.

Laisc ty vesson e met tey ne quil!
/lex ti veˈsɔn e mɛt ti ne kwɪl/
[leç ti vɪˈsɔn e mɛt ti ne kwɪw]
leave 2s.poss outfit and put 2s.dsj in bed
Take off your clothes and get in bed!

ja galað "come to that"

ja galað /ʒa gaˈlaθ/ [ʝa gɐˈlah]
- come to that, for that matter, as far as the current topic is concerned;
- speaking of, relatedly, on a topic related to the one currently under discussion

Etymology: adverbial expression first seen in early Modern Boral, literally meaning "already escorted" or "still accompanying". The particle ja "now, already, still, ever" (also "yes", in which sense it comes from Germanic) descends uncomplicatedly from Latin iam "already".

The past participle galað from verb galar "to escort, accompany, take with one" (and also "to court, woo, step out with", its original sense) is a backformation from galant "courteous, chivalrous"; this is a borrowing from the homonymous Middle French, which derives from gale "pomp, festivity, mirth", of obscure origin.

Jo n'ay tag beut par monð, ja galað.
/ʒo ne tɛj bawt par mɔnθ | ʒa gaˈlaθ/
[ʝo ne tɛj bawt pɑː mɔnθ | ʝa gɐˈlah]
1s neg=have.1s tea brink.ptcp.pst through month | yet escort-ptcp.pst
I haven't had tea in months, come to that.

Ambrose III of Vascony

collation of all the information I have written elsewhere about King Ambrose III of Vascony, and a map of the territory of Vascony at his accession in 1456 N.

Ambrose III (17 March 1435–28 February 1518), also called Ambrose the Ascendant, ruled the Vascon Kingdom of Navar and Aquitain (Vascony) from 1456 until his death at the age of 83. His father, Prince Mark of Tolosa, predeceased him in 1453 when he was 18 years old, and so he ascended to the throne upon the death of his grandfather Ambrose II (after the brief and swiftly-resolved Avalot Planzo) three years later.

At the start of Ambrose III's reign, the country was at its territorial maximum, having conquered northern Portingale (all of Galice and as far south as Braga and—nominally—Calè) and southern Burgundy (which is to say, enough of Provence to share a border with the Italian states of Genova and Romaine) during the reign of his grandfather Ambrose II.

Ambrose III is most remembered for ruling through the European discovery of the Novomund in 1471 by ships of the New Navar Enterprise, a guild established by royal decree in 1458 which aimed primarliy to solidify Vascon supremacy in the trade of North Atlantic fish through the Middlesea. British dominion over the Atlantic had long frustrated Vask fishing families, members of which still predominated in the aristocracy and held significant political power in Ambrose's court.

The decades following the Novomundine Landfall brought new prosperity to Vascony, and in particular to Portingale, leading the Vascon Ascendancy (which most historians mark as beginning near the turn of the fifteenth century) to its height.

The king's long and acrimonious relationship with King Munir al-Hamdawi of Morrack (born in 1429 and reigning for a comparable length of time) grew from a childhood enmity to a bitter naval and martial feud, especially after the rest of Portingale fell to Morrack in 1457 N.

The latter years of his reign were marked by decline: the Kingdom of Burgundy retook Provence in 1494 (sparking the 1497–99 War of Provincial Independence), and a decade later the remainder of Vascony's Middlesea coast was taken by Barcelona.

Ambrose III was the eldest son of Prince Mark of Tolosa and Margaret of Iscombe. He had an sister, Princess Alexandra, and two younger siblings, Prince Victor of Astorga and Princess Natalia. Although he never married (the cause in part of the instability that plagued his later years), he is thought to have kept several lovers throughout his life, although there is no unimpeachable proof that any of the proposed candidates were his lover.
[The territory claimed by the Kingdom of Vascony at the time of Ambrose III’s accession.]
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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Apollo on Holiday

excerpt in translation from masquira trevold Apollon Cogmaðer (Apollo on Holiday), written in 2009 by author Endric Kirennaga.

Sengr a comparaçon sta y repasc cocinað par Gevel e Mothe pre Ludric fo repaðrið—lagç a lign con saus mentagler e leum.
The meal was a relatively simple one prepared by Gevel and Tim before Ludrick got home—stringlace with mince sauce and greens.

Y pan fo un poy bruslað atorn dell'orlaç pu y ligt gostan fort aðief por engollisc farvent valir, cos particuler posc untal jorn commovent.
The bread was a little crispy on the edges but the rest was tasty enough to be worth scarfing down, especially after such an active day.

Caye tan cæros prestabr yon vole Ludric toð novel de sy figl yembr.
It was also a great opportunity for Ludrick to catch up with his children.

"J'oy tu a un religion minour soluð," dis Ludric ag veðerrem dy figl.
“I hear you’ve started a minor religion,” Ludrick said to his middle child.

Gevel se dau scoul e gembondau cant sy fraðr fragns a ricottanç gasper. "Jo nole ac cair," dis i. "J'er fabr visant—"
Gevel pulled a face and groaned as her brother burst into breathless laughter. “I didn’t mean to,” she said. “I was aiming for drama—”

"Gent son oy tempr costroint sur scaðr platcouf," sceu Mothe digr, ant spal soccoðent.
“People are putting shrines up on rooftops now,” Tim managed to get out, his shoulders shaking.

youdar "numb"

youdar /juˈdar/ [ʝʊˈdɑː]
- to numb, deaden, to cause a sensation (physical or emotional) to become less intense;
- to dull, blunt, to lessen the sharpness of an edge;
- to mitigate, palliate, extenuate, to lessen the harmful or otherwise negative impact of something

Etymology: from Middle Boral youdar, itself from Old Boral ievdar "to blunt, dull (an edge)" with unexplained vowel shift (possibly a result of interdialect borrowing) from /əw/ to /ow~u/ completed in the standard language by the thirteenth century. The Old Boral descends from synonymous Latin hebetō "I blunt", from adjective hebes "dull, blunt".

Jo so l'oc beint por my dolour youdar.
/ʒo so lɔk bint pɔr mi doˈlur juˈdar/
[ʝo zo lɔk bin(t) pɔː mi dʊˈlʊː yʊˈdɑː]
1s be.1s def=s.prx drink-ptcp.prs for 1s.gen pain numb-inf
I'm drinking this to numb the pain.

ustolment "manners"

ustolment /ˌi.stɔlˈmɛnt/ [ˌi.stʊwˈmɛnt]
- manners, etiquette, decorum, courtesy, the appropriate behaviour required by a particular social context;
- refinement, sophistication, elegance, stylishness, the quality of having cultivated a high-class affect

Etymology: Middle Boral nominal derivation from verb ustoldr "to behave well, to act properly" which continues Old Boral ustolre /ysˈtol.rə/, itself a univerbation of us tolre "to uphold customs, to act honourably", both parts of which are obsolete in the modern language.

The noun us "customs, mores, traditions" descends from Latin ūsus "use, practice, custom" (compare modern usar "to use up, wear out"), while the verb toldr "to lift up, give out, pass time" is from Latin tollō "I raise, remove".

Deut es ustolment por y fem voluð.
/dawt ɛz ˌi.stɔlˈmɛnt pɔr i fɛm voˈlɪθ/
[dawt ɪz ˌi.stʊwˈmɛnt pɔː‿ʀi fɛm vʊˈlɪh]
due be.3s manners for def wife intended
Manners are essential for the aspiring wife.

ouveg "sullen"

ouveg /uˈvij/ [ʊˈvɪj]
- sullen, sulky, having a brooding temper and a tendency to anger;
- gloomy, dismal, melancholy, characterised by sadness or pessimism (either of a person or a setting)

Etymology: from a variety of Old Boral forms oȝbeu(ȝ), ovieȝ et al. "unfriendly, rude" (the variant form ogveu /ɔjˈvaw/ was formerly widespread in the southern dialects), which descends from Vulgar Latin oblaecus "hostile", a variant of Classical obliquus "sidelong, oblique, envious, hostile" (see also Romaine biego "sinister, ominous" from the same Vulgar source).

Lour y veðerrem es tal ouveg cos nuvr.
/lur i veˈðɛ.rɛm ɛz tal uˈvij kɔz ˈni.vr̩/
[lʊː‿ʀi vɪˈðɛ.ʀɐm ɪz tal ʊˈvɪj kɔz ˈni.vɐ]
3p.gen def senior-comp be.3s so sullen adv recent
Their eldest has been so sullen lately.

The Second Great Dying

compilation of all the information I have on the Second Great Dying.

The Second Great Dying was a pandemic of bubonic plague occurring across the Vetomund, which arrived in Europe in early 1519 and lasted for between five and seven years.

The first victim in Borland of the Second Great Dying was in Damvath during the so-called 'green snowfall' (a term referring to any snow that falls in spring) of 1519.

Vascony lost over a fifth of its population, and Borland (at the time ruled by Joseph III) lost over four hundred thousand people in the Second Great Dying.

Individual fatalities attributed to the Second Great Dying include: the wife and brothers of the grandfather of Dane playwright Absolon Mortenszen; the two elder brothers of Adaillé, Duchess d'Avosche.

Coastal areas and polities with closer ties to naval trade were hit harder and more quickly by the plague. Burgundy and Bohemia are notable examples of states which (according to their own records, which cannot entirely be trusted) suffered fewer casualities than most, while Portingale and Provence were ravaged early and mercilessly.

There was (and still is) a common misconception that people blamed cats and dogs for spreading the plague; this idea is only attested in connection with the Second Great Dying several decades after the event. It perhaps originated with stories of the monastery at Bonn, which banished all animals from the grounds in 1512 after several deaths (probably in actuality due to luetic pox).

Population loss due to this plague is sometimes cited as contributing to the collapse of feudalism.
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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To Save a Life

excerpt from the 1951 lovetale To Save a Life, originally published in Zahid Russian in Boxa [Nova Sad, Serbia] by first-time author Jeico Rhovich.

"Ac eu nos y cæros," dis Halina. "Un çaucr Promethean ag pie nostr! Tu poð noc rovar ig jo le stim cojan. Incossirabr es nos neleu nostr y vecin reconnoscr deut all'ig complið par sy fraðr deur veint annað."
“It’s such a chance,” Halina said. “A Promethean society on our doorstep! You can’t tell me not to be interested. It is absurd we shouldn’t speak to our neighbour because of what his brother did twenty years ago.”

"Par sy—" Vadim tis vars parol. "Sy fraðr devastau tout. Impossibr es tu vel ig pardonnar!"
“What his—” Vadim groped for words. “His brother ruined everything. You can’t possibly forgive that!”

"Sy fraðr sta i," dis Halina cos obstinaç. "Nos posseu y bel amigtað beudar vars Segr Connic—"
“That was his brother,” Halina said obstinately. “We could extend the hand of friendship to Sir Connick—”

"Luy stant amig a cour dy Segnour Diabolesc e ci Promethean eð orgy recevent!"
“Who is bosom friends with the Devil’s Lord and Prometheans and has orgies!”

"Ah! Jo save sceyen orgy."
“Ha! I knew it was orgies.”

Vadim fo vuglað ne rackesc. "Jo dey le prohibir. I no's soiç idone por tey."
Vadim choked on his vodka. “Absolutely not. He is not a fit acquaintance for you.”

lovastr "chatty"

lovastr /loˈvastr̩/ [lʊˈvas.tɐ]
- sociable, outgoing, extroverted, inclined to companionship with others;
- chatty, gossipy, prone to friendly informal conversation;
- nosy, prying, snoopy, offensively curious or inquisitive

Etymology: from Old Boral lo(ȝ)vaçtre "talkative, forthcoming" (also loȝvastre following the syncretism of Latinate adverbial ending -aciter with pejorative -aster), from Latin loquāciter "in a talkative manner". Deletion of yogh in the first syllable is seen also in sevir "to follow" < Vulgar Latin sequīre; the behaviour of medial -qu- is somewhat inconsistent and may by conditioned by the surrounding vowels. Development of the more negative senses of the word occurs in the early Modern Boral period.

Si lovastr es ty sour por toð gent sauraun en oy.
/si loˈvastr‿ɛz ti sur pɔr tɔθ ʒɛnt soˈron ɛn ɔj/
[si lʊˈvas.tʀ‿ɪz ti sʊː pɔː tʊ ˈʝɛn sʊˈʀon ɛn ɔj]
so chatty be.3s 2s.gen sister for all people know-fut.3p now
Your sister's so gossipy everyone will know about it now.

kenopleus "space travel"

kenopleus /ˌke.noˈplawz/
- voidsailing, space travel, voyage through space

Etymology: nineteenth-century derivation coined during the voidtale craze sparked by Durgh'nen Shorzen Shouer (Through a Black Mirror) in 1795, from Ancient Greek prefix κενο- "empty" and stem πλεῦσις "sailing". Since then, both components have been in somewhat productive use in the field (both real and fictional, the latter often inspiring terminology in the former); see for example kenomaturg "astronaut, lit. void-worker" attested from 1876 and augeopleus "space travel by means of a solar sail, lit. sunlight-sailing" from 1909.

De lou's y spien de kenopleus ja vescuð.
/de luz i spjɛn de ˌke.noˈplawz ʒa veˈxɪθ/
[dɪ ˈluz ɪ ˈspjɛn dɪ ˌke.nʊˈplawz ʝa vɪˈçɪh]
of 3p.dsj be.3s def hope of still live-ptcp.pst
They kept the dream of space travel alive.

jubon "doublet"

jubon /ʒiˈbɔn/
- doublet; close-fitting jacket without sleeves (especially in more recent use);
- wrapper, wrapping; the material in which something is wrapped to protect it from the elements

Etymology: from fifteenth century jubon "doublet", borrowed via Vascon from synonymoys Mozara (al)juba, itself adapted from Arabic جُبَّة "jubbah, long garment". Variously in and out of fashion across Europe and her diasporas since the Revitalist period; notably absent for almost a century from the advent of Straightforward Fashion during the Long Peace. Extension to other wrappings and packaging is seen from the eighteenth century.

Jo sente magn voluð ne jubon de cogr.
/ʒo sɛnˈte mɛjn voˈlɪθ ne ʒiˈbɔn de kɔjr̩/
[ʒo sɪnˈte mɛjn vʊˈlɪh ne ʝɪˈbɔn dɪ ˈkɔ.jɐ]
1s fell-ipf very sexy in doublet of leather
I felt very sexy wearing a leather doublet.

Adaillé Nassow & Absolon Mortenszen

compilation of my notes on Adaillé Nassow, Duchess d'Avosche and of playwright Absolon Mortenszen.

Adaillé Nassow (1524–1608) was duchess of Avosche, a duchy in southern Willemy, for much of the sixteenth century and the start of the seventeenth.

Adaillé was born to Roger d'Avosche and his wife Caroline in 1524, the third of eight children. Her two elder brothers died in infancy (at least one in the Second Great Dying), as well as her younger brother Peter, and her youngest sister Anne.

She was raised in early childhood by her nurse Elisa Arnoutszen, cousin (and, later, coauthor) of the renowned physician Laurz Arnoutszen. During this time Adaillé was noted for her inquisitive and intelligent nature.

She was infamous during her later life for her great influence in the court of David of France. Rumours that she was his mother circulated from before his accession until his death.

In 1589 her grandson and heir apparent Déricque caused a scandal by running away from court and very publicly announcing his intentions to flee to New Provence in the Novomund (which he subsequently did).


Absolon Mortenszen was a playwright and commentator in the Dane Concert of the sixteenth century. He lived in Alburg, Denmark in the year 1560.

His grandfather is thought to have lost his wife and at least two brothers in the Second Great Dying.

He married a woman named Clara at some point before 1560; they did not have any children.

He had a brother who married a woman named Beatrys.

Shortly before 1560 he wrote a play titled 'High Society', which was received so well that the royal family altered the route of their Grand Tour in order to visit Alburg and see a performance.
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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I want to compliment what I’ve seen and say that I love the detail and the format of this.
Twin Aster megathread


CC = Common Caber
CK = Classical Khaya
CT = Classical Ĝate n Tim Ar
Kg = Kgáweq'
PO = Proto-O
PTa = Proto-Taltic
PTO = Proto-Tim Ar-O
STK = Sisỏk Tlar Kyanà
Tm = Təmattwəspwaypksma
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

Man in Space wrote: 23 Apr 2022 01:25 I want to compliment what I’ve seen and say that I love the detail and the format of this.
Thank you! It's great to know that people are enjoying what I write. [<3]
These Lamplit Streets

excerpt in translation from Gan Oleυon Lυzeryn (released in Markland under the title These Lamplit Streets), published in 1991 and written by Car Vantel author Gethel ar Tυder.

Cou fort y ci hour kervandal; vale y manoir aziaus lon broit.
It was deep into the hex hours; the manor should have been silent.

I fo entrað gra de luy, y port gliðant apar e closiscent por toð y ci hou e hurislanç d'autr venatour y noit furtiviscent ablegar.
He’d let himself in, sliding through the door and closing it to keep out the hoots and rustles of other, noisier night-time predators.

N'er sceut alcun sign de við lonc y banc dy floy cant l'au y majon approismað; i n'au alcun lumner vis tras port, eð i vis alcun oy for sy lucern fosc.
There had been no sign of life on the riverbank as he’d approached; he’d seen no lights from outside, and saw none now beyond his own dark lantern.

Deye sceir alcun son deur y crasc de bosc veil s'idoneïsant par un noit freit de Novembr, eð y ronganç de Sr Gosbarrick, eð y spaið e kic advenent pront la Challow Ardan ovroy y port all'askouð e volau y diadem de Balkdere.
There should be no noise except for the creak of old wood settling in a cold November night, and Mr Gosbarrick’s snores, and the scrapes and clicks coming as soon as Challow Ardan opened the door of the saferoom and stole the Balkdere diadem.

Toð cas ig l'aziau calm gelað, ant y pousson dy cour se quinant ne ci oregl, dec l'au foudent uncos oïð.
All the same he stood frozen, his pulse thudding in his ears, because he’d bloody heard something.

yettar "fling"

yettar /jɛˈtar/ [ʝɪˈtɑː]
- to cast, toss, fling, chuck, hurl, to throw imprecisely with force or violence;
- to scatter, disperse, strew, pelt, to distribute objects around by throwing them out in a haphazard manner

Etymology: From late Old Boral iatar, ietar, iotar "to throw, to bestow, to offer", of uncertain origin. Likely from Old English, either from ȝéatan "to grant, approve" or ȝéotan "to pour, shed", although the semantics are somewhat tenuous; possibly it was influenced in meaning by Old Boral jaire "to cast, throw" or related Old French jeter "to throw".

Y scoutour me yettaurn scadom pouðr.
/i xuˈtur me jɛˈtorn xaˈdɔm puðr̩/
[i xʊˈtʊː me ʝɪˈtoːn xɐˈdɔm ˈpu.ðɐ]
def audience 1s.obl pelt-pst.3p tomato rotten
The audience pelted me with rotten tomatoes.

rascettongar "sparkle"

rascettongar /raˈxɛ.tɔnˈgar/ [ʀɐˈçɛ.tʊŋˈgɑː]
- sparkle, twinkle, scintillate, to shine as if throwing off sparks or to emit flashes of light;
- crackle, spark, to make a fizzing/popping sound as of a lively fire;
- engross, fascinate, captivate, spellbind, to evoke an intense interest or attraction in someone

Etymology: verbalisation of Middle Boral noun (ra)scetonc "spark, flash of light", [the initial ra- seems for a while to have been reanalysed as an intensive prefix] from Old English adjective ræscettung "sparkling, gleaming". The related verb ræscettan "crackle" reaches western dialects of Boral as scettar "[of metal] to glitter, to be valuable" (possibly influenced in meaning by scet "coin").

Jo cossir tell'yam rascettongandessem.
/ʒo koˈsɪr tɛˈljam raˌxɛ.tɔn.ganˈdɛ.sɛm/
[ʒo kʊˈsɪː tɛ.lɪˈʝam ʀɐˌçɛ.tɔŋ.gɐnˈdɛ.sɐm]
1s consider 2p=uncle sparkle-ptcp.prs-comp
I find your uncle more fascinating.

orbeutar "swindle"

orbeutar /ˌɔr.bawˈtar/ [ˌɔː.bɐwtɑː]
- cheat, swindle, defraud, con, to obtain money or other property from a person by means of deception;
- screw, undermine, hinder, to ruin someone's position in a game or other situation

Etymology: from Old Boral orbeutar "to sneak up on, surprise", formed by metathesis from synonymous Insular Latin *obrēptāre, a regularisation via conjugation shift from Classical obrēpere "to creep, swindle". In the sense "defraud", possibly a retention from the Classical word, although this meaning isn't attested in Boral until trial records of the seventeenth century.

J'ay me caut orbeutað d'un coronc ovart.
/ʒe me kot ˌor.bawˈtaθ dɪn koˈrɔnk oˈvart/
[ʝe mɪ ˈkot ˌɔː.bɐwˈtah dɪŋ kʊˈʀɔŋk ʊˈvɑːt]
1s=have.1s 1s.obl get-ptcp.pst con-ptcp.pst of=indef pretender open
I've been swindled by a blatant impostor.

Significant Figures

collected notes on the lives of various important characters that I've mentioned before (in suspiciously alphabetical order).

Princess Alexandra (fl. 1471, known also as Sandra) was the elder sister of King Ambrose III of Vascony. She is principally remembered for being the first Vetomundine royal to set foot in the Novomund.

The chemical sandrine [Vitamin C] is named for her, due to her voyage advancing the understanding of the counter-scurvic effect of sandrine-rich foods like citrus fruits.

Alexandra was married at least twice; her second marriage began (and had issue) during the Wars of Fealty but before her famed voyage.


David (fl. 1590) was king of France.

David was dogged by rumours that he was the son of Duchess Adaillé d'Avosche from before his accession to the throne until his death; her influence on his court was noted and derided by contemporary commentators.

Shortly after a scandal involving the Duchess in 1589, David gained more political independence and (inspired by parallel developments across Europe) began to institute centralisation policies in France, increasing his own power at the expense of his ducal and comital vassals.


Joseph III (d. 1534) was king of Borland, remembered for ruling the kingdom through the ravages of the Second Great Dying.

Joseph never succeeded in producing a natural-born heir, despite several recognised yet illegitimate children by his various mistresses. Thus, after his death in 1534, he was succeeded to the throne by Brandon II, his nephew.


Laurz Arnoutszen (fl. 1540) was a Danish physician whose work in sanitation shaped the course of European medical history, to such an extent that in the context of medicine one can speak of pre-Arnoutszen and post-Arnoutszen Europe (although this periodisation can go too far in neglecting others' advancements and successes prior to his work).

At some point after 1535 he collaborated with his cousin Elisa Arnoutszen. His son was also pivotal in the history of medicine, being partially responsible for the discovery of one-case life [single-celled organisms].

His great treatise on medical handiwork [surgery] and other practice included recommending the employment of distilled lembick [ethanol] as liquid diffruction [disinfectant].
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

On the Torriot

excerpt from Conjugation, Operation e Diabolica in Musica: Y Commouð Deviant Primal (The Early Deviance Movement), a 1970 historical review written by Borlish popular historian Catrin Veçount.

Nell'oc capparol voum nos un survol accommettr dy ci autranç cas barðment compostion, cas frameð musical, cas apprestanç de melody e harmoin, cas con- e desjogntur deur y model preluïscent, e cas y detaxion de costum mondial con particulertað vecin.
In this chapter we shall undertake an overview of the changes in instrumentation, in musical structure, in melodic and harmonic structure, in con- and disjuncture from the earlier styles, and in the detaxion of global traditions with vicine particularities.

Reconnosc dant all'experiç de Monçating con y barð, commettreu nos parmy scaumel ag toriot.
In light of Monçating's facility with the instrument, let us begin in the pipe family with the torriot.

Pre y siecr novoç, y ci (vangard dy) toriot e barð scaumel cosvour a ton mogn ayen cos usual un yevot sou dou doblanç eð un dureç limitað sad par y defait de lodrigneth modern vars jonc taglar.
Before the nineteenth century, the (precursors to the) torriot and similar low-pitched pipe instruments generally had a range of less than two doublings and the lack of modern reedmaking techniques severely limited their volume.

For posc l'yenç de forað pedal—adaptað des mechanism tarront par y peria nadasvarm madrayan deur plusour dezein—poðen sofflour a toriot sy tac mogn parnommað acavar (e cos final y nom 'picq tonneðr' valir) tan e sell'yevot alto clar voutent.
It was only with the advent of pedal holes—adapted from mechanisms pioneered with the Madray peria nadaswarm some decades earlier—that torriot players could reach both its famed low notes (and finally be worthy of the name "little thunder") and the startingly clear alto range.

kigmau "lardons"

kigmau /kajˈmo/ [kɐjˈmo]
- lardons, diced meat and especially diced pork as used in salads, soups or pies

Etymology: early Modern Boral borrowing from Welsh kigmow /kɪɣmɔw/ "pork" (from Old Welsh cig moh /kig mɔχ/), literally "pig meat", with the particular meaning due to the characteristic savoury handheld pies of the Tallath of Devon.

"Inacavabr es soup a kigmau pascr con digntað, donc nel attendr," avars i, l'oc Laum forniscent de pudour dec i n'aye ja *stað* attenent.
/iˌna.kaˈvabr̩ ɛz sup a kajˈmo ˈpaxr̩ kɔn dajnˈtaθ | dɔŋk nɛl aˈtɛndr̩ | aˈvarz i | lɔk lom ˌfɔr.niˈxɛnt de puˈdur dɛk i nɛˈje ʒa staθ aˈte.nɛnt/
[ɪˌna.kɐˈva.bʀ‿ɪz sup a kɐjˈmo pa.xɐ kɔn dɐjnˈtah | dɔŋk nɛl ɐˈtɛn.dɐ | ɐˈvɑːz i | lɔk lom ˌfɔː.nɪˈçɛn de pɪˈdʊː dɛk i nɪˈʝe ʝa sta‿ðɐˈtɛ.nɐn(t)]
impossible be.3s soup at lardon eat-inf with dignity | so neg.fut.sbj try-inf | remark.pst 3s | def=s.prx 3s.acc provide-ptcp.prs of embarrassment because Will neg=have-impf yet be-ptcp.pst try-ptcp.prs
"It's impossible to eat lardon soup with dignity, so please don't try," she remarked, which was embarrassing because Will hadn't *been* trying.

yevot "scope"

yevot /jeˈvɔt/ [ʝɪˈvɔt]
- range, spectrum, scope, gamut, the space of available or attanable positions or options;
- extent, size, field, the area over which something extends or the degree to which something is applicable or relevant

Etymology: from Middle Boral yevot (also yef) "measure, size, length", a nominal derivation from now-obsolete yevar "to measure, to come to", originally from Latin aequō "I equalise, compare".

Nos parsisceum sull'yevot d'œculux.
/nɔz ˌparziˈxawm ˌsɪ.ljeˈvɔt ˌde.kiˈlɪks/
[nʊz ˌpɑː.zɪˈçawm ˌsɪ.ljɪˈvɔt ˌde.kɪˈlɪks]
1p learn-pst.1p on.def=range of=EM
We learnt about the electromagnetic spectrum.

Cal yevot a l'oc colluy indrec?
/kal jeˈvɔt a lɔk kɔˈlaj ɪnˈdʀɛk/
[kaw ʝɪˈvɔt a lɔ kʊˈlaj ɪnˈdʀɛk]
what range have.s guild charitable
What is the scope of this charity?

parsir "learn"

parsir /parˈsɪr/ [pɐːˈsɪː]
- to learn, be taught, to acquire or attempt to acquire knowledge or ability in some field;
- to study, revise, to view or review material in order to make sure one does not forget it;
- to practise, exercise, drill, to repeat an activity as a way of improving one's level of skill

Etymology: first attested in Middle Boral, variant of older parscir "to learn" presumably formed via dissimilation in forms such as jo parscisc "I learn". Either a contemporary derivation from scir "to know how to" (from synonymous Latin sciō and now obsolete) or a retention of Latin perscīscō "I learn thoroughly" with the usual reanalysis of -scō conjugation.

Cal bourg parsisceu tu dessur?
/kal burg ɛz ˌparzɪˈxaw ti deˈsɪr/
[kaw bʊːg ˌpɑːzɪˈxaw ti dɪˈsɪː]
what town learn-pst 2s on
Which town did you learn about?

Significant Figures, cont.

further notes on two important characters from the annals of history.

Munir al-Hamdawi (b. 1429) was the ruler of Morrack during the latter half of the fifteenth century.

He had a long-standing rivalry with Ambrose III of Vascony, which grew from a childhood enmity to a bitter naval and martial feud.

His reign included the conquest of the northern parts of Portingale in 1457 N, which had previously enjoyed a level of autonomy under Vascon stewardship.

In 1463 Munir established the New World Company (شركة العالم الجديد) as a rival marine enterprise to Ambrose's New Navarre Enterprise; five years later the ship Orion (الجَبَار) of this company circumnavigated Africa.


Vigo the Magnificent (d. 761) was king of the Britons in Gaul (and later of Greater Devon) from 720 N until his death.

He ascended to the position upon the death of his mother Queen Maud of Angeus, who as a widow had unified the Kernish kingdoms. This was (in 720) shortly after the Catumagin Accords with the Kingdom of the Franks to the east, which ended hostilities and established an official border between the kingdoms.

King Vigo is remembered primarily for leading the reconquest of Devon, which had been de jure under Wessaxon authority since the final defeat of the West Albick Britons at Gaulford in 656 N (although the more remote parts of the peninsula are thought never to have entirely submitted).

The reconquest of Devon spanned over two decades of intermittent fightning with Wessex and concluded with the victory at Petherton in 749 N. With this victory Vigo was crowned rex Magnæ Dumnoniæ "King of Greater Devon", unifying Devon with Kernow.

He married Guinnumar, daughter to King David I of Gwyneth, in ca. 725 N. This marriage is likely what allowed him to secure Welsh assistance with the invasion. With her he had at least three children, including his son Cadern the Doubter (who would become king upon Vigo's death in 761) and his daughter Iseld of Devon, who later became the first patron of the Brethin of Tremonow.

His prominence in the genesis of the kingdom lead to many of his royal descendants taking his name, including Vigo IV (crowned 940), who conquered east to Angeus, and Vigo VII (fl. 1121).
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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The Borland-Willemy Telegraph

excerpt in translation from Joan Bensaíd's 1951 scholastic quire El Herramente de Communicazón (The Communication Toolset).

Com bustr, l'eç bourg de Nausçod n'Istr Boral e de Lagcousc (temporane cas mandað Laicouche ne Willem Fransc), stant sevrað a for 21 stadion colombant eð y primer stant situað dessur d'un tartonc arð, poun mout fagl se cavir lou meðes a sgart.
For example, the towns of Nausçod on Borland and Lagcóch (at this time officially Laicouche in French Guillenne), being only 21 stadion apart as the crow flies and the former lying atop a steep promontory, are often within clear view of each other.

Pre y sar campaner, por un lettr accaçar des l'un vars l'autr vel cair covallar ag havan d'Ausbagn lor trasir ne ferscip, eint plausibr a Heller sur tarmagn e soulor eint veg ancour a Texel.
Before the steeplemesh, to send a letter from the one to the other would require riding to the port at Axbane and taking a ferry, likely to Heller on the mainland and then across again to Texel.

Posc y campaner aerian jognsern y stuer (y ci oseir entrpos recas for candon cayen contingent nievrous; candon caye bel ant ciel azur accommissibr sta y vistanç cos direct par un veðr illabond) vars y fin ag dezein 1830, no sceye plu besogn antal aðendr expatiant...
After the air-steeples connected the strait (the intermediate baskets only being necessary in conditions of weakened visibility; on clear days the sighting could be accomplished directly via a farseer) in the latter years of the 1830s, no such diversion was necessary...

farrago "hash"

farrago /ˌfa.raˈgo/ [ˌfa.ʀɐˈgo]
- hash, chopped food (usually meat and potatoes) mixed together;
- jumble, hodgepodge, miscellany, a collection of various things or people

Etymology: borrowed in the seventeenth century from Latin farrago "fodder for animals, mishmash", likely via somewhat-earlier use in Italian cuisine. Used metaphorically from the very beginning, retained from its use in the way in Latin.

J'ay un desc farrago nos cogt.
/ʒe ɪn dɛx ˌfa.raˈgo nɔz kɔjt/
[ˈʝe ɪn ˈdɛç ˌfa.ʀɐˈgo nʊzˈkɔjt]
1s=have.1s indef meal hash 1p.acc cook-ptcp.pst
I've cooked us some hash.

illabond "collapsible"

illabond /ˌi.laˈbɔnd/ [ˌi.lɐˈbɔnd]
- collapsible, fold-away, telescoping, designed as to fold up into a more compact form;
- (music) accordion, concertina, squeezebox, a portable wind instrument consisting of a bellows and keys;
- spyglass, a small and portable refracting collapsible telescope;

Etymology: first attested in Boral in the early eighteenth century, borrowed from slightly-earlier Vascon or possibly Kentish forms which each come from Latin illābundus "disposed to collapse", a participial form of illābor "I flow into, I tumble to ruins, I penetrate". In the last sense, shortened from veðr illabond "collapsible lenses".

Jo traseu y cogn un rað illabond portant.
/ʒo traˈzaw i kɔjn ɪn raθ ˌi.laˈbɔnd pɔrˈtant/
[ʝo tʀɐˈzaw i kɔjn ɪn ˌʀɑð‿i.lɐˈbɔnd pʊːˈtan(t)]
1s cross-pst def corner indef bike collapsible carry-ptcp.prs
I went round the corner carrying a fold-up bike.

xiphar "scimitar"

xiphar /ksiˈfar/ [ksɪˈfɑː]
- scimitar, falchion, sabre, single-edged sword with a somewhat-curved blade reminiscent of a scythe;
- sellsword, freelance, a mercenary of the medieval period and especially such a person from the Masreck [the Levant]
- henchman, lackey, loyal subordinate usually working for someone with criminal or otherwise-ill intent

Etymology: via Italian from late medieval Greek ξιφάρα <xiphára> "longsword, scimitar", an augmentative of ξῐ́φος <xíphos> "sword". Used metonymically in the second sense since the early nineteenth century in selfconscious reference to a fictionalised medieval period.

Jo vos lau ag treu dy ci xiphar.
/ʒo vɔz lo ɛj traw di tsi ksiˈfar/
[ˌʝo.vʊzˈlo ɛj ˈtʀaw dizi ksɪˈfɑː]
1s 2p.acc praise to.def loyalty of.def p.dst henchman
I commend you on the loyalty of the henchmen.

Winter Feast

Revillon (Borlish Reveglon /ˌre.vijˈlɔn/) is the Borlish term for the eve (and often the entire day) before Christide. It refers also to the specific cultural practice on the island of the Winter Feast (y Fest Reveglon), a celebration held on Revillon in churches across the land to which everyone in attendance brings food.

The Borlish name Reveglon means "vigil", and is a Middle Boral borrowing from the synonymous French reveillon, itself originally from Latin evigilō "I wake up". Earlier names include jolveisre, taken from Old Norse jólveizla "Yule feast", and fleðoul, both of which referred specifically to the celebrations.

Evidence of similar winter solstice festivities involving communally-prepared feasts on Borland predates even the Roman invasion, making Revillon one of the longest continuously-practised folk traditions in Europe (bearing in mind that the practice has evolved considerably with time). Third-century Roman historian Ammian Marcellinus provides us with an early written mention of the Winter Feast, which appears (with its original name Flidōlus, of unknown etymology) in one of his asides on the Northern Isles. Post-imperial sources in the first millennium almost exclusively criticise the tradition as pagan and unholy; however, by the twelfth century the practice is fully appropriated by the Church.

Queen Natalia II of Borland abdicated on Revillon of 1894 as part of the political upheaval surrounding Borland's entry into the Drengot Collusion.

Foods traditionally associated with the Revillon Feast include:
- the tort dell'ivan /ˈtɔʀt ˌde.liˈvan/ ("child's pie", in reference to the Christ child), a savoury dish often of lamb. The practice of scoring a cross into the lid and hiding a small wooden object inside (traditionally also a cross) is a later innovation, but compare the similar galette des rois seen on the continent. This name for the dish is attested as early as the tenth century in Old Boral torte del ifan /tɔɾ.tə dɛl iˈfan/, although the modern recipe including lamb and potato is not seen in writing until the eighteenth century.
- jonnovar zucarrað /ˌʒɔ.noˈvaʀ ˌzi.kaˈʀɑθ/ "candied butterflies", a sugar-spiced cakebread particular to the island which ever since their earliest iterations have been generously spiced (usually with dalassine bark and zingerroot). At this time of year they are formed into butterfly shapes, popularly thought to represent the metamorphosis of a dead winter into the new life of spring.
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »


excerpt in translation from 1994 work Albick Medicine in the Workshop Decades, Part V: Alchemick Detaxion, written by Dr Harold Westcamp with additions by his collaborator Marcathow Cox.

Vin eð autr beçon yeustað stan reconnuð com matier possent contamen coïr des y Mitað-Asc, e lembic cadarað denent cavibr generallessem ny siecr seç parmette a Arnoutszen de le rannuðar durant sy gran homily sur curaçon.
Wine and other fermented drinks had been noted as a preventative of infection since the medieval period, and the wider availability of distilled lembick in the sixteenth century allowed Arnoutszen to recommend it in his great treatise.

Y ci avanç dy Paç Lonc menau ag descovart de solution ja effectuallessem.
The advances of the Long Peace led to the discovery of yet more effective solutions.

Y molin por salpeðr (costroit por lou fornir con poið dy kynous a pouvr neir cant il mancaurn depost tesqual) ne Zampanagar e Tacday Ancor pres se sarvoirn de vreic marin com matier cru.
The saltpetre mills (built to provide a source of the gunpowder component in the absence of natural deposits) of Zampanagar and neighbouring Tacday Ancore made use of sea wrack as a raw ingredient.

Ne 1778, lonc y narrað dy surveilour por y ci molin a Contare, un vapour onðiçastr er remarcað montant des cuf rejeitancer y despart con vitriol seyon maneyað afont.
In 1778, according to the reports of the overseer at the Contare mills, a purplish vapour was seen rising from disposal vats in which the waste was treated with vitriol.

ja oc eus "just as well"

ja oc eus /ʒa ɔk awz/ [ˈʝa.ʊˈgawz]
- just as well, (it's) all for the best, it could have been worse, phrase expressing encouragement about one's apparently unfortunate circumstances

Etymology: like many such idioms beginning with 'ja…', attested from the late Middle Boral period in various iterations; the first known use in its modern form comes from playwright Joðeg Patrac's 1602 work Dardan e Saugflour (Burdock and Elderflower).

Literally meaning "still this would have gone", its components each descend comfortably from Latin: ja "still, ever" from adverb iam "already", oc "this" from synonymous hoc, and eus "would have gone" from third person singular pluperfect subjunctive form īsset of "I go" (with influence from the indicative īvit for the vowel). Conventionally the idiom is followed by neðan "lest, so that … not" when used to start a full sentence.

Ja oc eus neðan kiglau tu y vec!
/ʒa ɔk aws neˈðan kajˈlo ti i vɛk/
[ˌʝa.ʊˈgawz nɪˈðan kɐjˈlo ti i ˈvɛk]
still s.prx lest go-sbj.ipf 2s def bus
It's just as well you missed the bus!

y jainç tauger "the long game"

y jainç tauger /i ʒents toˈgɛr/ [ɪˈʝens tʊˈgɛː]
- the long game, long-term strategy or an entire endeavour undertaken with patience;
- the big picture, the bird's-eye view of a situation viewed objectively;
- seeing the forest for the trees, the clarity that comes with a less-invested perspective, not being blinkered by emotional involvement or petty distractions

Etymology: Literally meaning "the upstairs tactic", the phrase is attested from the late nineteenth century during the Good Game period whose politics were reflected in the popular literature.

The noun jainç "tactic, move (in a game), attempt" is an Old Boral nominalisation from verb jair "to cast, throw (as of a die)", from synonymous Latin iaciō (or perhaps directly from a Latin noun iaciēntia "an instance of casting". The adjective tauger "upstairs, (by extension) more general" is a Middle Boral adjectival derivation from noun taug /tog/ "floor, storey, level, layer", a borrowing via Barcelon from Arabic طَبَقَة <ṭabaqa> "layer, stratum".

Des sovaugr mesveu jo y jainç tauger.
/dɛz soˈvojr mɛzˈvaw ʒo i ʒents togɛr/
[dɛz sʊˈvo.ʝɐ mɪzˈvaw ʝo ɪ ˈʝens tʊˈgɛː]
out.of pride miss-pst 1s def play upstairs
My pride blinded me to the bigger picture.

doujug veunt "ecosystem"

doujug veunt /duˈʒaj vawnt/ [dʊˈʝaj vawnt]
- ecosystem, food web, a biological system composed of all the organisms interacting with each other in a particular physical environment;
- (by extension) any complex network of interdependent parts which is difficult to understand except by considering it as whole

Etymology: attested from the Long Peace in the late eighteenth century to translate Mashick zawalli ca'irát "web of living things", from the work of Iscoval or his contemporaries.

The noun doujug "spiderweb" descends from northern dialect phrase doun jug /dundʒəj/ "July's down feathers" (standard pluot jugler /pljɔt ʒajˈlɛr/); the noun doun "soft, immature feathers" is borrowed from synonymous Old Norse dúnn, while jug reflects Latin Iūlius "July".

L'eç mersc recievn un doujug veunt frail.
/lɛts mɛrx reˈtsjɛvn̩ ɪn duˈʒaj vawnt frel/
[lɛs mɛːç ʀɪˈdzjɛvn‿ɪn dʊˈʝaj vawnt fʀew]
def-p.prx host indef web living fragile
These wetlands have a delicate ecosystem.

A University, and Twins

compilation of my notes on the New Vithor University and on the twins Jacomo and Chiarina Bruno.

The New Vithor University (Borlish Nou Universtað a Viðor) is a major academic institution located in the Borlish city of Vithor.

The Vithor New School had been founded by the fifteenth century; by the nineteenth century it was known under the name "New Vithor University". By 1844 N it included the Vithor Historical Institute (l'Edifiç Historic); said institute was eventually divided into the Faculty of Concurrence History and the Faculty of Domain History.

At some point the New Vithor Primers (Nou Premour a Viðor), producer of academical publications based in the school, was established; in 2007 it was producing the textbooks for the school's courses.

- Lambort Darrian (fl. c17), philosopher of altruism and charity
- Michael Bervisson (17th June 1799–12th January 1849), political historian
- Darren Brodus (fl. 1828), mathematician and pioneer in sam theory
- Sconet Ydreç (fl. 2008), author and medievalist

Offered courses
- Chocolate and Rubber: Cappatia during the Twining Century (Scoclat e Coscou : Cappatia par y Kintanç Mondial); 1986
- Concurrence History of the 18th Century: Gold, Science, and Waging War (Histoir Concorrent, s18 : Aur, Theory, e l'Art d'Abat); 2007
- Concurrence History of the 16th Century: Death, Ships and the Movement of the Heavens (Histoir Concorrent, s16 : Mort, Vascel eð y Motion Celest); 2008

Jacomo Bruno (fl. 1821) was a minor landowner in Friule in the early nineteenth century. He was the twin brother of composer Chiarina Bruno, who is better-remembered.

Jacomo fought in the Second German War, and participated alongside Borlish troops in the shambolic 1821 Battle of Ulm. During this service he met future mathematician Darren Brodus, with whom he would strike a life-long epistolary friendship.

Chiarina Bruno (fl. 1824) was a librettist and composer active in the early nineteenth century, primarily in the aftermath of the Second German War. Her most enduring work is the opera Ali in Fiamme (Wings Afire), an adaptation of the story of Icarus.

Born at her father's estate in western Friule, she lived in Verona for most of her adult life. She had a twin brother Jacomo; they were noted for their remarkably similar appearance, even for twins.
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The Midnight Impostor

excerpted in translation from Borlish author Raunsvart Pagcomb's first work Y Coronc Kervandal (released in Markish as The Midnight Impostor), the story of a petty criminal thrust into a larger plot published in 1912 but set a century earlier in Modest-era Vascony.

Sou y lumner dell'aubon joun, y citað de Bilvau lougeu com gem.
In the early morning light, the city of Bilvaw glittered like a jewel.

Azenar sente com un rat luïr n'un darsou magn car.
Azenar felt as though he were a rat in a very expensive maze.

Y stal zajadau dy marcað nogtorn accis par lamp fumer eð y lun fragnt de mar receven cos equal party a domn pescour pevr jarras e fenogl gostant tan e ci nobr robað n'ornament fluibond ant queldin raut frigsað ne papir cerous.
The night market's motley stalls lit by smoky lamps and the sea-shattered moon welcomed both flocks of fishwives sampling jarraspepper and fendle as well as notables in flowing finery carrying quick-fried suppers in wax papers.

Azenar se tisseu pall'aucoum, colombant scur vars y canougf a fais blau dy vancry particuler nommað par sy cosvour nell'ig tarsc pres illeibr y nuverrem.
Azenar weaved through the crowd, making a beeline for the blue-striped awning of the particular mariskery named in his cousin's latest nigh-illegible note.

Necun dy conjuraçonnour a gifar roug prefait ben ci costojan descos la se mettoirn a vijon.
Neither the expected red-shawled accomplice nor any tipped-off guards presented themselves.

Sceye vray, portan, un farrago ragostant de fler a sal eð ougl ammonent cas mendrem un repasc valibr.
There was, however, an enticing melange of salt-oil scents promising at the very least a worthwhile meal.

uvrautr "fertile"

uvrautr /iˈ̩/ [ɪˈvʀotɐ]
- fertile, fruitful, fecund, bearing a bounteous harvest or by extension producing anything in abundance;
- verdant, lush, characterised by the presence of a profusion of vegetation;
- idyllic, bucolic, pastoral, reminiscent of an idealised version of the countryside

Etymology: from Old Boral uvrautre /yˈvraw.təɾ/ "(of land) fertile", extended variant of synonymous uvre via suffixing -autre, an adjectival ending of dubious origin (often simply presented as reflecting Latin adverbial ending -āliter, but this presents issues). The earlier uvre descends directly from Latin ūber "productive, full, rich" and is still in agricultural use in some modern rural dialects.

Jamay n'ayen il un bourg uvrauterrem vis.
/ʒaˈme nɛˈjɛn ɪl ɪn burg ˌi.vroˈtɛrm̩ vɪz/
[ʝɐˈme nɪˈjɛn ɪw mˈbʊːg ˌi.vʀʊˈtɛ.ʀɐm vɪz]
never neg-have-pst.3p 3p indef town bucolic-comp see.ptcp.pst
They had never seen such an idyllic town.

yert "awake"

yert /jɛrt/ [ʝɛːt]
- awake, up, not sleeping and conscious of the world;
- alert, vigilant, capable of reacting quickly to new information and especialy to danger;
- vertically, upwards, downwards, following a trajectory that is roughly straight up or down

Etymology: from Old Boral yert(e) "standing, upright" (cf. Mostara yerto "stiff, rigid" or Romaine erto "steep"), a regular descendant of Vulgar Latin ērctus "upright, alert". This is a variant of synonymous ērēctus, the past participle of ērigō "I raise, build, erect".

Bon, j'aye hoir tu fos yert ancour.
/bɔn | ʒɛˈje ˈhɔjr ti fɔz jɛrt anˈkur/
[bɔn | ʝɪˈe ˈhɔ.jɐ ti fɔz ʝɛːt ɐŋˈkʊː]
good | 1s=have-imp fear 2s be.sbj.imp up still
Good, I was worried you were still awake.

Me scey foy all'anim candon y stel sgardar yert.
/me xi fɔj ˌa.laˈnɪm kanˈdɔn i stɛl sgarˈdar jɛrt/
[me çi fɔj ˌa.lɐˈnɪm kɐnˈdon i stɛw zgɐːˈdɑː ʝɛːt]
1s.obl fire at.def=soul when def star watch-inf up
I feel a fire in my soul when I look up at the stars.

quomodolibet "libertine"

quomodolibet /ˌkwo.moˌdo.liˈbɛt/ [ˌk(w)o.mʊˌdo.lɪˈbɛt]
- libertine, roué, rake, one free of social convention who acts however they please (particularly with respect to romantic or sexual norms);
- highflyer, maven, a person of great ability and ambition

Etymology: nineteenth-century coinage borrowed from Latin correlative quōmodolibet "howsoever, in whichever way". Originally used in a derogatory manner, more positive use begins to appear in the twentieth century.

Cascif es tu rondant coll'eç quomodolibet?
/kaˈxɪf ɛz ti rɔnˈdant koˈlɛts ˌkwo.moˌdo.liˈbɛt/
[kɐˈçɪf ɪsˈti ʀʊnˈdan kʊˈlɛs ˌko.mʊˌdo.lɪˈbɛt]
why be.prs 2s hang.out-ptcp.prs with.def=p.prx libertine
Why do you hang out with this libertine crowd?


Kent (formally the Bond of Kent and Normandy; in Roun French The Bond de Caint do Normandy) was a state in southern Albion and northern Gaul.

Pre-Conjuring Kent
In the first millennium, Kent was first an independent English kingdom and then a vassal of Wessex through its ascension and decline, gaining power and some autonomy as Wessern might diminished. Similarly-positioned Essex had a long enmity with Kent, with King Athelwolf of Essex mounting the most successful attempted conquest in the tenth century.

In the tenth century, King Jothegh of Borland arrived in Kent with his queen and children, twice-exiled from Borland and Sothbar following the Dane invasions of the island.

Pre-Conjuring Normandy
Normandy was formed from Dane settlements in the north of Gaul in the ninth and tenth centuries. By the eleventh it had been established as a vassal of the Kingdom of the Franks as the Duchy of Normandy, ruled by the Drengot family. It stretched from the Vire river in the west to Flanders in the east, and Norman in-migration southward to found towns such as Thelmass continued for some centuries.

As the Dane Supremacy in the north waned in the tenth century, many left Sodrick and other Danish lands to the relative prosperity of Normandy. Moreover, Norman ships participated in raids along the coasts of Europe through this period, as far afield as Marsella in 946 N.

The Kernovan Conjuring and Afterwards
The political union of English Kent with Normandy began in 1029 N with the Norman-led subjugation of the Petty Kingdom of Kent as the first step in the creation of the First Drengotian Empire (also called the Constant Empire). This invasion was triggered by the death of the elderly patriarch Rodulf of Kent, who had ruled since childhood for nearly eight decades.

During the Wars of Fealty in the late fifteenth century, Kent was ruled by the Two Henries, the twin first-born sons of Vincent II. Kent came to a rapprochement with France to its south in the 1590s, just as the wars were becoming increasingly tangled and expensive.

Alongside the cities of London and Paris, Kent was the political centre of the Drengot Collusion of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with many governmental buildings located in Roun. Among these was the Red House, the popular name for the Kentish Ministry for Information. The activities of the Red House precipitated the Furore of 1961, which in turn led to the collapse of leader Darchild's tinplate administration (via the Darchild memorandum) and with it the entire Drengot Collusion. The dissolution of the Collusion inspired the Kentish ostracon reforms, which were subsequently used as a model in several polities around the globe.

The state's professional lineball team won the global tournament only once, in 1965.

Notable Kentish people
- Jan Tacquerai, historian and linguist
- Jockin Abiscander, deixist historian and author
- Mark Deuthex, author and intelligence agent
- Vincent Margouille, author and professional lineball player
- Vréqueu Margouille, professional lineball player
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The Mysarnos Codex

excerpt in translation from Theodora Riphæna's 1943 work The Mysarnos Problem: the Enigma of an Inconvenient Codex.

Cu sta y scrittour dy Codex Mysarnos n'aun gent jamay saut consecter, e l'oc livr nil declarar aïr l'argument soluð;
The author of the Mysarnos Codex has never been conclusively identified, and this book will not pretend to have done so;

certan a comparaçon es ig l'er nijommað—ben toð cas preu depostað—ny Majon Livr a Sagnt Jorsc y Martyr, un respanendessem dy ci edifiç afont dy quaðeglad cligser ja svoccað.
what is relatively certain is that it was composed—or at least first stored—at the Library of Saint George the Martyr, one of the largest buildings within the aforementioned church complex.

Vray queglant es nos poum despondr de regest a sodaltað sceint eð enter por cascun dy monastir eð autr facultað divers nell'ig zon tras y siecr seç enter ben pres, ig inclus moustr lonc lour við por bempart parmy lou.
What is frustrating is that we have access to extant and complete membership records for the various monasteries and other institutions in the area for almost the entire sixteenth century, and biographical information for many among them.

Nentamen, nos veim alcun soumoin des un soul chronic ja existant ag forganç dy Codex Mysarnos.
Nonetheless, no mention is made by any of the surviving chronicles of the production of the Mysarnos Codex.

quaðeglad "campus"

quaðeglad /ˌkwa.ðijˈlad/
- complex, campus, base, a collection of buildings with a common purpose such as a university or military base;
- plant, works, estate, a collection of industrial warehouses or similar buildings in one area

Etymology: early modern-era borrowing from Welsh qυaðellad /kvaˈðiʎad/ "university campus, military base", a Middle Welsh compound of qυ-/kyv- "with, together" and aðellad "building, edifice, structure". This in turn is a noun derivation from aðello "to build, construct", from ello "to create, make, compose, put together".

Nos raðaum tras quaðeglad lonc camin attriboit.
/nɔz raˈðom traz ˌkwa.ðijˈlad lɔnk kaˈmɪn ˌa.triˈbɔjt/
[nɔz ʀɐˈðom tʀɑz ˌkwa.ðɪjˈlad lɔŋk kɐˈmɪn ˌa.tʀɪˈbɔjt]
1p bike-pst.1p across campus along path set.aside-ptcp.pst
We biked across campus along designated lanes.

soumonir "reference"

soumonir /ˌsu.moˈnɪr/ [ˌsu.mʊˈnɪː]
- to prompt, remind, cue, to bring something to the notice or consideration of someone;
- to reference, cite, mention, to quote a source or bring up a person or topic

Etymology: from Old Boral somondr "to summon, call", respelt in the Middle Boral period to better reflect its etymon in Latin summoneō "I advise, give a hint" and the related ammonir "to warn, augur, presage". Compare French semondre "to invite, convene", from the same source.

Vel my tarsc d'acat me soumonir posc nostrell'yenç.
/vɛl mi tarx daˈkat me ˌsu.moˈnir pɔx ˌno.strɛlˈjɛnts/
[vɛw mɪˈtɑːx dɐˈkat mɪˌsu.mʊˈnɪː pɔx nʊˌstʀɛ.lɪˈjɛns]
will.sbj 1s.gen note of=shopping 1s.acc remind-inf after 1p.gen-def=arrival
Please remind me of my shopping list when we arrive.

hey "fence"

hey /hi/
- fence, a thin artificial barrier that separates two pieces of land often used to keep animals to one area;
- barrier, obstacle, hurdle, something that is in one's way or otherwise preventing one from accomplishing what one wants

also hey pondr /hi ˈpɔn.dr̩/
- to separate, cordon off, to divide a portion from the rest and prevent it from intermixing

Etymology: noun from Old Boral hei, hey /hej/ "hedge, fence" (the extended senses are in use by the Middle Boral period), which is a borrowing from synonymous Old English heȝe—possibly influenced by Medieval Latin haga "hedge" which comes via Frankish.

Il ern y hey pegntant a roug.
/ɪl ɛrn i hi pijnˈtant a ruj/
[ɪˈlɛːn i ˈhi pɪjnˈtant ɐ ˈʀuj]
3p cop.imp-3p def fence paint-ptcp.prs to red
They were painting the fence red.

J'ay hey pos all'obægerrem.
/ʒe hi pɔz aˌlo.beˈgɛrɛm/
[ʒe hi pɔz ɐˌlo.bɪˈgɛ.ʀm̩]
1s=have.1s fence put.down.ptcp.pst to-the=sick-comp
I've cordoned off the sicker people.

The Long Peace

In historiography, the Long Peace refers to the decades surrounding the turn of the nineteenth century. Characterised by an absence of prolonged international conflict, the period extends from 1770 until 1815; from the end of the First German War to the outbreak of the Second German War.

The Long Peace precedes the period of Reaction War, an umbrella term including the Second German War and other comptemporaneous conflicts around the world.

Contemporaneous periods include:
- the Decadence of Belgrade, denoting the waning power of the Kingdom of the Danube;
- the Mendevan Unmooring, which refers to the greater political and economic independence enjoyed by the Vetomundine settlements in Mendeva at this time;
- the Romantic Revival, an artistic and political movement characterised by optimism and heroism, especially with its focus on recapturing the 'brighter past' of the seventeenth century.

The kingdom of Saxony reached its territorial peak in this period, having conquered significant territory in the First German War.

The kingdom of Vascony at this time was the heart of the Modest Arrangement, especially in the Long Peace's later years under the Vallabrì administration and King Hernand.

There were major advancements in life theory in this period, including the discovery that the case kernel (also called the nux) housed Desselut's vital language. This was achieved by theorist Manesh Camdar in 1813 via research on marine sponge fecundation, in which he observed that the kernel of sperm unites with that of the egg.

In parallel were alchemical discoveries, including many new elements. For example, janthine was discovered in Zampanagar in 1778, and machovine in Poland a decade later.

The Long Peace saw the inception of the Deviance Movement (also called Anti-Paradise Theology), including the incendiary 1799 publication Et Nous Amerons les Fux (And We Will Love the Fire).

The armourcloth fashion (of women's evening dress decorated in the style of military uniform) has its beginnings early in this period, and is still most strongly associated with it, despite several revivals. The advent of Straightforward Fashion occurs somewhat later, beginning in the first decade of the nineteenth century.
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The Girdled World

excerpt in translation from Milda ver Ragner's 1954 popular history Grex Byd: Kyvarvod y Vaωr Morωn (A Girdled World: The Great Borunesk Meeting)

Veraçter, may a doç scourmer ny Phœbos sou mac Kellot saven arabesc parolar un poy toð cas; l'eiðel commarcer brittesc e morracan ern surponent ne Gal e Spagn pres dou siecr all'oc hour.
In fact, more than a dozen crewmembers of mac Kellot's Phœbos had at least some Arabic; the British and Morrack mercantile domains had overlapped in Gaul and Spain for nearly two centuries at this point.

Dou parmy ben may le scavoirn plen suet, neðan parolaurn—y caðarn a mission circoler par al-Hamid remane ja intradoit vars latin, e l'aïða nauganç cos imparsoubr.
At least two were entirely fluent writers, if not speakers—al-Hamid's book of circular functions was as yet untranslated in Latin and was an invaluable navigational aid.

Lor pres inacavabr es y magntud a humour sur y Cynthia sou al-Kazmi figurar cant, posc sojornar ag vest lontanessem plausibr a alcun hom par toð y histoir d'humantað, i parvenoy cos final Moharram 924 un loy pres connuð.
So it is almost impossible to imagine the height of emotion on al-Kazmi's Cynthia as, having travelled further west than anyone in quite possibly the history of humanity, it arrived at last in Muharram 924 somewhere almost familiar.

Y ci racont seyon oïð dy cartograph des l'Occas Jagerrem sevent, y scourm najaurn lonc y rimmot vars y citað treborth de Sinquan.
Following the stories they heard of the map-makers from the Far West, the crew travelled along the coast to the port city of Sinquan.

augrimar "to calculate"

augrimar /ˌo.griˈmar/ [ˌo.gʀɪˈmɑː]
- to calculate, compute, reckon, to determine an unknown quantity by mathematical means;
- (by extension) to perform algebraic manipulations on a mathematical expression;
- to reckon, suppose, guess, to deduce or conclude by the weighing of possibilities

Etymology: fifteenth-century verbal derivation from earlier augrim /oˈgrɪm/ "calculation, computation, arithmetic", which originally meant in particular "calculation using Arabic numerals". This comes from synonymous early Kentish or Norman augri(s)me, from Medieval Latin algorismus; this is taken from the name of the Persian mathematician al-Khawarismi, whose works introduced the positional number system to Europe.

J'ay neyað a y bon solution augrimar.
/ʒe niˈjaθ a i bɔn ˌso.liˈdzjɔn ˌo.griˈmar/
[ʝe nɪˈja‿ða i bɔn ˌso.lɪˈdzjɔn ˌo.gʀɪˈmɑː]
1s=have.1s fail-ptcp.pst at def good answer compute-inf
I've failed to calculate the right answer.

annexar "supplement"

annexar /ˌa.nɛkˈsar/ [ˌa.nɪgˈzɑː]
- to supplement, append, augment, to add something extra in order to improve something or make it bigger;
- to boost, bolster, strengthen, to help something to increase or improve;
- to enhance, refine, cultivate, to permit or cause something to grow and develop

Etymology: first used in Borlish in the post-Revitalist era, a borrowing from Scholastic Latin annexō "I adjoin, attach". This is a verbal derivation from Classical annexus "tied, fastened, attached", past participle of annectō "I bind, connect".

Nos annexaum y parform con funambr follour.
/no‿ˌza.nɛkˈsom i parˈfɔrm kɔn fiˈ̩ foˈlur/
[nʊ‿ˌza.nɪgˈzom i pɐːˈfɔːm kɔn fɪˈnam.bɐ fʊˈlʊː]
1p boost-pst.1p def play with tightrope step-agt
We enhanced the performance with tightrope walkers.

roglfiar "to rust"

roglfiar /rɔjlˈfjar/ [ˌʀɔ.jʊˈfjɑː]
- to rust, oxidise, to combine slowly with oxygen to form an oxide as a natural process;
- to corrode, wear away, to diminish by gradually destroying small parts of as by the action of an acid;
- to lose familiarity with a subject by gradually forgetting information or losing muscle memory;
- (of hair) to lighten, to turn more blonde after prolonged exposure to sunlight especially during summer

Etymology: an Old Boral verbal derivation from roȝl /roʎ/ "rust, mildew" (modern rogl "rust") via the factitive ending -fi(ȝ)ar, which comes from Latin -ficō as an inherited descendant. The noun roȝl reflects Vulgar Latin robicula, a diminutive of Classical rōbīgō "rust", which is related to rōbus, rūfus "red".

Jo's roglfiant cas teudesc lepçan parolar.
/ʒɔz rojlˈfjant kaz tawˈdɛx lɛpˈtsan ˌpa.roˈlar/
[ʝoz ˌʀɔ.jʊˈfjaŋ kaz tɐwˈdɛç lɪˈpsan ˌpa.ʀʊˈlɑː]
1s=be.s rust-ptcp.prs wrt German Leipziger speak.inf
My spoken Lepsick Dutch is getting rusty.

The Brethin Order

The Brethin were a Christian religious order devoted to record-keeping and the maintenance of history. They had societies worldwide and a history dating back to the early medieval period.

The Brethin take their name from the distinctive heavy cloak (in Old Welsh, the bretin) worn by all members.

The order was founded in eighth-century Tremonow—at that time a border town of the new Kingdom of Greater Dumnonia—under the patronage of Iseld, daughter of Vigo the Magnificent. Their original mandate was to preserve in particular the history of the Christianisation of Albion and Ireland, but the scope of their work quickly expanded to include secular history.

Brethin houses spread rapidly throughout the Briton states, and in later centuries they made inroads into France, Burgundy and as far afield as Andalus (although they would not gain a foothold in Italy until after the Great Fracture of the sixteenth century)

Not long after its inception, Brethin houses included both monasteries and convents, although in some regions institutions for one sex or the other predominated.

Of particular note are the Brethin of Kernow; they became the most influential school within the order during the late medieval period, with a substantial increase in membership through the twelfth century. At this time many courts of Europe employed monks of the Brethin of Kernow as advisors.

After the medieval period and until the modern day, the Brethin ran several major printing operations, such as the Yievle Brethin Primers, and educational institutions, such as the Tremonow Open School (formerly the Brethin Mesh Institute).

Notable members
Pope Damian VI (the Wise), reigned 1199-1209 N
Friar Dewock Barclythe, 1452-1539 N
Saint Victor of Dunkirk, d. 1245 N
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Classical Borland

extract in translation from late classical historian Robiaut Scarvon's 1952 textbook The Boral Province in the century after Hadrian (Y Provinç Boral par Siecr posc Hadrian).

Lonc y façon la ageurn y Roman allors tras l'empir, y ci traitment sagntað e ci divintað ja existant all'Istr Boral tradugsern il ny caglou e reforgaurn il ny jout dy pantheon romannesc.
Much as the Romans did across the rest of the empire, the pre-existing sacred practices and divinities on Borland were interpreted through the lens of and recast in the mould of the Roman pantheon.

L'oc poðe font aïr des comport magn naðusc doujugher—com bustr, y veðerrem veneraçon por Nahalennia lonc y rimmot souðer eð auster all'istr, luy stant un deves de commarç e dell'ocean, denoy incorporað de raçon inconnuð con y cult por Pluton e luy deves runið vars sy fem Proserpina.
This could be based on really quite tenuous analogies—for example, the old worship of Nahalennia along the southern and western coasts of the island, who was a goddess of trade and the ocean, was absorbed for unclear reasons into the cult of Pluto and she was syncretised with his wife Proserpina.

Ci autr deitað stan vecinaðessem ben jogndessem indesbroiðabr sur particulertað geographic, e cossy sceint stan compliscibr lon dolour com part all'œcumen religious de Rom.
Other deities were more localised or connected inextricably to particular geographical features, and as such could be incorporated painlessly into the Roman religious landscape.

Just exact com Tamesis ne Britannia e Sequana ne Gal, y floy noscon oy nommað Reim er alcant parsonfiað com y deu Reagimos.
Just as there was Tamesis in Britannia and Sequana in Gaul, the river now called Reim was once personified as the god Reagimos.

sagntroðes "priestess"

sagntroðes /ˌsɛjn.troˈðɛz/ [ˌsɛjn.tʀʊˈðɛz]
- priestess, female cleric, a woman with religious duties and responsibilities and in particular a woman leading a religious service or similar rite;
- (obsolete) the wife of a priest or cleric

Etymology: feminine equivalent of sagntrouð "priest, cleric" attested in the second sense above since the medieval period. The word descends from Old Boral saȝrdouð, saȝ(n)drouð in the same sense; the unetymological -nt- was presumably inserted by analogy with adjective saȝnt < Latin sanctus "sacred, holy". The Old Boral reflects Latin sacerdōs "priest", related to sacer "hallowed, divine".

Casc gent veurn y sagntroðes all'auter.
/kax ʒɛnt vawrn̩ i ˌsɛjn.troˈðɛz ˌa.loˈtɛr/
[kɐˈʝɛn ˈva.wɐn i ˌsɛjn.tʀʊˈðɛz ˌa.lʊˈtɛː]
each people see.pst-3p def priestess to-def=altar
Everyone saw the priestess at the altar.

gaddar "screw"

gaddar /gaˈdar/ [gɐˈdɑː]
- to screw, to connect or assemble pieces of a construction using a screw;
- to hang on to, to grasp a surface tightly so as not to be pulled off;
- to propel oneself through water or air by the action of a screw propeller

Etymology: verbal derivation from obsolete gad (modern Boral gaddet "screw"), descending from Old Boral gad(d) "rivet, bolt". This in turn is a medieval borrowing from Old English gád "metal point, spearhead" or Old Norse gaddr "spike".

Nos erau y Nil gaddant aval n'auror.
/nɔz eˈro i nɪl gaˈdant aˈval noˈrɔr/
[ˌno.zɪˈʀo i nɪw gɐˈdant ɐˈʌaw nʊˈʀɔː]
1p cop.ipf-1p def Nile screw-ptcp.prs downstream in=sunrise
We were motoring down the Nile at sunrise.

quariçtovar "sabotage"

quariçtovar /kwaˌrɪts.toˈvar/ [kwɐˌʀɪs.tʊˈvɑː]
- to sabotage, to deliberately damage or destroy something in order to prevent its successful operation;
- to subvert, counteract, undermine, to oppose and mitigate the effects of something by taking action to the contrary

Etymology: nineteenth-century borrowing from Italian, either via the noun quarizzitovo or directly as the verb quarizzitovare (more likely; the stress of Boral quariçtou "sabotage, disruption" suggests it is an in-language deverbal derivation). This comes from Zahid Russian quaritstvo "intentional damage" via its use in military contexts during the Second German War.

Y molin produg alcun zucar des insorgent le quariçtovaurn.
/i moˈlɪn proˈdaj alˈkɪn ziˈkar dɛz ˌin.sɔrˈgɛnt le kwaˌrɪts.toˈvorn̩/
[i mʊˈlɪn pʀʊˈdaj ˌa.gɪn zɪˈkɑː dɛz ˌin.sʊːˈgɛn le kwɐˌʀɪs.tʊˈvoːn]
def mill make no sugar since rebel 3s.acc sabotage-pst.3p
The mill hasn't produced any sugar since rebels sabotaged it.

Elsebeth Sneider

collected notes on the life and works of Elsebeth Sneider, author and social campaigner.

Elsebeth Sneider (m. 1772, d. c1830, née Siegert) was an author from Saxony and a pioneer of parachthon romance in general and voidtale in particular. Her most successful work was 1795 trevold Durgh'nen Shorzen Shower (Through a Black Mirror), which sparked the decades-long voidtale craze.

The voidtale craze sparked by this book lasted from the turn of the century until the Second German War, at which point its optimistic and exploratory character dropped rather rapidly out of fashion. Sneider's writings usually featured a heap of different xenic worlds and varied peoples, and the long voyages her characters took to explore them.

In 1772 she married Otto Sneider, scholar at the Stercundhaus in Lepzi.

In her later years she campaigned for reform to Saxony's inheritance law, especially with respect to eldest daughters with no brothers; though her more ambitious goals were ultimately unsuccesful within her lifetime, the political society she founded would go on to spearhead suffrage movements in Saxony, Denmark, and across the Latin republics.

She also wrote against the nascent Deviance movement, despite her works' popularity with its adherents; in an 1821 letter to her sister she wrote:
“It is not only their strange ideas and lonely, nihilist universe, dear Thifäne, but that so many of their number have approached me as if I were their most natural ally!”
The fervency of her opinion was visible in her later works, which have a decidedly theological bent.
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Josua Monçating

excerpt in translation from Conjugation, Operation and the Devil's Music: The Early Deviance Movement, 1970 historical review by Catrin Veçount.

Baron Monçating y sest fo nað par Segr Josua e Domn Evangelin durant yarn l'an 1770 sur lour dominion ne Launembrig.
The sixth Baron Monçating was born to Lord Josua and Lady Evangelin in the winter of 1770 at their estate in Launembrig.

Segr Josua, cos incoïbr, sta luy meðes un parsonaç querellabr ny melle damvaðesc deut a raçon plusour:
Lord Josua, inevitably, was himself a controversial figure in Damvath society for several reasons:

stant un ivan des y staddomain cappatian,
having been born in the Cappatian staddomain,

stant marið con un nobr ant caðen ancestral waranesc (recent magn demay por pudour vetomondin suffigr),
having married a noblewoman of Waranish descent (far too recently for Vetomundine sensibilities),

e final stant y barony de Haubrath tramis par sy cosvour scon stemn posc finisceu un calver legal un dezein vant (parmy provost y longessem disputað a histoir borallesc).
and finally having inherited the Barony of Haubrath from his second cousin following a decade-long legal battle (one of the longest legal disputes in Borland history).

Luy decident apres y grad sindr broyar e cossy for Monçating retenir sta y coup occeint poll'idea dy mendrem aïr a convenibiltað.
His decision thereupon to dissolve the senior title and retain only Monçating was the final nail in the coffin for any hope of respectability.

scon stemn "second (cousin)"

scon stemn /xɔn ˈ̩/ [xɔnˈstɛ.mɐn]
- (in the phrase cosvour scon stemn) second cousin, familial relation of sharing a single pair of great-parents;
- unprototypical, non-central, being only technically a member of some reference class

Etymology: literally "second lineage"; the adjective scon derives directly from Latin secundus "second" with some irregular reduction (to wit, sporadic loss of the pretonic vowel), while the noun stemn reflects Old Boral stemn "(plant) stem, sapling", from the synonymous Old English stemn. In metaphorical usage, seen from the sixteenth century.

Jo save noc tu aus cosvour scon stemn n'Ambrosia!
/ʒo saˈve nɔk ti oz kɔsˈvur xɔn ˈ̩ ˌnam.broˈzja/
[ʝo sɐˈve nɔk tjoz kʊˈzvʊː xɔnˈstɛ.mɐn ˌnam.bʀʊˈzja]
1s know-ipf neg 2s have-sbj.ipf cousin second lineage in=Ambrosia
I didn't know you had second cousins in Ambrosia!

querellabr "controversial"

querellabr /ˌkwe.rɛˈ̩/ [ˌkwe.ʀɪˈla.bɐ]
- controversial, contentious, characterised by or liable to cause argument;
- disputed, arguable, open to debate with respect to validity or genuineness

Etymology: potential adjectival derivation from verb querellar "to argue, debate, quarrel", itself derived from noun querel "dispute, argument, quarrel". This descends from Old Boral, borrowed from synonymous Old French querele, which reflects Latin querēla "complaint, grievance".

Querellabr es si l'ig imascry fos vray meðes volað.
/ˌkwe.rɛˈ‿ɛz si laj ˌi.maxˈri fɔz vre meˈðɛz voˈlaθ/
[ˌkwe.ʀɪˈla.b‿ɪz si lɐj ˌi.mɐxˈʀi fɔz vʀe mɪˈðɛz vʊˈlah]
arguable be.3s if def=s.px sculpture be.sbj.ipf true even steal-ptcp.pst
It's debatable whether that sculpture was even really stolen.

cossy sceint "as such"

cossy sceint /koˈsi xint/ [kʊˈsi çint]
- as such, in that capacity, according to the role or manner of the aforementioned;
- therefore, consequently, following from the aforementioned as a result or consequence

Etymology: literally "there being thus"; the adverb cossy "thus, in that way" comes from Old Boral cossi, traditionally identified with Italian cosí as deriving from Vulgar Latin eccum sīc "this thus" but in fact likely from *causa sīc "the thing thus".

The word sceint is the present participle of sceir "for there to be", used in existential constructions. This verb descends from early Old Boral sier "to stay, be be present" (among other attested forms), from Latin sedeō "I sit, stay".

Y scavour cossy sceint poð noc hand dar all'hom poið.
/i xaˈvur koˈsi xint pɔθ nɔk hand dar aˈlɔm pɔjθ/
[i xɐˈvʊː kʊˈsi çint pɔ nɔk hand dɑː‿ʀɐˈlɔm pɔjh]
def journalist thus can neg sex give-inf to.def=person well
As a journalist, they cannot have sex with their source.

Borlish borrowings into English

excerpt from Daughters of the Sea: The Northwestern Isles, a historical account of Ireland, Albion and Borland and the bonds of migration, technological transmission and shared cultural heritage over time. The book was written in 1956 by Markish author Challow Huddresfell during his time at the University of Safford's Faculty of Trade.

…a lodrigneth indreck hosting a stethley in the keething-ground davarn.

Our neighbours to the east have never matched the globe-spanning workshop and household vanguard of the British. Nonetheless, if only by virtue of proximity, the English languages have been adapted Borlish terms even from the medieval period. For example, while we associate the early centuries of the post-Roman Isles with migration from Albion into Borland (in particular, after the Markish subjugation of East Anglia in the eighth century), words like danny "a nuisance, an irritating person", bather "stringed musical intrument" and parren "traveller, newcomer, novice" enter Old English from Old Borlish in the ninth century alone (according to their first attestations in monastic chronicles).

Later, in the post-Tetrarchic fractured landscape of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Borland's advantageous position in the European trade mesh gave it the opportunity to introduce words for several goods into the English languages. In addition to the obvious examples of nargel and mauser fruit [coconuts and bananas], this period also gives us jackdaw glass and zackit masonry.

We also owe the word kevler, that staple genre of every top-line performer's more obscure contributions to film, to Borlish. Kevler romance arose in the Good Game period in the late nineteenth century as a subgenre of masquira tales (Carvallo's books themselves feature many elaborate robberies of diamonds and other traditional kevler prizes). Works in the genre have focused since its inception on thieving heroes entering high society as outsiders in connit [disguise] to make away with the hoarded treasures of the intolerably wealthy. It would perhaps be overeager to attribute romanç kevlar's many sensation works in contemporary Borland to a generalised class-levelling instinct (despite the scandals dogging the royal…
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The Early Tachygraph

excerpt in translation from Vitoria Queiros' 1998 quaterno Thirteen Inventions which Changed the World, published by Pontudra Editions.

Par surcresc, l'accaç campaner baric sta nuverrem aðief a noc ancour l'ançan doujug a gonfan e lamp destarrir, magn afferjarant tras Spagn, Gal eð Italy.
Moreover, the barrick steeplepost was still so young that it had not displaced the earlier flag-lamp system, widespread across Spain, Gaul and Italy.

Deur certan exclusion (cos celeberrem y fil Cracou a Bitom ne Pologn souðer), debriscellisað er y tar prest ag respanment d'accaç filað tras Europ aust e norðer, e vray des l'eç polity receveu nos y majortað dy tarrouçon cas astrapophor nell'Asc Asteller aval.
With some exceptions (notably the Cracow-Bitom line in southern Poland), the ground was clear for the spread of wired post across northern and eastern Europe, and indeed it is from these places that we get most of the barrick innovations of the late Workshop period.

Lor y ci tachygraph filað primal stan fatuous por laurar e tan car por accarr—doutr allors sceye poy advantaç savibr a edifiç marcant, possent cos fagl hur dar an coutoccour ja suet cas y model d'Adamich.
So the early wired tachygraphs were cumbersome to use and expensive to get hold of—and furthermore there was little incentive for businesses, who could simply hire a tapper already fluent in the Adamich system.

debriscellisar "cut back"

debriscellisar /ˌde.briˌxɛ.liˈzar/ [ˌde.bʀɪˌçɛ.lɪˈzɑː]
- to prune, trim, to cut back overgrowing plants;
- to clear out undergrowth from an area;
- to lay the groundwork, set the stage, to clear the ground for an undertaking

Etymology: a Middle Boral period derivation from briscel "shrub, bush", literally "cause to be rid of low-growing plants". This noun from earlier arbriscel, diminutive of arbr "tree". In extended use the verb is seen from the eighteenth century.

Jo's debriscellisant por scoy d'un seman a scitation.
/ʒɔz ˌde.briˌxɛ.liˈzant pɔr xɔj dɪn seˈman a ˌxi.taˈdzjɔn/
[ʒoz ˌde.bʀɪˌçɛ.lɪˈzan pɔː xɔj dɪn sɪˈman a ˌçi.tɐˈdzjɔn]
1s=cop prune-ptcp.prs for easy.job of=indef week at exam
I'm laying the groundwork for a piece-of-cake exam week.

madarc "beat cop"

madarc /maˈdaʀk/ [mɐˈdɑːk]
- lawman, beat cop, police officer and especially one on patrol;
- (dated, Axbane and environs) truncheon, cudgel, a short heavy club used as a weapon

Etymology: in its current sense formed in the early twentieth century by metonymy from its original meaning, from the prevalent use of such clubs by city constabularies. Meaning "club" it is much older; a Middle Boral borrowing from Arabic مَطَارِق‎ (maṭāriq) "hammer, fighting club", plural noun from the verb stem meaning "to knock, to hammer".

Taçað neðan y madarc avartr!
/ta.dzaθ neˈðan i maˈdark aˈ̩/
[tɐˈdzah nɪˈðan i mɐˈdɑːk ɐˈvɑː.tɐ]
be.quiet-2p lest def cop warn-inf
Shut up or you'll alert the cops!

coutoccar "poke"

coutoccar /ˌku.tɔˈkar/ [ˌku.tʊˈkɑː]
- to poke, prod, jab, to push with a long and thing appendage such as a finger or stick;
- to tap, drum, to strike lightly and/or repeatedly as with a finger or drumstick
- (colloquial, vulgar) to have sexual intercourse with, especially when forgoing extended flirtation or other niceties

Etymology: originally, along with the corresponding deverbal noun coutoc "tap, poke, prod", in eighteenth-century staddenzen Boral as a borrowing from Yengatow [Tupi] cutuc "to pierce, stab" (likely altered by analogy to toccar "to touch, make contact with").

I coutoccau y tambour agil eð exact.
/i ˌku.toˈko i tamˈbur aˈʒɪl e‿ðegˈzakt/
[i ˌku.tʊˈko i tɐmˈbʊː ɐˈʒiw e‿ðɪgˈzakt]
3s tap-pst def drum agile and exact
Her drumming was deft and precise.


Borland (in Borlish Istr Boral /ˈɪs.tʀ̩ boˈʀaɫ/) is the easternmost of the three major landmasses in the Northwestern Isles, and also the name of the singular polity located thereon. The capital of Borland is Damvath, a port city on the east coast of the island.

The name 'Borland' descends via from Old English Boralland, Borala land 'land of the Borlish people', where the first element is taken from Latin Borālī 'Borlish people'.

The origin of the Latin demonym is disputed. It is unknown whether the Romans knew the land as īnsula boreālis island in the north' before they settled Borland, or whether they borrowed the native Kelt name enis borag 'island of the dawn' (from its easterly position with respect to Albion and Ireland).

Borland Kelts
The Kelt population of Borland (self-described as the Bora Ale) is poorly documented. The few attestations of their language suggest only a recent divergence from the Briton tongue; they are thought to have arrived on the island from Albion, not directly from the continent.

This culture was connected to the European trade mesh via the export of tin and iron. Imported pottery of this period from finds across the island has been found from as far afield as Egypt and Persia.

The Kelts were organised into many tribes each covering small regions and ruled from hill fort structures. Several important religious sites of this time have been unearthed; most famously the Çadrosc labyrinth, which has sparked much unfounded theorising as to its origin and purpose.

Roman Borland
Borland developed diplomatic and trade links with Rome from the time of Julius Caesar and his expeditions to Britannia in 55 aN. The Roman conquest of Borland took place through the second half of the first century (especially during the Flavian period), building on their successes in Britannia.

Confederations of Kelt tribes resisted Roman occupation, especially in the north; several uprisings appear to have been explicitly imitating the successes of Buthick of the Iceni in Britannia.

In the second century, Emperor Hadrian adopted different strategies in Britain and Borland, characterised in Bervisson's 'An Eternal Rome: Ships of Theseus' as 'The Wall and the Hedgerow'. Possibly due to the lack of an analogous frontier to the Pictish lands, these policies are said to have led to significantly more autonomy in Borland, and in particular greater reliance on locally-born legions. There is evidence in writing of a sense of Borlish identity forming alongside the universal Roman citizenship.

It was also under Hadrian that Borland was made a separate province from Britannia; after the Diocletian reforms this became the Diocese of Boral.

Religion in Roman Borland
Just as the Romans did across the rest of the empire, the pre-existing sacred practices and divinities on Borland were interpreted through the lens of and recast in the mould of the Roman pantheon. This could be based on really quite tenuous analogies—for example, goddess of trade and the ocean Nahalennia was absorbed into the cult of Pluto, and she was syncretised with his wife Proserpina. Other deities were more localised, like Reagimos, a river god whose name lives on in the river Reim.

The fourth century saw the arrival of Roman Christianity on Borland, leading to the destruction or repurposing of many pagan site, both those originally from the Borland Kelts and shrines built by the Romans themselves.

Sub-Roman Borland
There is evidence of considerable Roman emigration from Borland to the continent during the late fourth and early fifth centuries, primarily from the cities of the west and south such as Aquae Balneī and Pons Seianus. The urban east was less immediately affected, and even received some Roman immigration from Britannia.

At this time, German peoples (primarily Angles) came from the mainland and settled in Borland, while they and the Saxons also went further and settled much of further-collapsed Albion. By the end of the sixth century they had formed the Borlish petty kingdoms of Sothbar and Anglont, along with several minor outlying settlements.

Meanwhile, the political structure of self-described Roman Borland was changing rapidly. Without the external influence of Rome's authority, the decentralised network of towns in the east was unified under the rule of Prase Victor Rossetus as the 'Diocese of Boral'.

First Kingdom of Borland
By the late sixth century the Diocese of Boral had become a monarchy (described in retrospect as the First Kingdom of Borland), whose ruling dynasty claimed descent from Rossetus.

This period saw a continuous influx of Christians (both Kelt and Roman people displaced by the German migrations and, later, missionaries) to the island. Rome under Pope Mercury II took a particular strategic influence in Borland, viewing it as a vital Christian outpost from which they could send missionaries east and west to aid the conversion of Albion and the Danes. For this reason, Borland's early monastic culture had an outward focus, unlike the insular communities of Ireland. The oldest surviving church in Borland is located at the Golfhaun Sanctuary (Asȳlum Æstuāriī) which was consecrated at this time.

However, papal opinion of Borland was prone to change, and many saw it as a convenient place of unofficial exile for (politically or theologically) troublesome figures. Thus, any given Borland monastery might house semi-heretical monks 'entrusted with the conversion of the pagans', or else men with suspicious sympathies to one of the Grecian heresies (see in particular the role of Marmeronism).

The Tripartite Wars
The influx of English people into Borland continued throughout this period; for example, the Markish subjugation of East Anglia in the last decades of the eighth century sent many people east to the petty kingdoms of Anglont of Sothbar.

The question of fealty (that is, whether any kingdom of the island would received official recognition and deference from the others) vexed the island throughout this period, with conflicts leading to temporary alliances between Borland and Sothbar or Borland and Anglont depending on the political climate.

Finally, in the early ninth century, Roman king Stiglan married his son Marc to the only daughter of Alfegh of Anglont, unifying their kingdoms and forcing Sothbar to pledge fealty after the circa-810 N Battle of Fendal.

Dane-ruled Borland
Attacks on Borland towns and monasteries by Dane raiders along the coasts began in the late eighth century, spreading gradually westward as viking raids grew lengthier and more lucrative. Through the ninth century raiding is gradually upgraded to long-term settlement, especially in the northern half of the island. Eventually, Dane pretenders (coronc) to the Borland throne arose and threatened to topple the kingdom.

After the fall of the First Kingdom in 898 (and the establishment of Dane Borland ruled from Damvath), the young King Jothey went into exile with his wife Queen Brenna of Barrow to Sothbar. There they remained at court for over twenty years, and had several children. Subsequently they were forced to flee again to Kent as Dane Borland conquered the remainder of the island, uniting it for the first time since the Roman Empire.

Medieval Imperia
In the context of the First Drengot Empire to the west and the German Empire to the south, independent Borland had significant strategic value both militarily and economically. This was especially true in the towns and cities along the south coast such as Axbane, which saw a great increase in harbour traffic during the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

This period also saw the arrival of the Jacobin Fraternity to the island. Forced to flee Flanders in 1067 after being implicated in a popular uprising against Emperor Nathaniel II, they built the Penisular Monastery overlooking the city of Axbane.

Post-Tetrarchic Borland
With the collapse of the German Empire and growing sympathies towards the Augsburg See, Rome considered the Baptism of the North an urgent undertaking. The Rome-allied Duchy of Crain collaborated with Borlish missionary forces and the Convoy Australier to bring Christianity to Lithuania and its more distant Baltic neighbours.

The late thirteenth century sees the birth of a Borlish-language body of literature. Although we have earlier examples of treaties and religious texts in the vulgar tongue, works written in Borlish were hitherto sparse and either utilitarian or didactic.

In 1292 the chronicle 'The Life of Catrin of Kernow' (Y Við a Catrin de Cornou) was written, detailing her early life, marriage into Borlish noblility and eventual assassination in 1232. It is notable for being the first long-form work of Borlish literature written about a layperson, rather than a saint or similar legendary figure.

The 14th and 15th centuries
The Noccair Lyceum of the 1300s exemplifies how the mediaeval university system was standardising across Europe. There, students were taught the Five Romantic Arts: Literature, Argument, Reckoning, Geometry and Songcraft. These were in essence the descendants of the seven Classical arts. Around 1400, as this system began to break down, the Lyceum began to teach alchemy (and a little later, post-Classical history).

The end of the fourteenth century marks the zenith of Borlish trade power, with cities along the Rustigh Strait (especially Axbane) trafficked both by the Dutch stadbund's fleet and Borland's own. In this way Borland served as a crossroads between the Vascon trade mesh in the west and the stadbund's to the east. Later, in the 1400s, Borland lost ground to the ascendant Wales and Vascony, which began to monopolise trade coming from the Middlesea and Africa.

In the first decade of the fifteenth century, Queen Natalia I and her husband King Joseph I ruled jointly. Their family had been and would continue to be beset by misfortune; all three of their sons predeceased them, as did their few male grandchildren (either in infancy or by misadventure).

The succession crisis prompted by their deaths in 1411 and 1416 spelt the end of their dynasty. From the ashes rose the Saulestran lineage of kings, whose banner comprised a white bar cutting a twilight-blue field.

Borland was not directly involved in the Albion-wide Wars of Fealty, but it received an influx of immigration from the polities involved, as people were displaced in the many border conflicts and attempted conquests. In particular, this period saw substantial Welsh, Devoner and Kernish immigration to the cities of southern Borland.

Borland after the Novamundine Landfall
With the dawn of the sixteenth century and the waning power of Vascony, the dominance of Borlish cities over regional trade reached its peak. Damvath was said to be the most-trafficked port in Europe outside the Middlesea at this time.

The Second Great Dying reached Borland in March of 1519; likely due to the volume of trade there, the island's first recorded death attributable to the plague was in Damvath during the year's green snowfall. Borland lost over four hundred thousand people—one-seventh of its population—to the plague.

After the death of Joseph III in 1534 N, his nephew Brandon II succeeded to the throne (King Joseph never succeeded in producing a natural-born heir, despite several recognised yet illegitimate children by his various mistresses). Having known he would inherit, King Brandon had made sure to be well-liked at court; upon his accession he managed to impose a terrene tax on the land despite significant opposition from his most powerful vassals.

Borland became entangled in the War for the Stavang Crown in the 1550s, a protacted succession crisis for the Dane Concert following the death of the king while undertaking a grand tour of his lands.

The practice of serfdom (already on its last legs) was legally abolished in Borland in 1564, but by that point it had not de facto existed on the island for a generation. This is often cited as being due to the labour shortage resulting from the disruption of the Second Great Dying.

The 17th and 18th centuries
Borland's involvement in the Romantic Wars was restricted to a failed invasion (culminating in the Hawkirch Surrender of 1623), along with unstable arrangments with neighbouring polities regarding military aid in their conquests.

Through this period, Borlish trade guilds were involved in the establishment of staddomains along Atlantic Cappatia and Africa. Initially little more than tradingposts, these would grow into significant polities over the next centuries.

Agricultural innovations in Borland began to accelerate in the eighteenth century. The Pentrose survey of the 1730s was a coordinated effort to find the most productive or otherwise useful cultivars of many plants which spurred significant productivity increases. Its crowning glory was the braxoch beet, a hybrid of Silesian and Cassuvian beets whose sugar content was high enough to make domestic sugar production economical.

Borland in the Long Peace and afterward
The location of the Borlish parliament had until this point not been fixed to one building—usually one member would donate use of an estate for the duration of a legislative session. In the late eighteenth century this state of affairs ended, with the completion of the Jacobean Estates (Palaç Jagovin) in Damvath.

During the inflamed period of Reaction War which followed the Long Peace, Borland participated in the Second German War. Borlish soldiers were present at the disastrously mismanaged Battle of Ulm in 1821, and they fought alongside troops from many nearby countries, such as Friule and Crovatia. The war and Borland's alliance with the Northern Concert sparked major mozard protests in cities across the country.

Borland in the Workshop decades
The steeplepost arrived late to Borland, with most of the island's flag-lamp lines being erected in the 1810s and 1820s (somewhat accelerated by strategic military considerations). Axbane was later connected to the continent at Texel in Willemy via air-steeples, but by 1860 this had been replaced (along with much of the island's steeplemesh) by a barrick line.

The spelling reform of 1870 (the last major revision to Borlish spelling conventions) primarily acted to standardise—at the time, many words had multiple forms in use reflecting more or fewer of the sound changes of the last few centuries.

The Good Game period
The genre of masquira which originated in Spain flourished in Borland in the late nineteenth century. The particular popularity of kevler romance (romanç kevlar) on the island produced several sensation trevolds and lead to the term being borrowed into several other languages.

The 1890s saw Borland join the growing Drengot Collusion (several Borlish cities, although not the capital, had already joined as part of the New Urban Mesh); Queen Natalia II abdicated on Revillon of 1894 due to the political upheaval of this process.

The celebration of Revillon is an ancient tradition in Borland; some form of the practice dating back to the time of the Insular Kelts. As part of the festivities, people bring pastries and other baked goods to grand Revillon Feasts (Fest Reveglon) held in churches across the country.

In Borland, if in a given year there is snow in spring after the yearturning (i.e. on or after the 1st of March), the first such snow is called the 'green snowfall' (neyanç vert). Years which have a green snowfall are generally considered unlucky, as a symptom of a long and bitter preceding winter.

There are several Borlish folk songs of unknown origin, including the 'Season Song' (Cant a Saçon). This song, like many in its tradition, uses an idiosyncratic scale sometimes mistakenly conflated with the manoscard scale.

The figures of the graveyard fiddlers are a folk tradition peculiar to Borland. These spirits associated with death are said to be the source of a mysterious sound of string instruments heard especially in cemeteries.

A related group are the Wild Hunt (Cauç Ragnt), a party of hunters passing overhead said to be responsible for the sound of thunder and strong winds. A children's story common to many cultures across Europe, the Wild Hunt in Borland shows clear signs of a Dane origin—not least that it is traditionally led by Balegr, a kenning of Odin.

By far the most commonly-spoken language in Borland is the Borlish language, the only surviving branch of Insular Romance. It share many features with Gallo-Romance, including loss of case and intervocalic lenition. It was also heavily influenced in the first millennium by Old English and Old Norse.

Regions and territories
  • Anglont, a historical region in the west whose capital is Vithor
  • Çadrosc, an area of moorland in the northwest which features a labyrinth built in Kelt times
  • Lascoum, a small county in central Borland whose coat of arms features a butterfly
  • Sothbar, a county in the southwest which was once an independent kingdom
  • Axbane (Ausbagn), an old Roman city on the south coast with a surviving historical baths
  • Combert, a city in the south-east and the location of the Borrhatic School of History
  • Cordin, the hometown of publisher Cordin Editions, which from the late twenthieth century on has provided textbooks to school nationwide
  • Dambourne (Damborn), acity of industry some way upriver of Damvath
  • Damvath (Damvað), the capital city of Borland located on the river Dam
  • Haldanvion, a city in the south known for its alchemical refining mills
  • Neuvort, a central city which grew significantly in prominence during the Workshop period
  • Pentrose (Pentros), a port city on the Rustigh Strait with a substantial population of British descent
  • Vithor (Viðor), a city on the west coast known for the New Vithor University, a major research institution
Towns and villages
  • Aukirç, a market town in the northwest
  • Ausçagm, a coastal yet hilly town not far from the capital
  • Barraut, a river town boasting a famous lodging-house
  • Fendal, a town in Sothbar which in the ninth century was the site of a major battle
  • Gambrig, a village and nearby monastery noteworthy for its medieval chronicle in a variety of Old English
  • Golfhaun, the site of a medieval monastic community on the isle of Nestu which contains the oldest church building in Borland
  • Haubrath, a market town in the north
  • Hawkirch (Haukirç), a town in Anglont and site of the Hawkirch Surrender of 1632
  • Heitriç, a castle town in Sothbar and former seat of the County of Sothbar
  • Humerstoun, a village which was in the ninth century the seat of the Petty Kingdom of Sothbar
  • Jeluðrou, a market town in the river valleys of the north
  • Livaucr, a northern town and minor barony
  • Nausçod, a small town near Axbane notable for being the closest inhabited place in Boral to the continent
  • Noccair, a town which has the oldest university in Borland, the Noccair Lyceum
Natural features
  • Dam River, a major east-flowing river which passes through Damvath and empties into the Labbath Sound
  • Duðam River, downstream portion of the largest watershed in the northern half of the island
  • English Strait (Naur Anglesc), the sea diving the west coast of Borland from the east coast of Albion
  • Labbath Sound (Bugt Labbað), a large estuary and bay on the east coast where the river Dam empties into the sea
  • Nestu, the largest island in the Labbað Sound, known for the medieval Golfhaun sanctuary
  • Rustigh Strait (Naur Rustig), the narrow channel of water separating the southern coast of Borland from the mainland
  • Victor Rossetus (fl. 500), first Prase of the Diocese of Boral and nominal ancestor of the royal dynasties of the various Kingdoms of Borland
  • Stiglan of Borland (fl. 810), who unified the First Kingdom of Borland with the Petty Kingdom of Anglont
  • Marc of Borland (fl. 810), first king of a unified Roman Borland and Anglont
  • Jothey of Borland (fl. 920), who fled into exile following the Dane invasion of Borland
  • Joseph I (d. 1411), who ruled jointly with his wife
  • Natalia I (d. 1416), last of her dynasty, whose death sparked a protracted succession crisis
  • Joseph III (d. 1534), who ruled through the ravages of the Second Great Dying
  • Brandon II (fl. 1534), who instituted the land's first terrene tax
  • Natalia II (abd. 1894), who abdicated the throne as part of Borland accession into the Drengot Collusion
Other nobility
  • Queen Brenna of Barrow (fl. 920), wife of King Jothey of Borland and cousin of King Roderick of Strathclyde
  • Lord Josua, fifth Baron Monçating (fl. 1770), notable for being embroiled in a decade-long legal dispute over inheritance
  • Lord Simon, sixth Baron Monçating (b. 1770), intellectual and early proponent of Deviance Theology
  • Count Steign of Sothbar (fl. c12), who moved his court from Heitriç to Axbane
Theorists and scholars
  • Marc Ausbagn (fl. 1830), mathematician and pioneer of early sam theory
  • Professor Michæl Bervisson (17th June 1799–12th January 1849), political historian and social reformist influential in the Borrhatic League
  • Darren Brodus (fl. 1828), mathematician of Devoner heritage with a family home in Pentrose and working at the New Vithor University
  • Jan Curçon (fl. c11), medieval alchemist of the Tetrarchic period
  • Lambord Darrian (fl. c17), philosopher at the Vithor New School known for his writing on altruism and good works
  • Hostilian (fl. c10), medieval Borlish historian and monk who wrote 'Histories of the Borlish Lands', an semi-mythic account of the previous five centuries
  • Professor Marc Jeichi (fl. 2019), lecturer in concurrence history for the University in Cordin
  • Jan Prestr (fl. 1779), life theorist and author of the work 'On the Classification of the Child-Bearing Beasts' (Discriptione Bestiarum Suboles Ferentis)
  • Robiaut Scarvon (fl. 1952), late-classical historian who wrote 'The Boral Province in the century after Hadrian' (Y Provinç Boral par siecr posc Hadrian)
  • Caðoval Thoitom (fl. 1641), philosopher who coined the phrase camin cadarað to refer to a primrose path, or a deceptively-easy decision which eventually leads one astray (literally 'distilled track')
  • Sconet Ydreç (fl. 2008), historian of the early tenth century who wrote 'Shepherds of Hambrick: the Small History of Dane Borland'
Artists and musicians
  • Halan Drominir (fl. c16), poet remembered for 'Red Woodland' (Verdur Roug), a narrative poem which drew on his experiences fighting in the War for the Stavang Crown
  • Osctra Jeichi (fl. 1887), playwright whose most successful work is 'The Spider' (L'Aragn), which has been translated into over a dozen languages and adapted for film in 1930
  • Manuel Kigman (fl. c15), prolific poet most of whose work survives and who is therefore the first attestation for many words and phrases
  • Ivocq Messegn (fl. 1687), composer known for his opera 'Mountains Yet to Climb' (Montagn Ja Inscas)
  • Descard Ausogn, (fl. 1929), amateur historian remembered for his 'Rosy Dawn on Glittering Waves', a controversial account of the history of seafaring since the Landfall
  • Dion Becolla (fl. 1968), writer of giftales and historical fiction, known for 'Waging World Peace' (Paç Mondial Accommettent)
  • Loðaç Berxon (fl. 1910), author of parachthon works including 'The Firekeeper's Stronghold' (L'Askouð Pyrrhaz), and member of the Outland Arcabil Association
  • Mance Laurent Boneðic (fl. 1898), one-time monk who authored 'Sunrise in Exile: the Iconomachy in the Northern Dioceses'
  • Hadassa Docquerl (fl. 1872), heiress to the barony of Livaucr whose work 'An Incomplete Dictionary of the New London' (Un Onomatoir Partial dy Novel Londr) is likely the most famous Vetomundine work from the Futurism period
  • Heudar Fiðaut (fl. c14), courtier of the royal family and author of 'Twenty-Four Laments' (Catreðejnt Laȝrem)
  • Carl Havatr (fl. 1981), author of masquira trevold 'A Question of Identity' (Identað Partenent)
  • Fuyo Jaðom (fl. 1980), writer of short stories adapted from tales he would tell his young children, including 'Saint Stephen's Snowfall' (Neyanç a Sagnt Stevan)
  • Endric Kirennaga (fl. 2009), masquira author wrote 'Apollo on Holiday' (Apollon Cogmaðer)
  • Raunsvart Pagcomb (fl. 1912), writer of historical tales including 'The Midnight Impostor' (Y Coronc Kervandal)
  • Theign Roufler (fl. 2016), author of popular textbook 'From Tablets to Slates: the Story of Education' (Des Delt vars Dois: Y Stoir d'Education)
  • Catrin Veçount (fl. 1970), popular historian who wrote 'Conjugation, Operation and Diabolica in Musica', a review of the early Deviance Movement
  • Norrasc Yvauron (fl. 1908), an early star of the household enigma genre, having written 'The Emeralds are a Red Herring' (Y Smaraut son Piescrat)
  • Margret Courleon (fl. 1946), translator of Roberta Bluemore's 'One Quiet Day'
  • Gonnilt Dispað (fl. 1920), translator of works from English languages (especially Kentish), including her friend Clarissa Bellamy's 'A Door, Once Opened' at the author's personal request
  • Michæl Norman (fl. 1901), translator from Spanish languages responsible for the Borlish edition of Estevan Mazon's 'The Man from Everywhere'
  • Benjamin Rocquot (fl. 1923), translator of works in the Dutch languages, including 'Let us Dance: The Duchess d'Avosche'
  • Mahaut Stiver (fl. 1992), Mozara translator whose translations include Fernando Sádico's 'An Honest Lie'
  • Anscon d'Aupont (fl. 1550), sixteenth-century Damvath clothier and regular correspondent of the playwright Absolon Mortenszen
  • Hilgart Bervisson (fl. c19), along with her husband Michæl a reformist influential in the Borrhatic League
  • Marc Couvorpeg (fl. c17), notorious thief of Vithor immortalised in the 1711 play 'The Foxtail Gang')
  • Brign of Golfhaun (fl. 1240), most senior bishop at the Golfhaun Sanctuary for several decades
  • Stephanus of Golfhaun (fl. 1240), a monk who transcribed several monastic chants, many of which were in the vernacular Borlish tongue
  • Johan Pamfey (fl. 1971), collocker for the Sunday magazine Niacer
  • Tobarus (fl. c8), monk in the First Kingdom of Borland attested in monastic records notable for being partly in the vernacular tongue
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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The Witch of Tebjacka

extract in translation from Mashik Arabic of 1823 short shory 'The Witch of Tebjacka', written by Tazim Gennun.

Cayen ciel de neir fosc encoster, aguilað par myriad stel lougent.
The sky was a deep, inky black, studded with a myriad glittering stars.

Y lun oppos bagna l'œcumen sou un lumner argentastr, ombr jaint lonc tras y ci tombr dallottað.
The full moon bathed the landscape in a silvery light, casting long shadows across the rolling hills.

L'arbr hurislan sou un bris fresc, un frigçon dant ag font dy tors a Samir.
A cool breeze ruffled the trees, sending a shiver down Samir's spine.

I se fassau y mantel atorn sarraðessem e porseveu a un camin trovar tras y makisaç.
He wrapped his cloak tighter around himself and continued to pick his way through the undergrowth.

Soutan oyeu Samir coroc d'un bachet ados.
Suddenly, Samir heard a twig snap behind him.

I volteu raut e lor attenoy par un poy d'hour, ci oregl sforçant, pu tout taçoirn. L'ençau tornant a sy camin reprendr, pu uncos le quinau starc par ados, le dessoclant vars tar yembr.
He spun round and waited for a few moments, straining his ears, but all was silent. He turned to continue on his way, but something crashed into him from behind, knocking him to the ground.

coram "in person"

coram /koˈram/ [kʊˈʀam]
- face-to-face, in person, occurring with one's own presence and not via a representative or via long-distance communication;
- personal, intimate, sensitive, dealing with subjects about which one wishes to be private or discreet

Etymology: used as an adverb since the Middle Boral period, taken from Latin cōram "in person, in public" as used in court proceedings to designate certain acts which contravened laws by virtue of being by one's own hand. Used also more generally as an adjective since the eighteenth century.

Nos erreu l'oc kessandar coram fin a bogr defassar.
/nɔz eˈraw lɔk ˌke.sanˈdar koˈram fɪn a bɔjr̩ ˌde.faˈsar/
[ˌno.zɪˈʀaw lɔ ˌke.sɐnˈdɑː kʊˈʀam ˈfi.nɐ ˈbɔ.ʝɐ ˌde.fɐˈsɑː]
1p go.fut-1p def=sg.px discuss-inf in.person end at at.all develop.inf
We have to discuss this in person before we can make any progress.

kireðam "wholeheartedly"

kireðam /ˌki.reˈðam/ [ˌki.ʀɪˈðam]
- wholeheartedly, sincerely, earnestly, without any reservations or other any other mitigating factors;
- full steam ahead, balls-out, recklessly, with great abandon heedless of any negative consequences

Etymology: appears in the seventeenth century in the standard language, taken from an earlier northern dialect idiom cur eð am "earnestly" (often written as one word). The phrase literally means "heart and soul"; the first noun may have been influenced in its vowel by medieval Borland English hierte /ˈhi͡yrte/ "heart", while the second descends directly from Latin anima (the modern language having reborrowed anim "soul").

Toð my famigl promoun kireðam y regnanç anthracit.
/tɔθ mi faˈmajl proˈmun ˌki.reˈðam i rijˈnants ˌan.θraˈtsɪt/
[ˈtɔmi fɐˈma.jʊ pʀʊˈmun ˌki.ʀɪˈðam i ʀɪjˈnans ˌan.θʀɐˈdzɪt]
all 1s.gen family support-3p earnestly def regime anthracite
My family all fully support the anthracite government.

niaç a fuyo aïr "live in sin"

niaç a fuyo aïr /njats a faˈjo ɛˈjɪr/ [nɪˈʝats a fɐˈʝo ɪˈʝɪː]
- to live in sin, to cohabit as if legally wed without being married;

Etymology: idiom first attested in the nineteenth century, especially in association with otherwise-deviant (or Deviant) behaviours such as blasphemy unpalatable to the mores of the Modest Arrangment. The phrase literally means "to have a robin's nest", presumably in reference to robin's nest-building behaviour (which occurs after they have formed monogamous couples for the mating season).

The noun niaç "nest" is an extension of Old Boral ni, which directly reflects synonymous Latin nīdus; fuyo "robin" is of uncertain origin, with theories ranging from a dialect pronunciation of figl "child" to a hypothetical Kelt etymon related to "sparrow".

Il aun niaç a fuyo pall'eç dou annað.
/ɪl on njats a faˈjo paˈlɛts du aˈnaθ/
[ɪˈlon nɪˈʝats a fɐˈʝo ˌpa.lɪs ˈdu ɐˈnah]
3p have.3p nest to robin by-def=p.px two year
They've been living in sin for two years.

New Provence

New Provence was a coastal polity in the east of Mendeva. It is named for Provence, a small Middlesea state whose trading ships first set up trading posts along the coast of Mendeva in the early sixteenth century.

The country bordered Ambrosia to the north, the states of Gulf Mendeva to the south, and it shares a short border with Hasiny to the southwest. It extends inland in places as far as the Sturgovan Mountains.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the trading posts along the New Provincial coast dealt primarily with Mastoiset peoples, exchanging (for example) metal tools for beaver pelts.

Although by the 20th century the polity was politically independent from Provence, cultural ties remained strong, including shared newspapers and substantial movement of people in both directions. They also shared (until at least 1943) more restrictive morality laws than their neighbours, being the strongest remnants of the Modest Arrangement of the century prior and notable non-signatories of the 1850 Laic Declarations of Belgrade.

  • Becouin River, the northernmost major river in New Provence
  • Santrafew (Sant-Rafeu), an early trading post along the New Provincial coast, founded in 1564 and located at the mouth of the Becouin River
  • Jet White (Blanc Sabaje), a 1951 masquira film adaptated from Cadωgan Torriωr's 1890 trevold 'Men of Jet and Diamond'
Political figures
  • Sauveir d'Orz (r. 1620–26), mayor of Santrafew
    Carol Zancoud (d. 1630), town reverend of Santrafew who wielded significant political power by virtue of his popularity
  • Nadalla fi Carol (fl. 1590), daughter of Carol Zancoud remembered for her preserved diaries illustrating daily life in early Santrafew
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Re: Boral scratchpad

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A Door, Once Opened

excerpt in translation from the first chapter of Clarissa Bellamy's 1920 work A Door, Once Opened; the translation into Borlish was done by her friend Gunna Despath.

"Ac vespr, bossir," saluðau y livrer, y test ponent nacleu d'un façon stant cortal e conjuraçonnant y dou—a veg meðes solemn demay por un vocationner pu parcevent cos manifest demay por un actour doit. "Jo crey noc nos ayau acconnosc. Jo dign Brandon Cavendish."
"Good evening, sir," the bookseller said, inclining his head in a way that was both courtly and conspiratorial—at once too formal for a tradesman and too obviously self-aware for a trained actor. "I don't believe we've met before. I'm Brandon Cavendish."

"Frederick Walton, thein vostr," respos Frederick, y man offriscent. Y pogn de Cavendish sta sec e freit, luy man soccoðent cos starc lon skassar.
"Frederick Walton, at your service," Frederick replied, extending his hand. Cavendish's grip was dry and cool, his handshake firm without being crushing.

"Soð vos ac por gilaçar, Sr Walton, ben n'un tom particuler tenent all'idea?"
"Are you here to browse, Mr Walton, or did you have a particular volume in mind?"

"Rien de tal apprestment," dis Frederick. "Jo so nuvr alandað des Goring e donc un novel misol a leir recarnt auvorn."
"Nothing so planned," Frederick said. "I am recently arrived from Goring and in dire need of some new reading material."

"Lor soð vos venuð ag bon varous," dis y livrer par un sourey plait. "Vel jo te moustr ig noscon vençað."
"Then you've come to the right place," the bookseller said with a smile. "Let me show you what we have."

y parol robar "to choose one's words"

y parol robar /i paˈrɔl roˈbar/
- to phrase, to choose one's words in a particular way in order to achieve a desired effect;
- to dissemble, prevaricate, to disguise one's true intentions by employing specific phrasing

Etymology: idiom first attested in the fifteenth-century poetry of Manuel Kigman, literally meaning "to dress (up) one's words". The noun parol "word" descends directly from Vulgar Latin paraula "(the power of) speech, language", from parabola "comparison, parable"; the verb robar "to dress (someone)" is a derivation from rob "robe, dress, longcoat", which is a borrowing from Old French.

Dagormay erra i sy parol robar volonter.
/ˌda.gɔrˈme ɛˈra i si paˈrɔl roˈbar ˌvo.lɔnˈtɛr/
[ˌda.gʊːˈme ɪˈʀa i si pɐˈʀɔw ʀʊˈbɑː ˌvo.lʊnˈtɛː]
henceforth go-fut 3s 3s.gen word dress-inf on.purpose
From now on she'll have to choose her words wisely.

jamir "complain"

jamir /ʒaˈmɪr/ [ʝɐˈmɪː]
- (intransitive) to complain, grumble, lament, to express feelings of dissatisfaction or discontent;
- (transitive) to bemoan, lament, to express sorrow or discontent about something

Etymology: from Old Boral jamir "to bemoan, deplore", a northern dialect form descending from synonymous Insular Latin gemīscō (a variant of Classical ingemīscō). In intransitive use it is first seen in the Middle Boral period.

Jamiscað plu, casc hom!
/ˌʒa.miˈxaθ pli | kax ɔm/
[ˌʝa.mɪˈxah pli | kɐˈxɔm]
complain-sbj.2p no.more | each person
Stop complaining, everyone!

neðolmar "comply"

neðolmar /ˌne.ðɔlˈmar/ [ˌne.ðʊwˈmɑː]
- to yield, give in, surrender, to give oneself up into the power of an enemy;
- to conform, comply, submit, to act in the prescribed manner;
- to belong, match, fit in, to be in the proper place as part of a group

Etymology: first in the military sense from Old Boral noun neðvolm "surrender, capitulation", presumably from a Borland Old English word *niþfolm with a similar sense and literally meaning "down hands", from the gesture of lowering one's hands in order to display submission.

Jo hoir nolir jamay lour neðolmar.
/ʒo hɔjr noˈlɪr ʒaˈme lur ˌne.ðɔlˈmar/
[ʒʊ ˈhɔ.jɐ nʊˈlɪː ʝɐˈme lʊː ˌne.ðʊwˈmɑː]
I'm afraid I'll never fit in with them.

Saxony and Libya

Saxony is a polity in Europe bordering places such as Poland, Willemy and Bohemia.

During the Second Tetrarchy, the Kingdom of Saxony was a major vassal state of the German Empire administered from Bardwick, and many of their Hohenbrocken dynasty ruled the empire outright. The region in the twelfth century is characterised by tensions between Saxony and Bavaria, the other major vassal kingdom of the empire.

The Kingdom of Saxony was affected by the collapse of the Second Tetrarchy in the thirteenth century; the nascent Stadbund of mercantile cities in the north seceding and reducing Saxony to its lands upstream in Maidburg and Lepzi.

Saxony is considered to have profited most from the First German War; in its aftermath the polity controlled more territory than it had at any point in its history.

In the nineteenth century, the Blue Marian Society (which was founded in Lepzi) spearheaded movements for reform to inheritance and suffrage laws.

Monarchs and rulers
  • Brunow III (fl. 1120), who ruled the German Empire jointly with King Conrad II of Bavaria
  • Ruprecht II (fl. 1200), under whose rule Bardwick removed many tariffs on imported goods
  • Baldur (b. 1295), who was deposed as king and reduced to Margrave of Maidburg at the age of four
Theorists and scholars
  • Johans Dümmeyer (fl. 1827), mathematician whose work 'Sets and Functions' attempted to resolved ongoing definitional debates in the community
  • Witkind Defenter (fl. 1902), who wrote 'Cities of the Corvine Concert before the Landfall' on behalf of the Bardick Library of Trade
  • Elke Hannawald (fl. 1946), writer during the Spring Tide of masquira works known for her trevold 'Outrun the Dawn'
  • Elsebeth Sneider (m. 1772, d. c1830), pioneer of the genre of parachthon romance with her work Through a Black Mirror

Libya is a Middlesea polity on the north coast of Africa, located between Morrack to the west and Egypt to the east.

During the Second Tetrarchy of the early second millennium, Libya (under the name Ifricia) was an important emirate of the Single Caliphate, ruled from Tunis. As imperial hegemony in Europe and northern Africa began to fall apart, so did the Single Caliphate; an independent emirate in Libya was declared in 1237 (at the same time as the Maghrebi emirate to the west).

Although Libya's navy was not yet trading directly with the Novomund in the sixteenth century, seamen from the region were commonly employed in the merchant fleets of Morrack and (especially) of Provence.

In the early seventeenth century, the banner of Libya comprised two black fields, one white and one orange. At this time, the polity warred intermittently with Morrack over control of trade into the eastern Middlesea.

In the modern day, Libya is a significant refiner and exporter of cuproses.

  • Hisham Ar-Rashid (r. 1601–10), whose reign is notable for inspiring the terms political terms 'copperplate' and 'tinplate'
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A Letter from Bervisson

excerpt in translation from a missive sent by Michael Bervisson to his editors as he worked on his great work An Eternal Rome: Ships of Theseus.

Samuel e Clovia son megl s'aðelent casc veg lonc ig il reun a repaðr de schol, malgrað y noçon de lourell'instroyour sur y sfondranç dell'Empir Mitað-Asc sein vreçous.
Samuel and Clovia do better for themselves every time they return from school, although their history tutor's opinions on the collapse of the Medieval Imperia are execrable.

Jo prefay il seraun y dou entrað ny melle pre poðir l'oc tom a diabr editar, a sgart calscon; Hilgart es deja y vessonary depegntað examinant ne spien ig nos veleu se mostrar ne barstant pre Març (jo pieð neðan tu svoc capel jois luy!).
I expect they shall both be in the melee before this blasted book is published, in any case; Hilgart is already reading the illustrated costumery in the hopes that we might all be fashionable by March (kindly do not mention hats in her company!).

Dou opinion soul dey jo rescaur, y volum partenent.
Only two points must I reiterate regarding the volume.

Primer, jo poð bogr cos total Y Mur eð Y Clojon rendr picquessem—vital es y ci mod d'ouvranç de Hadrian ne Brittan e n'Istr Boral por nos comprenau lour y doum inequal durant l'asc posc-classic, dec con sy regn vien l'inception d'autonomy dicerrem all'eiðel nostr.
First, I absolutely cannot condense The Wall and The Hedgerow—contrasting Hadrian's policies in Britain and in Borland is vital for understanding their different fates in the post-Classical age, for his reign marks the beginning of our island's greater autonomy.

treublar "annoy"

treublar /trawˈblar/ [tʀɐwˈblɑː]
- to trouble, annoy, distress, bother, to cause somebody to be anxious or perplexed;
- to hinder, fetter, hold back, to be an obstacle preventing someone from acting as they wish

Etymology: from Old Boral treular, triblar (among other forms) "to pressure, to stopper", which descend directly from Latin trībulō "I press, squeeze, extract". The survival of the form treublar in particular may be due to influence from unrelated contemporary English troublen or French troubler, which are related via metathesis to Vulgar Latin turbulō "I disrupt, perturb".

J'ay spien y heloit vos treubr noc.
/ʒe spjɛn i heˈlɔjt vɔz ˈtrawbr̩ nɔk/
[ʝe spjɛn i hɪˈlɔjt vʊsˈtʀaw.bɐ nɔ]
1s=have.1s def din 2p annoy neg
I hope the noise doesn't trouble you.

vessonary "catalogue"

vessonary /ˌvɛ.so.naˈri/ [ˌvɛ.sʊ.nɐˈʀi]
- fashion plate, costumery, a collection of pictures illustrating the latest fashions in clothes;
- (more broadly) catalogue, a retailer's publication detailing their stock allowing readers to have items delivered;
- portfolio, an artist's compilation of example works used in applying to potential employers

Etymology: from the late eighteenth century, a derivation of vesson "outfit, costume". This descends from Old Boral vesçon "clothing, attire", from synonymous Insular Latin vestiō which is a Borland-specific derivative of vestis "garment, article of clothing". Extension to general collections of products is seen by the mid-twentieth century.

A tu uncos sou y blau trovað nell'ig vessonary?
/a ti ɪnˈkɔz su i blo troˈvaθ neˈlaj ˌvɛ.so.naˈri/
[a ti ɪŋˈkɔz su i blo tʁʊˈvaθ nɪˈlaj ˌve.sʊ.nɐˈʀi]
have-s 2s something under def blue find-ptcp in.def=s.dt catalogue
Have you found anything cool in that catalogue?

daugnam "prat"

daugnam /dogˈnam/
- prat, ninny, a silly or foolish person;
- dupe, patsy, a person who has been or is likely to be deceived by a con artist;
- (dated) tosser, jerk, an objectionable or obnoxious person

Etymology: borrowed in the late nineteenth century from Markland English daugnam /ˈdəwg.nəm/ "contemptible man, idiot"; the word's etymology often mistakenly linked to Sarzan Dawkinholm (whose surname was pronounced the same), long-serving and much-lambasted Outland Minister in Markland at the time.

In fact, the surname and the word both descend from variously-spelt epithets for illegimate offspring in the royal houses of medieval Albion. These are Anglicisations of the Norman daucun houme "from nobody"—compare modern Boral alcun hom /ˌa.gɪˈnɔm/ "nobody".

Ty fraðr es untal daugnam incaint sceir sy lucr volar.
/ti ˈfra.ðr̩ ɛz ɪnˈtal dogˈnam ɪnˈkent xir si ˈ̩ voˈlar/
[tɪˈfʀa.ðʀ‿ɪz ɪnˈtaw dʊgˈnam iŋˈkent çɪː sɪˈli.kɐ vʊˈlɑː]
2s.gen brother be.3s one.such prat prone 3s.gen wealth steal-inf
Your brother's the kind of dupe who'll get his money stolen.


Morrack is a polity primarily in northwestern Africa.

Morrack was a local trading power in the late medieval period, with a mercantile domain bringing them into irregular conflict with the overlapping meshes of Britain and Borland meshes to the north (and later that of Vascony during their ascendancy).

In 1457, Morrack (which at this time controlled also Andalus) subjugated the southern part of Portingale, which had previously enjoyed a level of autonomy under Vascon stewardship.

Morrack was one of the earliest Vetomundine powers to undertake extensive exploration of the Novomund. The prophetically-named New World Company was established by Malik Munir al-Hamdawi in 1463, and almost as soon as news of the Novomundine Landfall had reached court were ships of the Company sent westward. It was this fleet which made contact with the peoples of the Arcabil, as well as the Mashick and Tavantine empires.

Morracan ships were the first to circumnavigate the world, having reached the Great Borunesk Meeting of 1519 via Cappatia.

The death of Tavantine Emperor Cariwasari in 1660 is suspected to have been an assassination carried out on Morracan orders, purportedly to allow for more profitable trade in silver from the Inca—Morrack was at the time running low on funds to support their ongoing wars in Vascony and Libya.

Morrack was embroiled in several conflicts through the mid-eighteenth century, particularly as part of the world-spanning Democratic Wars. An attempted war of reconquest against Andalus to the north was the most protracted of these, lasting de jureeven into the years of the Long Peace.

The Good Game period of the late nineteenth century saw a brief fad for 'Morrack fashion' in countries across Europe and the Novomund, in areas such as dress, architecture and food. There was, for example, a trend for exposed stonework draped in tapestry and curtains in contemporary buildings.

In the early twentieth century, Morrack was still in the habit of banning books containing subversive politics (and, unofficially, certain personal immoralities), having inherited a somewhat-scrupulous climate from its participation in the Modest Arrangement of the previous century.

The Japetos III submarine link between Morrack and Ambrosia was completed in 1950, after delays due to budgetary concerns and the outbreak of war.

  • Munir al-Hamdawi (b. 1429), remembered for establishing the New World Company and for his lifelong rivalry with King Ambrose III of Vascony
  • Zacki al-Hamid (fl. c14), mathematician who wrote a treatise on circular functions
  • Fredun al-Cazmi (fl. 1516), captain of the Cynthia on its great journey westward
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

The Early Tachygraph

extract in translation from Vitoria Queiros' 1998 quaterno Thirteen Inventions which Changed the World.

Interim, ny ci region la gent lou adoptan tostessem, y [tachygraph] surcourn carið cos stoniscent.
However, in those places where there was early adoption, the [tachygraph] proved astonishingly popular.

Y ci region prepondran citað fort appopulað e domain urban aðoinç rapid souvant.
These were usually dense cities and urban areas undergoing rapid growth.

Ne Safford, com bustr, ja fornið con doujug fondaminal e starc d'accaçment, y joun Bourgmer Crawford surveilau l'instauration dy preu banc redirigent a ambit accacer.
In Safford, for example, which already had a robust postal infrastructure, the young Mayor Crawford oversaw the installation of the first redirection banks in post offices.

Y ci banc tarromoy y model cossy descreibr: un mission dað sera prefis con un scifr muncever (triant parmig, a Makerfell sta i MKF) parmettent ag zygomour d'y mission accaçar apar vars y bon ambit veciner, seut par un scifr majonner (normalisað aval com catr keren e soulor un lettr) eð ant l'eç scifr sceus y mission star tramis vars y bon machin.
These pioneered the system in which a given missive would be prepended with a borough code (for example, Makerfell's was MKF) allowing the switchers to send the message through to the correct local post office, followed by a house code (eventually standardised to four digits followed by a letter) whence the message could be transmit to the correct machine.

evier "sink"

evier /eˈvjɛr/ [ɪˈvjɛː]
- sink, basin, a receptacle for holding water used to wash things;
- (more generally) any low area into which water flows

Etymology: practically unchanged from Old Boral, a borrowing from Old French evier, ewer "pitcher, jug, basin" which reflects Latin aquārium "object related to water". Compare the native descendant augher "ewer, jug".

Jo me landau y visaç raut nell'evier.
/ʒo me lanˈdo i viˈzats rot ˌnɛ.leˈvjɛr/
[ʝo me lɐnˈdo i vɪˈzats ʀot ˌnɛ.lɪˈvjɛː]
1s 1s.obl wash-pst def face quick in.def=sink
I quickly washed my face in the sink.

costojar "protect"

costojar /ˌkɔs.toˈʒar/ [ˌkɔs.tʊˈʝɑː]
- protect, keep safe, defend, to provent harm coming to;
- preserve, maintain, to keep from any sort of degradation including the effects of time;
- police, patrol, regulate, to control or direct according to a given set of laws or principles

Etymology: from Old Boral, a verb derivation from costosc "protection, defence" which descends uncomplicatedly from Latin custōdia "safekeeping, custody". This etymon also gives Boral costojan "police officer" and costojal "defensive", as well as Kentish costage "imprisonment, captivity".

Il n'aun recas ig tu lou costosc.
/ɪl non reˈkaz aj ti lu kɔsˈtɔx/
[ɪw non ʀɪˈkaz aj ti lu kʊˈstɔx]
3p neg-have.3p need comp 2s 3p.obl protect
They don't need you to protect them.

baury "panic"

baury /boˈri/ [bʊˈʀi]
- panic, frenzy, overwhelming fear or anxiety;
- despair, hopelessness, the utter loss of any hope that one's circumstances can improve

Etymology: from Old Boral bauri, baari et al. "panic, alarm", borrowed from the synonymous northern dialect word baar, baor with the addition of the redundant nominal suffix -ri (modern Boral -ary). This word, whence also baurous "desperate, frantic", is of obscure origin, but the traditional view is that it descends from Latin pavor "fright, anxiety".

N'y tarsc nascenç recevent fo jo emplið con baury.
/ni tarx naˈxɛnts ˌre.tseˈvɛnt fo ʒo ɛmˈplɪθ kɔn boˈri/
[ni ˈtɑːx nɐˈçɛnts ˌʀe.dzɪˈvɛnt fo ʝo ɪmˈplih kɔm bʊˈʀi]
in=def card birth get-pt.prs be.pst 1s fill-pt.pst with panic
I was filled with panic when I got the birthday card.

Masquira Romance

Masquira romance is a genre of stories which typically feature criminal (or crime-fighting) characters, as well as plots driven by hidden identities, high society and complicated schemes. It overlaps with the slightly-later spycraft genre, especially in modern works which draw on both literary traditions.

The name 'masquira' derives from Ezio Carvallo's 1860 trevold Tejan de Masquira ou Jalico "In Either a Mask or a Suit", which is widely considered to have pioneered the genre.

The kevler romance is a subgenre of masquira focused on glamorous thefts and schemes, particularly popular in nineteenth-century Borland.

Although many of the tropes of the genre have been use in literature since time immemorial, we see the birth of a distinct genre of masquira romance in the late Workshop period, through the prolific work of Portingale author Ezio Carvallo. His dozen-strong series of trevolds, for example, almost single-handedly created the concept of a kevler story (although we can see a parallel trend in the older Cathayan tapsue "magpie" tales).

The popularity of masquira supplanted to some extent the dwindling voidtale fashion in Europe, as well as various herdtale traditions across the Novomund.

In the 1940s and 50s there was a resurgence in popularity for masquira romance, christened the 'Spring Tide'; this period saw many film adaptations the genre's classics and thus cemented its place in modern popular culture.

Social Detaxion
The narrative focus in masquira romance on characters with hidden identities has led several marginal groups to embrace masquira tales over the decades. Perhaps most notably, the genre was very popular early on with the semi-public tovarick communities in the Riverine Cities. These communities spread the influence of masquira through Europe and the Novomund, particularly along with the broader Deviance movement.

Indeed, the tovarism connection was barely obfuscated in some works (see particularly Takach's We Will Burn Together), and the popularity of the genre is widely understood to have contributed to the Household Renovation.

The popularity of the subgenre of kevler romance in Borland during the Good Game period has attracted much commentary. In the context of a scandal-ridden royal family and a generalised class-levelling instinct pervading the politics of contemporary Borland, it is perhaps unsurprising that "stories of heroes entering high society as outsiders in connit in order to make away with the hoarded treasures of the intolerably wealthy" struck a particularly harmonious chord.

Notable works
  • A Question of Identity (Identað Partenent), 1981 tale by Borlish author Carl Havatr
  • Apollo on Holiday (Apollon Cogmaðer), 2009 story written by Endric Kirennaga
  • In Either a Mask or a Suit (Tejan de Masquira ou Jalico), 1860 trevold by Ezio Carvallo which named and pioneered the genre
  • Men of Jet and Diamond (Dynnon o Vuhuð a Diamont), 1890 tale by Cadωgan Torriωr of Hasiny later adapted into a wildly-successful film in New Provence
  • One Evening Will Have to Be Enough (Un Seir Deura Soffire), 1913 trevold by Roun author Josephène Foilliers notable for being the first book on record to sell more than a million copies in its first year
  • Outrun the Dawn (Die Demrung Üverholn), 1946 work written by Bronswick native Elke Hannawald remembered for subverting the trope of the masked hero by revealing the protagonist's identity in the book's second chapter
  • Waging World Peace (Paç Mondial Accommettent), 1968 giftale written by Neuvort author Dion Becolla
  • We Will Burn Together, written by Takach Domoko and notable for its openly tovarick characters
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Re: Boral scratchpad

Post by Jackk »

2-D Geometry

excerpt in translation from the correspondence of Dewock Barclythe (1452-1539 N), Friar of Tremonow; these lines are from a missive sent to an unknown acquaintance at the University of Saint Marinus.

Quemant es locutionnar ig cas y plan d'Euclid, dou form mozað calscon son tojorn parallel, oc a digr il hamtn un plan parey.
It is good to remark that in the context of Euclid’s plane, all mozate forms are parallel, which is to say that they are coplanar.

L'oc parceuçon a nostr y Jarleð menað all'apponment ig form mozað posn un ongit por asmuth posseïr innað, cos equal com se poð un tramou fornir con l'un asmuth des dou ouçon.
This observation has led our Jarleth to conjecture that mozate forms might possess themselves a sort of direction, in the same way that a line segment may be endowed with one of two directions.

L'ongit por asmuth y tesqualessem posseïbr par un form com circol ben scaðr es lon dout l'ongit aut par un orlosc soler.
The most natural sense of direction a form like a circle or square might possess is undoubtedly the sense of a sundial.

Calscon exact vel signfiar ig un cercol ay voltisc soler ben guyer, ne diagram defagl no’s l'oc voltisc depegntar; y vellisqment normal de saget benoçar suffig ac fort just com cas form lign.
Whatever precisely it should mean for a circle to be sunward or awkward, in diagram it is not difficult to depict; the usual expedient of arrowheads suffices as well here as it does for line forms.

vellisquar "scheme"

vellisquar /ˌvɛ.lɪsˈkwar/ [ˌvɛ.lɪˈskwɑː]
- to strategise, plan ahead, scheme, to formulate a strategy for action;
- to cheese, finesse, to use a cunning or unsporting tactic to gain an advantage in a game or to evade a problematic situation

also vellisqment /ˌvɛ.lɪskˈmɛnt/ ploy, gambit, strategy; exploit, gimmick, ruse, expedient

Etymology: unexplained phonetic alteration from Middle Boral velliskar "to con, to run a fraudulent scheme", a borrowing from synonymous Portingale or Leon velliscar which also literally means "to pinch, to nibble". This verb derives from a Vulgar Latin form vellicicō, a frequentative of vellicō "I pluck, twitch, pinch".

Broucabr a bas es vencr ne vellisquant.
/bruˈ̩ a baz ɛz ˈvɛ̩ ne ˌvɛ.lɪsˈkwant/
[bʀʊˈka.bʀ‿ɐˈbaz ɪz ˈvɛŋ.kɐ ne ˌvɛ.lɪˈskwant]
enjoy-pot at less be.3s win-inf in cheese-p.prs
Winning by using a rules exploit is less fun.

guyer "anti-clockwise"

guyer /gaˈjɛr/ [gɐˈʝɛː]
- anticlockwise, (of circular motion) moving so as to progress in the opposite direction to the shadow of a gnomon on a sundial;
- awkward, perverse, obstinately refusing to act correctly or in a conventional manner

Etymology: borrowed in the eleventh century from Old French adverb guier "in the opposite direction, anti-clockwise" (modern guyaire by analogy with solaire "solar, clockwise"), from Frankish wither "back, against, again". The word is attested in metaphorical use from as early as the thirteenth century, in records of medieval springtide ballads.

Y fruyour gliðan tras l'area guyer.
/i fraˈjur gliˈðan traz ˌla.reˈa gaˈjɛr/
[i fʀɑˈʝʊː glɪˈðan tʀaz ˌla.ʀɪˈja gɐˈʝɛː]
def dancer glide-ipf.3p across def=plaza anticlockwise
The dancers went anticlockwise round the plaza.

bacchabond "Dionysian"

bacchabond /ˌba.kaˈbɔnd/ [ˌba.kɐˈbɔnd]
- bacchanalian, orgiastic, hedonistic, (as of a party or crowd) given to reveling and drunkenness;
- wild, uncontrolled, dionysian, without restraint or fetters in sheer extravagance or irrationality

Etymology: learned borrowing in the Revitalist period from Latin bacchābundus "revelling boisterously in the manner of the Bacchantes". This is an adjectival derivation from Bacchus "Bacchus, Dionysus", god of wine and revelry.

N'yement e l'aucoum bacchabond veint save jo bon aïr par y convoc sbolognant a toð mell'amig.
/njeˈmɛnt e loˈkum ˌba.kaˈbɔnd vint saˈve ʒo bɔn ɛˈjɪr par i kɔnˈvɔk ˌsbo.lɔjˈnant a tɔθ ˌmɛ.laˈmaj/
[njɪˈmɛnt e lʊˈkum ˌba.kɐˈbɔnd vint sɐˈve ʝo bɔn ɪˈʝɪː paj kʊɱˈvɔk ˌzbo.lʊjˈnant a tʊˌmɛ.lɐˈmaj]
in-reach.p.prs and def-crowd wild see-p.prs know-ipf 1s good have-inf by def invite foist.upon-p.prs to all my=friend
When I arrived and saw the orgiastic crowd I knew I'd been right to make all my friends come with me.

The Deviance movement

The Deviance movement, also known as Anti-Paradise theology, is a religious, artistic and political ideology characterised by non-conformity as well as exploration of the avant-garde in all areas of society.

The term "deviance" has been applied to the movement almost since its inception, with both positive and negative affect. Some scholars have theorised that the term reflects the Wessern dialect pronunciation of standard "defiance", although this is not widely accepted.

The Deviance movement arose in the late eighteenth century during the Long Peace, in an environment of rapid scientific progress. In Europe, much of the development of Anti-Paradise theology took place within the Promethean clubs of Albion and Danaw. These regions were both home to significant religious minorities and the Church (of whichever stripe) was strongly associated with local authority.

An important early work to the Deviance movement was the anonymously-published 'And We Will Love the Fire' (originally Et Nous Amerons les Fux), which began circulating in 1799 to immediate moral outrage. Though almost a dozen plausible candidates for its authorship have been seriously proposed, no consensus has ever been reached on the issue.

The early Deviance movement coincided with the height of the voidtale craze launched by Elsebeth Sneider's 1795 trevold 'Through a Black Mirror'. Many of the ideas conjured in voidtale works were incorporated into Anti-Paradise theology, and Sneider's works in particular were embraced by the movement. However, Sneider herself despised Anti-Paradism; in her own words:
“It is not only their strange ideas and lonely, nihilist universe, dear Thifäne, but that so many of their number have approached me as if I were their most natural ally!”
The early public reaction to the Deviance movement varied significantly. It has been blamed for the resurgence of the Modest Arrangement in Spain and Gaul.

In 1850 a tide of secularisation began with the passing of the Laic Declarations in Belgrade, which have largely been credited to the strong influence of Anti-Paradise theology in the Riverine Cities after the collapse of Danaw.

In the later nineteenth century the Deviance movement was connected to the spread of the genre of masquira romance, possibly via their shared connections to tovarick communities.

Many composers of the early nineteenth century were affiliated with the Deviance movement, and considered their music to be in the Deviant spirit. The music of Deviance composers emphasised emotion and the manipulation of the audience, and this helped make music the least controversial part of Anti-Paradism in its first few decades.

The Deviance movement was interested in folk traditions and stories; one example is the European tale of the Wild Hunt, which was portrayed in the younger Crayenschot's opera Ad Pentaculum. They were particularly interested in those figures which had been cast as demons or evil spirits by the Church.

Supporters of the early Deviance movement are often portrayed as wearing lewd or otherwise-inappropriate clothing; it is difficult to ascertain the extent to which this reflected a real practice, as opposed to it being an invention by their detractors.

Notable supporters
  • Dr Mickel Cráyenschot (fl. c19), physician in French Willemy and early public tovarick
  • Lord Simon, sixth Baron Monçating (b. 1770), infamous libertine of the Damvath melee
  • Poshack Nerwaman (fl. c19), famed lady explorer originally of Mashick, sister to the composer Mollam Bushta
  • Ton Cráyenschot (fl. c19), composer remembered for the opera Ad Pentaculum, marked entirely in five
terram impūram incolāmus
hamteu un mont sug
let us live in a dirty world
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