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Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Following Minimal Phonology Finnic and Fortunatian, here's Turunisi, which is Minimal Phonology Romance. The idea is to only use changes that are at least partly attested in Romance, so no Mekeo-style /p t k b d g/ → /Ø Ø Ø p k Ø/. Otherwise free game to make the smallest inventory possible while still being kinda Romance-y.

What's surprising about Romance is that Late Latin had pretty much the smallest consonant inventory of any IE language ever (correct me if there's any counterexamples) –

Code: Select all

 p   t   k
 b   d   g
 f   s
 m   n
That's already pretty small. To make this properly small, Turunisi loses its voicing distinction and fricative/stop distinction. Both of these are partially attested in Romance, and even just in Italy itself. Toscana gorgia blurs the stop/fricative distinction, and numerous Italian languages lose the /β ~ b/ distinction. Turunisi takes this a bit further and merges /p ~ f/, /b ~ β/, and /ts ~ s/ (and also /t ~ θ/ like Sard).
Partial loss of voicing is seen in some souther Italian dialects, where intervocalic /d g/ merge with /t k/. Turunisi does this, but following degemination, so pretty much all voiced stops are devoiced (but /b d g/ → /Ø r Ø/ word-initially before a stressed vowel). We then have /rB/ → /rP/ (BARDUS → /ˈartu/) and /NB/ → /Nː/ (QUANDŌ → /ˈpannu/). Archiphonemically there's still two stop series, but their realisations never contrast:

Code: Select all

         *P              *B
    #_   [p  t  ʦ  k]    [Ø  r  ʦ  Ø]
V#  #_   [ɸ  θ  s  x]    [Ø  r  s  Ø]
†#  #_   [pp tt tʦ kk]   [pp tt tʦ kk]
R#  #_   [rp rt rʦ rk]   [rp rt rʦ rk]
N#  #_   [mb nd nʣ ŋg]   [mm nn nn ŋg]
(† represents a word which triggers raddoppiamento fonosintattico or in Turunisi rattupramiandu punusindátticu). For instance:

​ ​ /ˈpaipa/ ​ ​ [ˈpɑi̯ɸa] ​ ​ "pipe" ​ ​ ~ ​ ​ /ˈarka/ ​ ​ [ˈarka] ​ ​ "boat"
​ ​ /a ˈpaipa/ ​ ​ [a ˈɸɑi̯ɸa] ​ ​ "the pipe" ​ ​ ~ ​ ​ /a ˈarka/ ​ ​ [a ˈarka] ​ ​ "the boat"
​ ​ /tri ˈppaipi/ ​ ​ [tɾip ˈpɑi̯ɸi] ​ ​ "three pipes" ​ ​ ~ ​ ​ /tri ˈpparʦi/ ​ ​ [tɾip ˈpaɾʦi] ​ ​ "three boats"
​ ​ /ˈpatur ˈpaipi/ ​ ​ [ˌpatuɾ ˈpɑi̯ɸi] ​ ​ "four pipes" ​ ​ ~ ​ ​ /ˈpatur ˈparʦi/ ​ ​ [ˌpatuɾ ˈpaɾʦi] ​ ​ "four boats"
​ ​ /in ˈpaipi/ ​ ​ [im ˈbɑi̯ɸi] ​ ​ "in pipes" ​ ​ ~ ​ ​ /in ˈparʦi/ ​ ​ [im ˈmaɾʦi] ​ ​ "in boats"

This is partly reflected in the orthography:

paipa, harca
a paipa, a harca
tri ppaipi, tri pparci
patur paipi, patur parci
i mbaipi, i mmarci

The vowel system is reduced by an atonic merger to /i u a/, although old *i triggers metaphony while old *u e o do not (realised as /ia ua i u/ → /i u ai iu/ in some verb forms and most m.pl. forms). Tonic vowels show a Western system with *i ɪ e ɛ a ɔ o ʊ u → */i e e ɛ a ɔ o o u/ but then subsequent diphthongisation of */i u ɛ ɔ/ → /ai iu ia ua/ (through */ei̯ eu̯ ie̯ uo̯/) and /e o/ → /i u/.

These various changes leave Turunisi with only eleven ten phonemes:

Code: Select all

       LAB   ALV   SIB   VEL               FRO   CTR   BAC
 PLO   /p/   /t/   /ʦ/   /k/         HIG   /i/         /u/
 NAS   /m/   /n/                     LOW         /a/
 RHO         /r/
I'm wondering if I could jettison /l/ by merging it with /ʦ/ and /r/ and /Ø/. Well, it is supposed to be minimalist, so I'll do that (/l/ → /ʦ/ when palatal or initial or geminate, → /r/ next to a consonant, → Ø intervocalically):

IŪLIUM*dʒeu̯ʎuziusu /ˈʦiuʦu/
LŪNAM*ɖeu̯naciuna /ˈʦiuna/
BELLAM*βiə̯ɖahiasa /ˈiaʦa/
PLUMBUM*plommuprummu /ˈprummu/
CLĀVEM*klaβicrai /ˈkrai/ OR → *kjaβizai /ˈʦai/
ALTUM*altuartu /ˈartu/
CÆLUM*kiə̯luciau /ˈʦiau/

Some other generic changes are that the first palatalisation (TI̯ CI̯ I̯) gave *θ ð~dʒ → /t r/ (PLATEAM*plaθa → /ˈprata/, ACIĀRIUM*aθaru → /aˈtaru/, IUGUM*ðogu → /ˈruku/) with the sonorants merging with other stuff (ARĀNEAM*araɲa → /aˈraia/, FĪLIUM*fei̯ʎu → /ˈpai̯ʦu/, ĀREAM*arra → /ˈara/). Further palatalisation occurred very late, so that /ia iu/ < Ĕ~Æ Ū did palatalise *k g → /ʦ/, but /i ai/ < /e ei/ < Ĭ~Ē~Œ Ī didn't (e.g. CŪLUM*kʲiulu → /ˈʦiu/ vs. *CĪNQUE*kai̯mpi → /kaimpi/, CĒNAM*kena → /kina/).

I'm considering having tonic Ī → */ei/ → */e/ → /i/ in closed syllables, so *CĪNQUE → /ˈkimpi/ – there's no cases of closed long Ū except before CT which is degeminated anyway so FRŪCTUM → /ˈpriutu/.

Possibly also /ia iu/ → /a u/ after Cr, e.g. /ˈprutu/ "fruit", GRÆCUM → */riaku/ → /ˈraku/.

Here's some words illustrating the characteristic sound changes:

EGOiau /ˈiau/ "I"
ŪNUMiunu /ˈiunu/ "one"
DUOSriu† /ˈriu/ "two" (metathesis of */ui/ → /iu/)
TRĒStri† /ˈtri/ "three"
QUATTUORpatur /ˈpatur/ "four"
*CĪNQUEchimbi /ˈkimpi/ "five"
ACĒTUMachitu /aˈkitu/ "vinegar"
CABALLUMcaasu /kaˈaʦu/ "horse"
GENUCULUMcinusu /ʦiˈnuʦu/ "knee"
AURICULAMarisa /aˈriʦa/ "ear"
OCULUMuasu /ˈuaʦu/ "eye"
IANUĀRIUMnauaru /naˈuaru/ "January" (*danuˈaru*ranuˈaru*naluˈaru by dissimilation)
LINGUAMcimba /ˈʦimpa/ "tongue"
LATĪNAMzataina /ʦaˈtaina/ "Latin"
HOMINEMuani /ˈuani/ "man"
FEMINAMpiana /ˈpiana/ "woman"
MĀTREMmatri /ˈmatri/ "mother"
AVUNCULUMauncru /ˈaunkru/ "uncle" (or maybe aunzu)
CULTELLUMcurtisu /kurˈtiʦu/ "knife"
FURNUMpurnu /ˈpurnu/ "oven"

And some metaphony:

BELLUM, BELLĪhiazu, hizi "beautiful MSG/MPL"
BONUM, BONĪhuanu, huni "good MSG/MPL"
VIDET, VIDEOhiti, haiti "see 3SG/1SG"
CARBŌNEM, CARBŌNĒSkarpuni, karpiuni "coal/s"
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Re: Turunisi

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Turunisi is spoken on a small (50 sqmi) island northwest of Corfu; the name of the island (natively Tuarunu) derives from Latin THORONUS, a name also used for the smaller neighbouring island of Othonoi (which is real). Depending on what path this word took, the English term would be one of "Thoron", "Torono" or "Tern".

Historically Turunisi has been influenced by Venetian, Greek, Albanian, Tuscan and Apulian Italkian. Historically the Venetians were the main naval power in the area, evidenced by numerous loans like caicu "fog", zaniapa "brandy", strica "rigging", matiutu "cabin boy" and zupu "gun". Greek provides the expected Byzantine loans like papaca "parrot", tumbru "drum" as well as some place names like Cìarcua "Corfu" and Iraicuzza "Ereikoussa" and terminology like raichi "heather". Other loans include ndisa "kindling" (Albanian), racazzu "boy" (Tuscan) and marmasài "unlucky" (Italkian).


Turunisi has seven consonants and three vowels:

/p t ts k/
/m n/

/i u a/

The obstruent series /p t ts k/ is realised as voiced when preceded by a nasal (e.g. [ˈkamba] "field", [ˈpandu] "how much", [ˈandza] "lance", [ˈpraŋgu] "white") and is fricated intervocalically ([ˈkuɸa] "cup", [ˈaθu] "cat", [ˈkasa] "house", [ˈpuhu] "fire"). The former is reflected in the orthography, the latter not. Except with /ts/ the former isn't and the latter is – anza "lance", casa "house".

All consonants can appear geminated, although this is most common over word boundaries as a result of rattupramiandu funusintàtticu.

In addition to simplex vowels, the diphthongs /i͡u i͡a u͡a a͡i a͡u/ are common. Vowel length is not contrastive, but stress is marginally so. Final high vowels are frequently dropped, which may or may not be indicated orthographically per the user's choice.

There are two major phonological processes. The first is metaphony, which is pretty simple. Some instances of post-tonic /i/ (deriving from Latin Ī or final ĒS or ŌS) triggers the following shifts:

/i u/ → /ai iu/
/ia ua/ → /i u/
/a/ → /ia/

The first two sets are standard; the third is dialectal and most common in the south.

The pairs /u ~ iu/ and /ia ~ i/ are sometimes obscured by the productive loss of prevocalic /i/ following /r/. This means we see some pairs of /u ~ u/ and /a ~ i/; the first is always predictable (i.e. plain /ru/ gives metaphonic /ru/) but the second isn't:

/kraku/ "Greek" ~ /kritsi/ "Greeks"
vs. /kratsu/ "grease" ~ /kratsi/ "greases"

There's also significant consonant sandhi bordering on initial consonant mutation. There are four additional morphophonemes |B D DZ G| which pattern slightly differently to voiceless stops:

Code: Select all

          /p/   /t/   /ts/  /k/   /m/   /n/   /r/   |B|   |D|   |DZ|  |G|
plain     [p]   [t]   [ts]  [k]   [m]   [n]   [r]   [Ø]   [r]   [ts]  [Ø]
soft      [ɸ]   [θ]   [s]   [h]   [m]   [~ʔ]  [r]   [Ø]   [r]   [s]   [Ø]
nasal     [mb]  [nd]  [ndz] [ŋg]  [mm]  [nn]  [nr]  [mm]  [nn]  [nts] [ŋg]
geminate  [pp]  [tt]  [tts] [kk]  [mm]  [nn]  [rr]  [pp]  [tt]  [tts] [kk]
rhotic    [rp]  [rt]  [rts] [rk]  [rm]  [rn]  [rr]  [rp]  [rt]  [rts] [rk]
Most of this alternation is allophonic – all of [p ɸ b] are allophones of /p/ etc. However the patterns like [Ø ~ m ~ p] are taken as /Ø ~ m ~ p/, and is reflected orthographically.

The allophony of [n ~ ~ʔ] is noteworthy; intervocalic /n/ is realised as nasalisation of the preceding vowel plus a glottal stop, both within words and over word boundaries; e.g. /pranu/ "flat" → [ˈprãʔʊ], /nu nirantsi/ "an orange" → [nʊ̃ʔɪˈrãtsɪ]. The second example also shows that nasals drop with compensatory vowel nasalisation in the environment V_C (again across word boundaries too – /na ntuia/ "a soft sausage" → [nã ˈduia]).

The environments these occur in are predictable. The plain forms occur after a pause or a consonant, and the soft ones following a word ending in an unstressed vowel. The nasal and rhotic forms follow final unstressed (usually proclitic) syllables ending in /n/ and /r/ respectively. Here's three full paradigms with underlying /t/, /n/ and |D| respectively:

  • tia /tia/ [ˈtia] "canvas", a tia /a tia/ [a ˈθia] "the canvas", i ndia /in tia/ [ɪ̃ ˈdia] "made of canvass", tri ttii /trit tii/ [ʈɽɪtˈtiɪ] "three canvasses", catur tii /katur tii/ [ˌkaθʊr ˈtiɪ] "four canvasses"
  • nuatu /nuatu/ [ˈnu͡aθʊ] "knot", nu nuatu /nu nuata/ [nʊ̃ ˈʔu͡aθʊ] "a knot", i nnuti /in nuti/ [ɪ̃ ˈnːuθɪ] "in knots", tri nnuti /trin nuti/ [ʈɽɪ̃ ˈnːuθɪ] "three knots", catur nuti /katur nuti/ [ˌkaθʊr ˈnuθɪ] "four knots"
  • randi /ranti/ [ˈrãdɪ] "tooth", nu randi /nu ranti/ [nʊ ˈɾãdɪ] "a tooth", cu nnindi /kun ninti/ [kʊ̃ ˈnːĩdɪ] "with teeth", tri ttindi /trit tinti/ [ʈɽɪt ˈtĩdɪ] "three teeth", catur tindi /katur tinti/ [ˌkaθʊr ˈtĩdɪ] "four teeth".

I guess I should talk about syllable structure. It's fairly mundane; onsets of C, /p t k/ + /r/, /N/ + /p t ts k/, /ts/ + /p t k/ (realised as [sp st~ʃt ʃk]) and /ts/ + /p t k/ + /r/ are permitted. Codas can only be single consonants except with final vowel dropping. Codas are mostly /n r t/; not sure yet if others are permitted.

Bored now this is all you're getting.
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Re: Turunisi

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Historically Torono had always been under Greek control, until the fall of the Byzantine Empire when it was occupied briefly by the Genoese before passing to the Venetians in 1204. It withstood Sicilian control and remained Venetian until 1543 when it took the opportunity to declare independence from the declining Empire (idk what Corfu did in this timeline). It remained independent until it was captured by Napoleon in 1796; following British victory, it was briefly a protectorate (from 1815 to 1818) before declaring its independence from the United States of the Ionian Islands. Being fairly small, easily defended and of low strategic importance (it's on the wrong side of Corfu to have been of interest to the Ottomans) the British allowed it to remain independent under unofficial suzerainty.


Orthography is fairly simple and Italianate. Generally /p t ts k m n r i u a/ are <p t z c m n r i u a>. Before <i>, /ts/ is sometimes <c> and /k/ is always <ch>. The voiced allophones of /p t ts k/ (following nasals) are written <b d z/g g(h)>; fricated allophones aren't written apart from [⁠s] <s>. Silent <h> is used to indicate words beginning with underlying |B G| (e.g. /arka/ <harca> → /tri ppartsi/ <tri pparci>).

Foreign words make use of the graphemes <e f h j k l o q v w x y> which are read /i p Ø ts k r u k u u ts i/. In recent borrowings <b d g> occur in non-post-nasal position and are read as /p t k/ (<ir gangu /ir kanku/ "gang" etc.) Likewise <mp nt nc/nk> are read [mb nd ŋg]. Loan word nativisation is variable; /tiriˈpunu/ "telephone" can be seen as any of <tiripunu>, <tirifunu>, <telefonu> and so on.

Non-penultimate stress is optionally indicated with a grave or acute accent. An apostrophe can be used to indicate apocope, although this is mostly restricted to eye dialect.

tl;dr – the Turunisi native alphabet is <A B C D G H I M N P R S T U Z>.
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Re: Turunisi

Post by Visions1 »

This is some good stuff.
I'm going to need to take notes from this for my own work.
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Re: Toronian

Post by VaptuantaDoi »


Toronian history gets fairly complicated after the turn of the (20th) century). During WWI, both Torono and Corfu served as a refuge for retreating Serbian soldiers, although Torono itself didn't see any action. The 1923 Corfu Incident (a Catàrisi i Cìarcua) had a significant effect on Torono; while the Italians markedly ignored Torono during the bombardment and occupation of Corfu, the historical ties between the two islands meant that public opinion of Italy worsened considerably and there was a cultural shift away from Italian values. In the late 1920's, some academics petitioned for Torono to officially switch to a new Hellenic orthography which functioned as follows:

[p t ts k] <π τ τζ κ>
[ɸ θ s h] <φ θ σ~ς χ>
[mb nd ndz ŋg] <μβ νδ νζ γγ>
/m n/ <μ ν>
/r/ <ρ>

/i u a/ <ι υ α>

Some literature published in the 20's and 30's used this orthography; others (without ready access to Greek printing presses) used a sort of Volapük coding leading to monstrosities like vúaotup nadup tzi i nni oiai.

Torono never elected a fascist government like Italy did (partly because they weren't a democracy and couldn't elect anyone at all). Despite this, Torono's lack of being large meant they were unable to resist Italian occupation in April 1941. Mussolini administered Torono and Corfu as part of the same entity thanks to their common Venetian heritage. In 1943 following the fall of Mussolini, Germany occupied Torono and Corfu. Torono, with a large Jewish population, was singled out by the Gestapo in 1944; the Jews were forcibly relocated to a ghetto in the capital of Zunaru (< *IŌNĀRIUS), with plans to transport them to Auschwitz in June. However, the Torono resistance – still fueled by anti-Italian sentiment - helped organise an uprising in the ghetto while the Germans were distracted by the Allied bombing of Corfu. The Zunaru Ghetto Uprising (a Riurta du Chittu Zunaranu) was the only successful such uprising during the war, with the small number of forces on the island being killed or driven out of the city. After a few minor skirmishes, the Germans gave up on Torono as their grip on Greece weakened. Corfu's liberation in October 1944 marked the end of any German attempts to retake the city, although by this point they had mostly evacuated the island for good.

(Yeah I know this isn't super realistic but if I'm gonna make up a country then they ain't gonna be a bunch of Nazis)

Nouns – the basics

Like all (non-creole) Romance languages, Toronian (ooh, an exonym) has inherent nominal gender. Nouns fall into traditionally two genders, masculine and feminine; a modern analysis suggests a third neuter gender.


First I'll go through the articles which agree with nouns in gender and number. The indefinite article is nu < ŪNUS, which only has a singular form; the definite article ir < ILLE has both singular and plural forms. (Note that marks a form which triggers ratupramiandu).

Code: Select all

     INDEFINITE                       DEFINITE
+---+-------------+      +---+-------------+-------------+
|   |    Sing.    |      |   |    Sing.    |    Plur.    |
+---+------+------+      +---+------+------+------+------+
|   |  +C  |  +V  |      |   |  +C  |  +V  |  +C  |  +V  |
+---+------+------+      +---+------+------+------+------+
| M |  nu  |  n’  |      | M |  ir  |  r’  |  i   |  z’  |
| F |  na  |  n’  |      | F |  a   |  r’  |  i†  |  i   |
| N |  nu  |  n’  |      | N |  u   |  r’  |  a   |  r’  |
+---+------+------+      +---+------+------+------+------+
The neuter form derives from the masculine in the singular and the feminine singular in the plural - except the def.n.sg u is distinct from def.m.sg. ir for uncertain reasons - they may both derive from ILLUM, or the masculine may derive from ILLE instead.

Articles also combine with five prepositions, namely a "at", zu "over", pi "by", i "of" and in "in".

Code: Select all

                    +A                               +ZU                                 +PI                               +I                             +IN              
+---+  +-------------+-------------+  +---------------+----------------+  +---------------+----------------+  +-------------+-------------+  +-------------+-------------+
|   |  |    Sing.    |    Plur.    |  |     Sing.     |      Plur.     |  |     Sing.     |      Plur.     |  |    Sing.    |    Plur.    |  |    Sing.    |    Plur.    |
+---+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+------+------+------+
|   |  |  +C  |  +V  |  +C  |  +V  |  |  +C  |   +V   |  +C   |   +V   |  |  +C  |   +V   |  +C   |   +V   |  |  +C  |  +V  |  +C  |  +V  |  |  +C  |  +V  |  +C  |  +V  |
+---+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+------+------+------+
| M |  |  ar  | a r’ |  asi | a z’ |  | zur  | zu rr’ | zusi  | zu zz’ |  | pir  | pi rr’ | pisi  | pi zz’ |  |  ri† |  rr’ |  ri  | i z’ |  |  nir | nir  |  ni  | nis’ |
| F |  |  ar  | a r’ | ari† | a r’ |  | zur  | zu rr’ | zuri† | zu rr’ |  | pir  | pi rr’ | piri† | pi rr’ |  |  ra  |  rr’ |  ri† |  ri  |  |  na  | nir  |  ni† |  ni  |
| N |  |  ar  | a r’ |  ar  | a r’ |  | zur  | zu rr’ |  zur  | zu rr’ |  | pir  | pi rr’ |  pir  | pi rr’ |  |  ru  |  rr’ |  ra  | i r’ |  |  nu  | nir  |  na  |  nir |
+---+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+--------+-------+--------+  +------+------+------+------+  +------+------+------+------+


Most nouns end in a post-tonic vowel in the singular. Almost all nouns ending in a are feminine, and have a plural in i which does not trigger metaphony:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ capra "goat", capri "goats"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ píamina "woman", píamini "women"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ziuna "moon", ziuni "moons"

In native vocabulary, it does trigger sibilation of [k] to [ts], although this is not written differently:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ amaica /aˈma͡ika/ "friend (F)", amaici /aˈma͡itsi/ "friends (F)"

There are a few nouns of Greek origin which have the same singular and plural endings, but are grammatically masculine:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ir áruma "perfume", z'árumi "perfumes"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ir cura "priest", i curi "priests"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ir tuatta "father", i tuatti "fathers"

Nouns ending in i are either masculine or feminine, unpredictably so. The plural also takes i but with metaphony (where applicable):

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ir cani "the dog", i cani or dial. i chiani "the dogs" (M.)
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ a canzuni "the song", i ccanziuni "the songs".

A few nouns end in ur in the singular. These take plural ri and may be either masculine or feminine:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ir patur "monk", i patri "monks"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ a matur "nun", i matri "nuns"

Some feminine nouns end in stressed á in the singular, which changes to ú in the plural (this arose from Italkian influence):

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ a cittá "Jewish quarter", i ccittú "Jewish quarters"

A few Italkiot-origin words have plural -ín (from Hebrew -im) – in Torono-Italkiot this is extended to all masculine nouns.

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ andruni "thief", andrunín "thieves"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Torono-Italkiot cani "dog", canín "dogs"

The most common singular ending is u which covers all neuters and most masculines. The neuter plural is a:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ uau "egg", uaa "eggs"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ kurtiasu "knife", kuritiasa "knives"

Masculine nouns have plural i with metaphony. Again this palatalises /k/:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ruanu "gift", runi "gifts"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ puru "child", pauri "children"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ amaicu "friend", amaici "friends" (M.)

Some nouns have both neuter plurals and masculine plurals; in this case the neuter plural tends to refer to a more cohesive entity than the masculine equivalent:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ausiasu "bird", ausiasa "flock of birds", ausisi "birds"

Two nouns have irregular plurals in u with metaphony of root /a/ to /i͡a/; unlike other /a ~ i͡a/ metaphony this is standard:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ acu "needle", iacu "needles"
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ manu "hand", mianu "hands"

Finally there is one irregular noun:

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ uamu "man", úamini "men"
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Re: Turunisi

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Torono maintained sovereinty following the end of WWII and transitioned to a democratic constitutional monarchy in 1950. The monarch of Torono (officially ir Pasisu/a Hasisa rr'Áisura Zirinízzima i Túarunu) has limited constitutional power; he is able to dismiss governments, call referenda or veto legislation (so long as it does not pertain to the functioning of the consitution or the monarchy), although they rarely wield these powers. The current king, Rarzu VIII, is of the House of Riporgan (a Kasa i Ripúarkanu) which has been in power since its succession in 1744 (bar a brief period of foreign control from 1796 to 1818 and an even briefer one from 1941-44). The House of Riporgan traces its roots to Marino Ripuorgano (Marainu Ripúarkanu), a mercenary who led the revolt of 1543. The first house of Torono was the House of Torono (a Kasa i Túarunu), which ruled the country from 1543 to 1686 and then from 1701 to 1743 – from 1687 to 1701 a third house, the House of Gionarano held power, led for the entire time by Gregorio Gionarano (Krikuaru Zunaranu or Runaranu).

Torono is the fourth-smallest country in Europe and, like most other countries in the world, is not a member of the European Union, nor does it use the Euro (seriously what's the point of inventing a country if you can't invent a currency?). The Toronian currency is the xisserxa (a Venetised borrowing of native zizziarza) which is divided up into five sestertie (zistírtii), in turn divided into twenty nariatti.


Pronouns have a number of characteristics distinct from nouns, having different forms for three cases as well as possessive forms. Personal pronouns have mostly distinct nominative, accusative and dative forms:

Code: Select all

    Nominative     Accusative     Dative
    sg.   pl.      sg.   pl.      sg.   pl.      
1   ia    niu      mi    niu      mai   a niu
2   tau   hiu      ti    hiu      tai   a hiu
3m  iri   i        ci    i        inni  ati
3f  ira   i        ira   i        inni  ati
3n  iru   a        ci    a        ai    ata
There is only one reflexive pronoun distinct from the accusatives, which is the non-gendered, non-numbered 3sg. ci.

Related to the pronouns are the possessive adjectives:

Code: Select all

     M.SG    F.SG    N.SG    M.PL   F.PL    N.PL
1sg  maiu    maia    maiu    mi     mi      maia
2sg  taiu    taia    taiu    ti     ti      taia
3sg  zaiu    zaia    zaiu    zi     zi      zaia
1pl  nuastur nuastra nuastur nustri nuastri nuastra
2pl  huastur huastra huastur hustri huastri huastra
3pl  zuru    zura    zuru    ziuri  zuri    zura
All of these can be used pronominally too - a maia "mine (feminine object)", ir zuru "theirs (masculine object)".

The general relative and interrogative pronoun is ki which has an oblique form kiu. Note also pannu "when", pandu "how much", iu "where", purkí "why", pai "which" and kiu "how".

There are also three demonstratives; izzi "this" (< IPSE), kkiusti "yon" (< ECCUM ISTE) and kkiuzzi "that (out of sight)" (< ECCUM ILLE). These function as regular adjectives too (more on adjectives later). Note also kkiu "here" and zzi "there", both of which trigger ratuppramiandu.

Correlatives include parkiunu "someone", parkiusa "something", nikiunu "nothing, no-one". On that note, here are the numbers:

1. iunu / iuna
2. ru / riu
3. tri *
4. páttur
5. zimbi
6. zi
7. ziatti
8. puattu
9. nuái
10. riasi

One, two and three also have emphatic forms used for counting; kkiuni, ttuni, ttrini. ttrini comes from dissimilation of earlier ttriri, from *ttridi, ultimately from *trẹ́i̯e. The ending -ri and later -ni was then extended backwards. Initial gemination probably stems from ttuni (cf. Neapolitan dduje "two"). Extention to ?ppatuni "four" is considered childish (featuring in nursery rhymes etc.)

11. iunzi, 12. ruzzi, 13. trizzi, 14. patturzi, 15. painzi, 16. zizzi, 17. riasi i ziatti, 18. riasi i puattu, 19. riasi i nuái, 20. hindi, 30. trinda, 40. patrainda, 50. zimbainda, 60. zizzainda, 70. ziattainda, 80. puattainda, 90. nuainda, 100. ziandu.

Also now Turunisi has singleton L → usually zero like in Venetian because I like it. This also forms a separate archiphonemic paradigm of /Ø ~ Ø ~ r ~ tts ~ r/ (imba, a imba, in rimbi, tri zzimbi, pattu rrimbi).

LINGUAMimba "tongue, language" (a imba turunisi, a imba kraka)
LEPOREMiapra "hare"
LUSCINIŌLAMuzzinua "nightinggale"
PĀLAMpaa "shovel"
CAROLUSKaru "Charles"
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Re: Turunisi

Post by Keenir »

VaptuantaDoi wrote: 08 Jun 2024 03:19.
I am greatly enjoying your recounting of this nation's history and language; its superb work, kudos.
At work on Apaan: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=4799
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Joined: 21 Jul 2012 08:01
Location: Buffalo, NY

Re: Turunisi

Post by Porphyrogenitos »

This is really nice work. I'm curious, how do Latin borrowings/"cultisms" work? Are there any doublets like Spanish contar/computar or aguaducho/aquaducto?
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Re: Turunisi

Post by VaptuantaDoi »

Keenir wrote: 08 Jun 2024 11:16
VaptuantaDoi wrote: 08 Jun 2024 03:19.
I am greatly enjoying your recounting of this nation's history and language; its superb work, kudos.
Thanks! I've consciously sacrificed hyper-realism and depth of grammar description here for more progress and I'm happy how it's going.

Porphyrogenitos wrote: 09 Jun 2024 04:33 This is really nice work. I'm curious, how do Latin borrowings/"cultisms" work? Are there any doublets like Spanish contar/computar or aguaducho/aquaducto?
Thank you too! Latin borrowings do certainly exist. We can roughly divide Turunisi borrowing preferences as follows:

Roman occupation - 13thC: Byzantine Greek, some Albanian
13thC to 16thC: Venetian, still plenty Greek, limited mediaeval Latin
16thC to mid-18thC: More Greek, more Latin too, some Italo-Romance and Occitan terms, some Norman and Sicilian loans, even some Dalmatian
ca. 1790 to ca. 1900: French, English, Tuscan, still Latin, still a bit of Greek, Italkian
1900 to modern day: Latin and English, some modern Greek, limited Tuscan

Turunisi borrowed a lot more Greek than the other Romance languages which makes sense given its location. Learnèd Latin borrowings did occur through Venetian contact but were less common. Recently (in the last 250 years) numerous Latinate loans have been coined, and yes they form plenty of doublets and triplets:

AURICULAMaurixxa "ear" (native), auríkura "auricule" (borrowed from Latin), krinái a ríxxia "pay attention to" (calqued from Italkian, with rixxia being borrowed)
FABRICĀREparikái "to forge" (native), paprikái "to fabricate", "to fortify, season" (borrowing, influenced in the second sense by another borrowing paprika), purkái "to smelt" (borrowed ultimately from Norman)
FACTŌREMpaturi "bailiff" (through Venetian), faktur or paktur "factor" (borrowing)
NITIDUSnittu "clean" (native), nititu "clear, sharp" (borrowing)

As you can see from some of these examples, Latin borrowings – and all other borrowings – are adapted to Turunisi phonology. This basically means that all voiced stops are read as voiceless, f l s as /p r ts/ and e o as /i u/. This may or may not be reflected in the orthography:

Eng. electroencephalograph → Turunisi /iritruintsiparukrapu/ elektroencefalografu or ilitruincipalukrapu or iritruinxiparukrapu
DĒSIGNĀRE → Turunisi /titsiknai/ designái or tisiknái "designate" (cf. the inherited risinái "draw")

Words encountered through spoken language may be loaned more or less phonetically; for instance cringe gives non-standard kkrinxi [kːɾĩdʒɪ] with the initial geminate reflecting the lack of húa turunisi (Eng/It gorgia toronese, referring to the lenition of /p t ts k/ intervocalically).

The Turunisi language is held in high regard, especially by writers and poets, such that they prefer to keep it "pure" by nativising the borrowings in writing. In normal usage and on the internet, the spelling of the source language may be preserved. In scientific literature (what little is written in Torono) technical terms are generally left nearly in the source language, so elektroencefalografu, Indoeuropeanu, botulismu rather than iritruinxiparukrapu, Indu-Aurupanu, puturismu.

I've been considering a few changes to the phonology and orthography. Any opinions are welcome!

1. Write /ts/ as x because cool
2. Using the acute instead of grave for stress (I do like this)
3. Shift /ts/ to /tʃ/ with lenided allophone [ʃ]
4. Using k for /k/ for a less Italian vibe
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